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Measure Articles 2010 (23)

 
Picture of the product2008 NCSLI Josephson Voltage Standards Interlaboratory Comp.
Harold V. Parks, William B. Miller, Leonard P. Pardo, Curtis Kiser, Clark A. Hamilton, and Yi-hua Tang
Josephson voltage standards (JVS) provide a highly accurate representation of the volt. Although the Josephson Effect provides an intrinsic standard of voltage, intercomparisons between different systems are important to insure that potential sources of systematic error are under control and to provide an explicit link to the volt as maintained by a national metrology institute. The results from the 8th Josephson voltage standards interlaboratory comparison (ILC) sponsored by the National Conference of Standards Laboratories International (NCSLI) are presented and compared with the results of the previous three ILCs which used the same Zener standards and protocols.


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MS10_04_PARKS
Picture of the productA 21st Century Model for Providing Measurement Traceability
Wynand Louw
The Intra-Africa Metrology System (AFRIMETS) is in its third year of existence as the Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) for Africa. With the financial support of the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Germany and South Africa (the PTB and the NMISA), UNIDO (assisted by a sponsorship from NORAD) and the assistance of the BIPM, the OIML, NEPAD, RMOs such as EURAMET and APMP, and NMIs such as LNE (France), NIST (USA) and moral support from many others, the structures necessary for a fully-fledged RMO are in place. Five regional comparisons and two proficiency testing schemes are in progress, various training courses are being conducted and a summer school is in the planning stage.


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MS10_04_LOUW
Picture of the productA NIST Disciplined Oscillator Delivering UTC to the Calib.
Michael A. Lombardi
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) now offers a service that provides customers with an oscillator locked to UTC(NIST), the United States national standard for frequency and time. A NIST disciplined oscillator (NISTDO) works by utilizing both the Internet and "common-view" observations of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and can serve as the primary frequency and time standard for a calibration or metrology laboratory. This paper discusses the theory of operation of the NISTDO, and demonstrates the accuracy and stability of the device over both short and long time intervals.


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MS10_04_LOMBARD
Picture of the productA Progamatic Method for Pass/Fail Conformance Reporting
Michael Dobbert and Robert Stern
What are the criteria for stating Pass/Fail conformance when calibrating an instrument and comparing the measured results against specifications? The answer depends on regional and regulatory requirements, customer need and other criteria. This requires calibration service providers to be flexible when reporting calibration results which include Pass/Fail conformance statements. This is especially true when serving a global market. This paper explores the different requirements or guidelines in standards documents, such as ANSI/NCSL Z540.3-2006, ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ILAC-G8:1996, and EURAMET/cg-15/v.01. Some of these documents are prescriptive, while others provide only minimal guidance subject to interpretation. While many customers simply want to know pass or fail, these differences lead to variations in the Pass/Fail decision point, in the results labels (Pass/Fail vs. Pass/Indeterminate/Fail), and potentially have an effect on the downstream uncertainty analysis. This paper presents a non-obvious, yet simple method for expressing statements of Pass/Fail conformance.


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MS10_01-DOBBERT
Picture of the productAC Shunt Calibrations at NRC
Piotr S. Filipski and Michael Boecker
NRC offers calibration of ac shunts from milliamperes up to 100 A, in the 10 Hz to 100 kHz frequency band, with expanded uncertainties between 10 μA/A for currents in the milliampere range to 50 μA/A at 100 A and 100 kHz. The paper describes the design of NRC ac standard shunts, as well as NRC experience in calibrations of commercial shunts. The ac-dc difference of some commercial low current shunts is load sensitive at higher frequency ranges. The paper discusses reasons for this sensitivity and suggests mitigating solutions.


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MS10_04_FILIPSK
Picture of the productAn Interlaboratory Comparison of Multijunction Thermal Conv.
Thomas E. Lipe, Kristopher Onderko, Timothy Large, James Allen, and Beverly Klemme
The results of an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) of Multijunction Thermal Converters (MJTCs) designed and fabricated by collaborators from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Sandia National Laboratories are reported at 0.5 V and 2 V over the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The ILC participants are laboratories that have these MJTCs, and include the three U.S. Department of Defense Primary Standards Laboratories and Sandia National Laboratories, with NIST serving as the pilot laboratory.


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MS10_03_LIPE
Picture of the productAutomating Data Acquisition on a Mech. Equal-Arm Balance
Kevin Chesnutwood
This paper focuses on efforts by the Mass and Force Group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to enhance the data taking operations of an approximately 40 year-old mechanical two-pan equalarm balance used for high-precision mass comparisons in the range from approximately 50 kg to 1134 kg (110 lb to 2500 lb). The repeatability and sensitivity of this manually operated balance (called the Russell balance) is exceptional and therefore, the balance remains a core component of the NIST large mass laboratory


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MS10_02_CHESTNU
Picture of the productGuidance Documents on Measurement Uncertainty: An Overview
Daniel Homrich da Jornada, Carla ten Caten, and Morgana Pizzolato
The “Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement” (GUM) is considered to be the main reference guidance document about measurement uncertainty. Although the GUM was first published more than 10 years ago, this subject is still acknowledged as a topic of major concern in metrology and is now also being applied to the field of testing. In order to assist both testing and calibration laboratories in a better understanding and application of the GUM’s principles, many derived guidance documents specific to the GUM have been created by several metrology organizations. Some of these documents are detailed guides with specific fields of application, such as the EURACHEM/CITAC Guide for analytical chemistry. Other documents are more general, like EA-4/16 which covers any quantitative test. Knowing the advantages and drawbacks of each document and deciding which one to use as a reference document can be a difficult task for any metrologist or test engineer. In this context, the aim of this paper is to present a brief summary of each of these guidance documents, as well as a critical analysis of their main pros and cons. The paper also presents a comparison of these documents with regard to their field of application, level of knowledge required by the metrologist, whether practical examples are presented, whether correlation effects are presented, etc. As a result, this paper clarifies the differences, advantages, and limitations of these frequently applied reference documents, thereby assisting laboratories in deciding which document to use as their reference for measurement uncertainty estimation.


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MS10_01_HOMRICH
Picture of the productImpact of the Intra-Africa Metrology System (AFRIMETS)
Wynand Louw and Donald Masuku
During 2007, the Intra-Africa Metrology System (AFRIMETS) was formed with the five sub-regional metrology organizations (SRMOs) in Africa as the principal members. Four countries not part of a SRMO also became members (Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia and Ghana), extending the countries represented in AFRIMETS to forty one. In October 2008, AFRIMETS officially became the regional metrology organization (RMO) representing Africa. The membership spans the continent with the important economic groupings represented through the SRMOs. SADCMET is the largest and most active SRMO. It plays a major role in harmonizing measurement to assist trade within the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the most economically active sub-region on the continent, and assists in the acceptance of its export products. EAMET, representing the East African Community (EAC), is fast expanding its activities and held several workshops and conferences during 2008 to advance metrology in the region. In the north MAGMET, representing the Maghreb countries, is pooling the measurement resources of Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria to support trade, especially with the European Union. Much work is needed to advance metrology (and trade) in the central and western parts of Africa. SOAMET, the secretariat for metrology of the Economic Community of West African States (UEMOA), became active during 2007/2008 and participates in AFRIMETS, but currently lacks the metrology infrastructure of SADCMET, EAMET and MAGMET. CEMACMET, the metrology sub-region representing the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC), currently only exists in name and lacks a formal SRMO structure. During 2009, Egypt was instrumental in establishing a SRMO in North-Eastern Africa and including the two English speaking countries of Western Africa, Nigeria and Ghana. It is called NEWMET and it is expected that this new SRMO will play an important role in AFRIMETS from 2010 onwards. This paper explores the impact that SADCMET, EAMET and MAGMET have had on trade within the sub-regions and beyond the borders of Africa, and its potential future impacts. It also explores the potential for metrology to assist the expansion of trade from the central and western African sub-regions by highlighting how the lack of proper metrology infrastructure negatively impacts the potential for export.


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MS10_02_LOUW
Picture of the productInterlaboratory Comparison of Helium Low Gas Flow Measure
Dana R. Defibaugh, Patrick J. Abbott, and James A. Fedchak
An interlaboratory comparison (ILC) of helium low-flow measurement capability was recently completed. The ILC was piloted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The majority of the data was taken over a period of approximately two years; a final round of data was taken by the pilot laboratory approximately three years after the data from the other participants were collected. The participants included a mix of ten industrial and metrological calibration laboratories within the United States. The comparison was performed using three helium permeation leak artifacts having different flow rates within the range of 10-13 mol/s to 10-11 mol/s (10-9 to 10-7 cm3/s at 0 ºC and 101.33 kPa).


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MS10_01_DEFIBAU
Picture of the productInternational Comparison of AC-DC Current Transfer Standards
Ilya Budovsky, Torsten Funck, Martin Garcocz, Gernot Heine, Karl-Erik Rydler, and Valter Tarasso
This paper presents an international comparison of ac-dc current transfer measurements at 10 mA and frequencies up to 1 MHz between four national metrology institutes: NMIA (Australia), PTB (Germany), BEV (Austria) and SP (Sweden). The agreement between the participants is better than 10 μA/A at 500 kHz and 20 μA/A at 1 MHz. The paper presents the measurement results, as well as an overview of the design and characterization of the reference standards and measurement systems used at the four laboratories to achieve this performance.


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MS10_01_BUDOVSK
Picture of the productMeasurement with Persons: A European Network
L. R. Pendrill, R. Emardson, B. Berglund, M. Gröning, A. Höglund, A. Cancedda, Gabriele Quinti, F. Crenna, G. B. Rossi, J. Drnovsek, G. Gersak, T. Goodman, S. Harris, G. van der Heijden, K. Kallinen, and N. Ravaja
The European 'Measuring the Impossible' Network MINET promotes new research activities in measurement dependent on human perception and/or interpretation. This includes the perceived attributes of products and services, such as quality or desirability, and societal parameters such as security and well-being. Work has aimed at consensus about four 'generic' metrological issues: (1) Measurement Concepts & Terminology; (2) Measurement Techniques: (3) Measurement Uncertainty; and (4) Decision-making & Impact Assessment, and how these can be applied specifically to the 'Measurement of Persons' in terms of 'Man as a Measurement Instrument' and 'Measuring Man.' Some of the main achievements of MINET include a research repository with glossary; training course; book; series of workshops; think tanks and study visits, which have brought together a unique constellation of researchers from physics, metrology, physiology, psychophysics, psychology and sociology. Metrology (quality-assured measurement) in this area is relatively underdeveloped, despite great potential for innovation, and extends beyond traditional physiological metrology in that it also deals with measurement with all human senses as well as mental and behavioral processes. This is particularly relevant in applications where humans are an important component of critical systems, where for instance health and safety are at stake.


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MS10_02_PENDRIL
Picture of the productMethod For Assessing & Demonstrating The Impact Of Knowledge
Tim Jones, Phil Cooper, Jenny Hully and Francis Tuffy
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is provided with public and private funding to develop and apply the UKs National Measurement System. The level of funding dedicated to assisting with the translation of knowledge from public sector investment in research to industry has increased over the past decade in the UK. This investment has resulted in a rapid growth in actively managed knowledge transfer, leading to increasing demands for this investment to provide evidence of impact. This paper outlines and reviews a range of methods for measuring the impact of knowledge transfer. It provides insights into the Value Scorecard methodology developed at NPL in response to the complexity of formulating and validating future knowledge and technology transfer activities in the field of measurement.


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MS10_04_JONES
Picture of the productNCSLI Utilities Committee RTD Interlaboratory Comparison
Richard Brenia
The Utilities Committee of NCSL International organized a temperature measurement interlaboratory comparison (ILC) using a 100 Ω Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD). Measurements were reported over the range from 0 °C to 232 °C for 12 participating laboratories. The results include participant uncertainties, extraneous data filtering, and a reference value developed by the culmination of participant's reported data. Most of the reported data agreed to the accepted reference value to within the reverence uncertainty (Accepted value ± Ureference). In summary, the results of this ILC are a very useful tool for participants to evaluate their temperature measurement techniques.


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MS10_03_BRENIA
Picture of the productNIST Calibration Uncertainties of Organic Liquid-in-Glass
G.F. Strouse, C.D. Cross, and W.W. Miller
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Industrial Thermometer Calibration Laboratory (ITCL) investigated the calibration uncertainties of low-temperature organic-filled liquid-in-glass (LiG) thermometers over the range from -196 °C to 20 °C. Several characteristics of organic-filled LiG thermometers were investigated in order to develop a new uncertainty budget including the impact of: thermal cycling; short- and long-term repeatability; and drain time of the fluid in the capillary, all as a function of the calibration temperature.


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MS10_02_STROUSE
Picture of the productNIST Determination of Industrial Platinum Resistance
W. Ellery Murdock and Gregory F. Strouse
The hysteresis of 26 industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs) at the ice melting point (ice MP, 0 °C) were investigated over the temperature ranges from -20 °C to 20 °C and from -196 °C to 200 °C. Three different IPRT probe models constructed with sensor elements from two different companies were used. Element types included two types of coil-in-bore elements (partially-supported and fully-supported) as well as thin-film elements. The hysteresis was determined from the difference in the R(0 °C) values of the IPRTs after being cycled from 0 °C to 200 °C, back to 0 °C, then to -196 °C, and finally back to 0 °C.


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MS10_01_MURDOCK
Picture of the productNIST Lowers Gas Flow Uncertainties to 0.025% or Less
John D. Wright and Aaron N. Johnson
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has reduced the uncertainty of its 34 L and 677 L Pressure-Volume-Temperature-time (PVTt) primary gas flow standards from 0.050 % to 0.025 % (k 2) for air flow in the range from 0.01 slm to 2000 slm. Over the restricted range from 0.1 slm to 1000 slm, the uncertainty was reduced to 0.015 %. The reductions in uncertainty were primarily the result of accurately accounting for the water vapor present in the flowing air. Additional uncertainty reductions result from improved measurements of the pressure and of the collection tank volumes. The latter two improvements slightly reduced flow uncertainties for dry gases (e.g., N2, Ar, He, and CO2) from 0.030 % to 0.025 % in the wider range.


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MS10_01_WRIGHT
Picture of the productReport of an Interlaboratory Comparison of Gigaohm Res.
Li Pi Su and Nathan E. Shattuck
This paper reports the results of an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) of high value resistance measurements in the range of 1 to 100 GΩ. The ILC was pivoted by the Army Primary Standards Laboratory and included the following participants: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ohm-Labs, Inc., Measurements International, Canadian National Research Council (NRC, two laboratories), Sandia National Laboratories, and the Air Force Primary Standards Laboratory. The ILC provided an appraisal of the capabilities and degree of equivalence of the participant laboratories by measuring a Guildline model 6636 resistance standard.


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MS10_03_SU
Picture of the productSetting and Using Specifications An Overview
Michael Dobbert
This paper presents techniques that manufacturers can use to set specifications and then describes how a metrologist can use those specifications in calibration. Specifications describe the warranted performance of a product or the expected accuracy of a measurement standard. From the manufacturer's perspective, specifications must describe performance that can be achieved cost effectively. This paper looks at several statistical issues related to setting specifications. Techniques for characterizing expected product performance, considerations for drift and performance variation due to external environmental conditions, and the significance of measurement uncertainty are covered


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MS10_03_DOBBERT
Picture of the productSilicon Bulk Micromachined Hybrid Dimensional Artifact
Meghan Shilling, Hy D. Tran, Andre A. Claudet, Andrew D. Oliver, and Todd M. Bauer
A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k = 2 uncertainty of 0.4 ìm, more than two times better than a glass reference artifact. Evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k = 2) is presented. While videoprobe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system’s certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given, and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.


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MS10_02_SHILLIN
Picture of the productThe Development of a Unified Time and Frequency Program
J. Mauricio Lopez-Romero and Michael A. Lombardi
The Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) is one of five major regional metrology organizations (RMOs) recognized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). SIM is composed of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) located in the 34 member nations of the Organization of American States (OAS). This paper summarizes work done by the SIM Time and Frequency Metrology Working Group from 2004 to 2010. It discusses the challenges faced by the working group, the progress made by individual laboratories, and the important role played by metrology education. It also provides an overview of two major achievements of the working group: the SIM Time Network (SIMTN) and the SIM Time (SIMT) scale.


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MS10_03_ROMERO
Picture of the productThe NPL Training Framework: Latest Developments in Dimension
Tom Ashby
This paper covers the latest developments in training from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) as it continues to expand overseas into the USA market and beyond. NPL has been developing an industrially relevant commercial training business for over three years. This involves the development and promotion of the NPL Training Framework to key customers and stakeholders, listening to and engaging with both industry and academia with the ultimate goal of creating a set of nationally recognized qualifications in metrology that employers and employees aspire to: a certified group of metrologists.


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MS10_04_ASHBY
Picture of the productUncertainty Management versus Risk Management in Calibration
Jim Salsbury
This paper studies the impact of the conformance decision rule used in compliance assessment during the calibration process on the subsequent measurements made using the calibrated measuring instrument. The rules that are evaluated include the default rule of ISO 14253-1, the recommendations of ILAC-G8, the 2 % probability of false accept (PFA) in ANSI/NCSL Z540.3, the 4:1 test uncertainty ratio (TUR), and the simple and stringent acceptance decision rules of ASME B89.7.3.1.


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MS10_03_SALSBUR