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Measure Articles 2007 (36)

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Picture of the productA Comparison in Conventional Mass Measurements
Francisco García, Elías Salazar, Raúl Hernández, Luis Rojas, Haygas Kalustian and Fernando Leyton
A conventional mass comparison was carried out between the Servicio Autónomo Nacional de Normalización, Calidad, Metrología y Reglamentos Técnicos (SENCAMER, Venezuela) and Laboratorio Custodio de los Patrones Nacionales de Masa at CESMEC Ltda. (CESMEC­LCPN­M, Chile), in order to estimate the degrees of equivalence for calibration of a mass artifact and the uncertainty associated with its measurement. This comparison was carried out using the following nominal values: 200 mg, 1 g, 50 g and 200 g. The results obtained by each laboratory are presented in this document.


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MS07_04_GARCIA
Picture of the productA Comparison in Mass Measurement between INEN (Ecuador)
René Chanchay, Francisco García, Raúl Hernández, and Fernando Leyton
A mass comparison was carried out between the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Normalización (INEN, Ecuador) and Laboratorio Custodio de los Patrones Nacionales de Masa at CESMEC Ltda. (CESMEC-LCPN-M, Chile), in order to estimate the degrees of equivalence for calibration of mass artifacts and the uncertainty associated with their measurements. This comparison was carried out using the following nominal values: 100 mg, 2 g, 20 g, 200 g and 1 kg.


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MS07_02_CHANCHA
Picture of the productA User's Guide to the Information in the BIPM Key Comparison
C. Thomas and A.J. Wallard
The launch of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement by the International Committee for Weights and Meas­ures (CIPM MRA) created a process within which calibration and measurement certificates from National Metrology Institutes (NMIs), which are signatories, could be recognized and accepted worldwide. More recently, it has attracted the attention of international companies who wish to take advantage of the mutual recognition offered by these certificates by realizing traceability to the International System of Units (the SI) through local NMIs. This latter aspect of the use to which the BIPM key comparison database (KCDB) can be put has recently been made more straightforward as the result of a new search engine installed by the BIPM.


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MS07_04_THOMAS
Picture of the productAn Assessment of the United States Measurement System
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
The National Institute of Standards and Technology teamed with private sector organizations and others to undertake an assessment of the United States Measurement System. The full report, just released, summarizes measurement barriers to potentially significant technological innovations. This is an Executive Summary of the full report. Some prospective innovations, for example, in the areas of nanotechnology, bio-medicine, and intelligent machines, have the allure and promise that flying machines had a century ago. However, the measurement barriers impeding these looming innovations are vexing, and the underlying science and technology is complex. As a result, the dependence of would-be innovators on the technical infrastructure of the nation, including its measurement system, is greater than it was only a few decades ago.


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MS07_01_NIST
Picture of the productAnomalous Behavior of Teflon-based Helium Permeation Leak
Patrick J. Abbott and Justin H. Chow
Helium leak testing is a vital step in assuring product reliability for anything that must be packaged in a sealed container. Examples of problems caused by leaks abound; from leaks in blister packaging for pharmaceuticals, to leaks in aluminum wheel rims for automobiles. To quantify detected leaks, mass spectrometer-based helium leak detectors must be calibrated with one or more helium flow transfer standards, each having a quantified uncertainty. Helium permeation leak artifacts are the most popular transfer standards used for this purpose, and Teflon™ is some­times used for the leak element in applications where mechanical shock may damage a glass element.


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MS07_03_ABBOTT
Picture of the productApplication of Simulation Software to Coordinate Meas.
Jon M. Baldwin, Kim D. Summerhays, Daniel A. Campbell and Richard P. Henke
Uncertainty evaluations for coordinate measuring machine (CMM) metrology are problematic due to the number, ranges, interactions and generally unknown sensitivity coefficients of the parameters that can influence the measurement result. The situation is particularly difficult when a task­specific uncertainty is required and poses problems for both auditors and metrology practitioners. Auditors often lack satisfactory tools for a comprehensive assessment of a client's claims of traceability. Measurement professionals, similarly, have difficulty demonstrating compliance with measurement traceability requirements and, in addition, can find themselves at a real economic disadvantage if reliable measurement uncertainties are not known.


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MS07_04_BALDWIN
Picture of the productApplications of High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion
Margaret McCooeye and Zoltán Mester
High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), is a novel gas-phase separation technique, developed at the Institute for National Measurement Standards (INMS), and commercialized by Ionaltyics Corporation, ON, Canada (now ThermoFisher) . The FAIMS device operates at ambient conditions and is installed between an atmospheric pressure ion source and the mass spectrometer. The first use of FAIMS data in the certification of a reference material was in support of the National Institute of Standards and Technology project to certify ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplements.


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MS07_03_MCCOOEY
Picture of the productAutomation and Upgrade of the NIST 27.1 kN (6.1 klbf) Dead
Kevin Chesnutwood and Samuel Ho
This paper focuses on the automation and upgrades performed on the 27.1 kN (6.1 klbf) dead weight force machine located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Of the six dead weight force machines maintained at NIST, this was the only machine that was not automated under the original automation program performed in the 1980s. The new automation approach, which incorporates the latest available technology, is detailed and compared to the original automation systems used on the other five dead weight force machines.


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MS07_01_CHESNUT
Picture of the productCalibrating Laser Vacuum Wavelength with a GPS-based Optic
Jack Stone, Liang Lu and Patrick Egan
The Global Positioning System (GPS) can deliver an exceptionally accurate frequency standard to any point in the world. When the GPS signal is used to control an optical frequency comb, the comb + GPS system provides laser light with well­known frequencies (or equivalently, vacuum wavelengths) over much of the optical spectrum between 0.53 µm and 2 µm. The comb vacuum wavelengths can serve as primary length standards for calibration of the wave­length of metrology lasers, and the uncertainties of the comb wavelengths are sufficiently low to be suitable for almost any imaginable task associated with length metrology.


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MS07_04_STONE
Picture of the productCalibration Data Management System Conforming to ISO/IEC
Masaru Sanoh, Masashi Kurokawa, and Akiu Yamazaki
In the past few years, significant progress has been made in the development of powerful, generic software products for organizing work. However, in the calibration laboratory many tasks are still done by hand or are not done at all. For example, working standards are downloaded in graphical format; calibration data are often analyzed visually; historical data (if available) is in various formats and stored on individual test stations; environmental data (humidity, temperature) is recorded manually or kept on paper records from a chart recorder; and customer information is often recorded manually, even for repeat customers. Does this describe a laboratory for which you are responsible?


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MS07_01_SHANOH
Picture of the productCalibration for AC-DC Current Transfer Standards from 10 mA
Torsten Funck
Recent developments have resulted in new planar multijunction thermal converters fabricated on quartz sub­strates, which are now used as primary calculable ac-dc current transfer standards with very small uncertainties. To reduce the contribution of the measurement set-up to the uncertainty budget, potential-driven guarding has been implemented. With new current shunts from the National Metrology Institute of Norway, Justervesenet (JV) and a new transconductance amplifier, the frequency range of the ac-dc current transfer has been increased up to 1 MHz at 1 A.


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MS07_02_FUNCK
Picture of the productCharacterization of an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
Donald R. Larson, Nicholas G. Paulter, Jr. and Kenneth C. Blaney
We report the results of an investigation into the signal characteristics and behavior of an instrument used to calibrate Optical Time Domain Reflectometers (OTDRs). This instrument implements the Telecommunications Industry Association standard TIA/EIA-455-226 "External Source Method." Results of calibrations performed at various U.S. Air Force Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratories have included some anomalous pulse delays and our efforts were focused on identifying the cause and developing corrective procedures for this anomalous behavior.


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MS07_01_LARSON
Picture of the productCorrection of Signal Distortion Resulting from Measurement
Zhijie Zhang, Jing Zu, Hongmian Du, and Anshi Chen
A generalized method for correcting dynamic characteristics of measurement systems is presented to reduce dynamic errors. The cause of dynamic errors is the sensor's frequency response limitation. One way of solving this problem is to make use of deconvolution. Since problems are ill-conditioned, a small uncertainty in the measurement will cause large deviation in reconstructed signals. The amplified noise has to be suppressed at the sacrifice of biasing in estimation. In this paper, the problem of dynamic characteristics correction is taken as solving stabilized solutions of Fredholm integral equations. Simulation result shows the validity of the method.


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MS07_02_ZHANG
Picture of the productCPEM 2006 Round Table: Proposed Changes to the SI
Michael Stock and Thomas J. Witt
This report summarizes a round table session held last July at the CPEM 2006 to discuss recently proposed redefinitions of some base units of the International System of Units (SI) based on defined values of some fundamental constants. The aim of the session was to inform CPEM delegates of the various proposals and to promote a wide discussion of the issues arising from them. An interdisciplinary panel of six experts from national metrology institutes, the academic community and the industrial metrology community briefly presented their views and their concerns.


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MS07_02_STOCK
Picture of the productElectromagnetic Metrology Challenges in the U.S. DOD
Larry W. Tarr
The Global War on Terrorism and the events that continue to unfold around the world are creating interesting and innovative new developments in practically every area of technology. Many of the new developments are in systems and components operating in the RF microwave and millimeter­wave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The need to provide traceable metrology and calibration support for modern communications, radar, and smart weapons systems operating at frequencies from a few kilohertz to 100 GHz and beyond presents challenges that continue to arise as new systems and technologies are developed.


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MS07_04_TARR
Picture of the productEstimating Measurement Uncertainty from Calibration Test
Dennis Jackson
During a calibration test, a unit under test (UUT) is compared with a test instrument to determine if the error in the UUT is smaller than some predefined tolerances. Generally, the resultant data that are stored from such a calibration consist of an indicator of whether the UUT was in tolerance at each test point. Using this information, a Type A analysis of measurement uncertainty is performed that fits the definitions given in the U.S. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This Type A analysis contains the information generally obtained using Type B, or non-statistical analyses and may actually be more accurate.


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MS07_03_JACKSON
Picture of the productEstimation of Measurement Uncertainty: Simplified Methods
Michael J. Ouellette
This paper covers the basics of preparing uncertainty estimates for typical uncomplicated measurements. It presents a simple step-by-step process that applies to all fields of testing and calibration. The process is consistent with the ISO Guide for the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) but it dispenses, wherever possible, with algebraic notations, statistical terminology, arithmetic modeling, and differential calculus. In addition, a Simplified Alternative Method is discussed that uses the results of periodic measurements of a check standard to determine many of the uncertainty components in the measurement process.


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MS07_03_OULLETT
Picture of the productEvolution of Philosophy and Description of Measurement
Charles Ehrlich, René Dybkaer and Wolfgang Wöger
Different approaches to the philosophy and description of measurement have evolved over time, and they are still evolving. There is not always a clear demarcation between approaches, but rather a blending of concepts and terminologies from one approach to another. This sometimes causes confusion when trying to ascertain the objective of measurement in the different approaches, since the same term may be used to describe different concepts in the different approaches. Important examples include the terms "value," "true value," "error," "probability" and "uncertainty." Constructing a single vocabulary of metrology that is able to unambiguously encompass and harmonize all of the approaches is therefore difficult, if not impossible.


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MS07_01_EHRLICH
Picture of the productImprovements in the NIST Calibration Service
Thomas E. Lipe, Joseph R. Kinard, Yi-hua Tang and June E. Sims
We report on multiple improvements made during the past year in the calibration services offered for thermal converters and thermal transfer standards in the AC-DC Difference Standards and Measurement Techniques Project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The major improvement in this calibration is the increased efficiency made possible by the consolidation of three disparate calibration services low voltage thermal transfer standards, low-frequency thermal converters, and RF-DC difference calibrations into a single service.


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MS07_01_LIPE
Picture of the productLeakage Effects in Microwave Power Measurements
Ronald A. Ginley, Denis X. LeGolvan and Ann F. Monke
Because microwave power measurements are used to support almost every segment of the microwave elec­tronics industry, the accuracy of these measurements is critical. Recently, several different problems have been found that affect microwave power measurements, including leakage, compensation bead bias conditions, and common mode noise. One of the main problems is leakage of microwave energy through the microwave power sensors. This paper explores some of the effects this leakage energy has on different parts of microwave power measurement systems and the power measurement process and then discusses possible ways of handling the errors associated with this energy.


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MS07_04_GINLEY
Picture of the productLinking Primary Power Stand. and Prog. Josephson Arrays
Luis Palafox, Günther Ramm, Ralf Behr, Waldemar G. Kürten Ihlenfeld, and Harald Moser
Recently, precision waveforms with accuracies better than 1 part in 107 at power frequencies have been available from series arrays of shunted Josephson junctions operated as digital to analog converters with fundamental accuracy. PTB is currently continuing its efforts to integrate such a Josephson waveform synthesizer into its primary power standard in order to continuously calibrate the sampling voltmeter and thus reduce the uncertainty for the measurement of active, reactive and apparent power at the 120 V and 5 A levels.


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MS07_03_PALAFOX
Picture of the productMeasurement Techniques of Low-Value High-Current Single
Marlin Kraft
Standard resistors that are used to measure current and are designed to dissipate relatively high levels of power are known as current shunts. This paper will discuss some of the many different types of single-range current shunts in use today, and describe self-heating effects and errors associated with specific current shunt designs. The importance of the length of time it takes for some shunts to reach both temperature equilibrium and resistance equilibrium will be discussed. Because the effects of temperature are non-uniform, these lengths of time differ for some shunts and may depend on the location of the temperature sensor.


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MS07_01_KRAFT
Picture of the productNew Working Standards to Disseminate NIST Radiometric
George P. Eppeldauer, Richard Austin and Charles R. Lustenberger;
In cooperation with Gamma Scientific (GS), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed a new generation radiometer-photometer system to satisfy the increased requirements in the dissemination of NIST responsivity scales. The NIST responsivity scales have been extended from the silicon wavelength range (from 200 nm to 1100 nm) to 2500 nm, and in addition to the traditional spectral power responsivity calibrations, spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations are performed as well.


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MS07_03_EPELDAU
Picture of the productNIST Primary Frequency Standards
Michael A. Lombardi, Thomas P. Heavner and Steven R. Jefferts
As the base unit of time interval, the second holds a place of preeminence in the world of metrology. Time interval, and its reciprocal, frequency, can be measured with more resolution and less uncertainty than any of the other physical quantities. The precise realization of the second was made possible by the development of frequency standards based on the energy transitions of atoms, an event that not only revolutionized the science of timekeeping, but also forever changed many other areas of metrology. The definitions of other units in the international system (SI), including the meter, candela, ampere, and volt, now depend upon the definition of the second.


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MS07_04_LOMBARD
Picture of the productOptimisation of Performance Parameters for High Precision
Shih Mean Lee and David, Lee Kwee Lim
Modern day high precision mass comparators are high-tech measuring instruments that are capable of automated operations. The convenience of automation however introduces a number of time based' influencing parameters that affects the performance of the mass comparators to obtain accurate and repeatable readings. This paper highlights a recent study carried out on the time based' performance parameters of the a5 and a100 Mettler-Toledo automated weighing comparators housed in SPRING Singapore. The parameters under investigation were the inte­gration time and stabilization time of the comparators, the number of pre-weighing, and the number of actual weighing where the calibration results were obtained.


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MS07_01_LEE
Picture of the productOptimised Measurement Uncertainty and Decision-Making
Leslie R. Pendrill
Risks of incorrect decision-making in conformity assessment associated both with sampling and measurement uncertainties and rules which limit these risks are tackled with an economic decision theory approach. Earlier used in analytical measurement, this approach is extended to more generality where the costs of testing are balanced against the costs associated with the consequences of incorrect decision-making. A novel discussion of different models of consequence costs is included, covering measures of customer dissatisfaction.


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MS07_02_PENDRIL
Picture of the productOrthogonal Design for Calibration of Multiples of Kilogram
Adriana Vâlcu
Orthogonality is considered to be one of the most important properties for designing an experiment. Introducing the notion of orthogonality into mass calibration techniques has beneficial results, because it can reduce the measurement uncertainty. Thus, better weighing designs should include the rule that the measurements matrix (design matrix) be orthogonal. This paper describes a model for calibration of multiples of mass unit with a link of measurement standards following the example of Mihailov Romanowski which used the following principle


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MS07_02_VALCU
Picture of the productOverview of ASME B89 Standards with and Emphasis on B89.4.22
Brian Parry
This paper is an overview of the new and recently reaffirmed standards developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B89 Committee on Dimensional Metrology. Detailed information is provided for ASME B89.4.22­2004 Methods for Performance Evaluation of Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines, which was written jointly by users, manufacturers and representatives from academia and the National Institute of Stan­dards and Technology (NIST). The B89.4.22 standard addresses the performance evaluation of articulated arm coor­dinate measuring machines (AACMMs) by specifying a minimum set of requirements that can be used to perform a reasonable evaluation of machine performance


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MS07_04_PARRY
Picture of the productSummary of Currently Available Metrology Scholarships
Georgia L. Harris
This review paper summarizes efforts and the current status of metrology scholarship programs of the NCSL International and the Measurement Science Conference, the Joe D. Simmons Memorial Scholarship, Paros Scientific Scholarship, and the Muriel Mantes Metrology Scholarship. The paper notes the latest student awardees and lists schools with metrology and metrology-related programs that are current scholarship recipients in the United States and Canada.


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MS07_03_HARRIS
Picture of the productTemperature and Pressure Coefficients of Resistance
George R. Jones and Randolph E. Elmquist
While preparing to move the precision 1 Ω resistance measurement service to the new Advanced Measurement Laboratory (AML) in the spring of 2004, staff at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) first assembled a second precision 1 measurement system in the AML. This allowed the calibration service to continue uninterrupted during the transition. Both systems are fully automated and all calibrations include the measurement of laboratory "influence factors" including bath temperature and atmospheric pressure. .


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MS07_02_JONES