Precision Measurement Training:
E-Learning Series
  © 2015 WorkPlace Training, Inc

Course Descriptions

An easy to access, menu driven curriculum allows the learner to concentrate on the topics specific to their job requirements. For anyone taking measurements, new hires, students or a refresher for more experienced technicians. All titles have their own parameter specific glossary, pre and post tests and Certificate of Competency. 

There are three course levels:

Precision Measurement Series-Level I    Precision Measurement Series-Level II    ISO/IEC 17025 Compliance

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Precision Measurement Series-Level II
 
WPT1017 Time and Frequency

Time 

Measurement Time Scales
Universal Time, International Atomic Time, Synchronization, Coordinated Universal time 

Digital Clock Accuracy and Synchronization

General Purpose Units, Precision Units 

Time Base Standards in Clocks
Accuracy and Stability, Cesium Beam Standards, Hydrogen Masers, Rubidium Standards, Quartz Oscillators 

Sources of Error
Frequency Offset and Oscillator Aging, NIST, Loran C, GOES, GPS

Time Code Formats

Frequency 
Specifications 
Universal Time, International Atomic Time, Synchronization, Coordinated Universal time 

Offset
Phase Comparison, Phase Deviation, Measurement Period, 10:1 DUR, Sample Graphs 

Stability
Short-term, Long-term, Frequency Domain, Time Domain, Standard Deviation, Allan Variance, Sample Graphs, Flicker Floor 
 
Frequency Standards
Operating Principles of; Quartz, Atomic, Rubidium, Cesium, Hydrogen Masers 

Transfer Standards
WWVB, Groundwave; Loran-C, GPS, Receiving Equipment-Pseudo-random noise, Course acquisition code, Precision code GPS 

Performance
GPS Calibration Methods: Frequency counter, Time interval method 


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WPT_1017
WPT1020 Uncertainty Management
Introduction
  • Communicating about measurements and measurement equipment
What is a Specification?
  • Why do we need specifications?
  • The use of specifications in measurement and metrology 
  • The form(s) taken by specification
  • Some examples of specifications of measuring equipment
  • How to read and interpret specifications 
  • The importance of specifications in calibration
  • What it means to be in or out of spec.
  • Practice reading, interpreting, calculating
What is a Tolerance?
  • How are tolerances stated?
  • What is the difference between a tolerance and a specification?
  • Some examples of tolerances of measuring equipment
  • How to read and interpret tolerances
  • The importance of tolerances in calibration
  • What it means to be in or out of tolerance
  • Practice reading, interpreting, calculating
Measurement Uncertainty (this is not a full treatment, just an intro in context) 
  • Definitions (in context) of measures of measurement reliability and quality
  • Accuracy 
  • Precision
  • Resolution
  • Repeatability and Reproducibility
  • Traceability
  • How do these definitions fit with specifications and tolerances?
  • Special cases: floor specs, % of full scale vs % of reading, ppm, values near zero
  • Calculation of measurement uncertainty • budgets
  • Converting specifications and tolerances to uncertainty
  • Practice calculating
Accreditation: rules relating to specifications and tolerances and Ratios
  • The 10:1 principle; 4:1, 3:1
  • What did they mean in the past: Definitions in MIL-STD-45662 
  • What do they mean now? Definitions in ANSI/NCSL Z-540-1, ISO 10012-1 and ISO/IEC 17025
  • Are they useful? If so, why?
  • Accuracy ratios, tolerance ratios, uncertainty ratios
  • Ratios and traceability
  • Practice calculations
Specifications, Tolerances, and Uncertainty
  • Inspection and test
  • Errors of Type I 
  • Errors of Type II
  • Decision rules
  • Definitions 
  • Applying them
  • Responsibility (whose)
  • Measurement uncertainty and decision rules
Changes to and Adjustment of Decision Rules
  • Guardbanding
  • Determining conformance to identified metrological specifications and taking measurement uncertainty into account 
  • Practice calculations


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WPT_1020
WPT1021 AC/DC Calibration and Metrology
Basic concepts: including power produced by voltage 
Thermal converters, single element vacuum thermocouple converters.
Making transfers and the determination of alternating voltage and current, frequency effects. 
Understand AC-DC Devices including multijunction thermocouples, log/antilog converters, electrostatic and electrodynamic instruments

Using AC-DC transfer standards 
Explain and understand types of AC-DC transfer standards. 
Vacuum thermocouple-based standards. 
AC-DC voltage transfers i.e. plane of reference and frequency response 
Follow the correct procedures in making the transfer; preparation and using shunts for AC-DC current transfers. 
Describe transfer errors and their avoidance; 4-termincal connections, proper connections and hookups, distortion and noise. 
Understand transfer standard calibration; AC-DC difference, half-scale range intercomparison 

Inductance and Capacitance
Explain the SI definition of inductance; standard of inductance, traceable standards, time constants and inductive reactance in AC circuits. 
Explain the SI definition of capacitance. 
Describe the Realization of the Farad, traceable capacitance standards, time constants, capacitive reactance in AC circuits, comparing the currents in inductors and capacitors. 

Immittance and AC Ratio 
Describe and understand impedance, admittance and immittance, AC reactance. 
Understand and use audio frequency dividers; resistive and reactive dividers. 
Explain RF ratio; and connector and hookup considerations.


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WPT_1021
WPT1022 Precision Humidity Measurement
Key Terminology
Vapor Pressure, Saturation Water Vapor Pressure, Relative Humidity, Dalton's Law, Dew Point, Frost Point, Supercooled Water, Absolute Humidity, Mixing Ratio, PPM by Volume, PPM by Weight, Enthalpy, Pressure Effects

Specification
Vapor Pressure, Saturation Water Vapor Pressure, Relative Humidity, Dalton's Law, Dew Point, Frost Point, Supercooled Water, Absolute Humidity, Mixing Ratio, PPM by Volume, PPM by Weight, Enthalpy, Pressure Effects

Humidity Measuring Instruments
Wet and Dry Bulb Psychrometers, Theory, Operating Principles

Chilled Mirror Hygrometer Theory
Principles in Chilled Mirror-Peltier Cooling, Dew Point Depression, Slew Rate, Platinum RTD 

CM Operation and Maintenance
Dew Point Measurement, Contamination, Dew or Frost, Sampling, Pressure Effects

Sensors

Displacement, Bulk Polymer Resistive, Capacitive, Saturated Salt Lithium Chloride, 
Aluminum Oxide Dew Point, Piezo-Resonance 

Accuracy of the Measurement 
Error Sources; Conformity, Hysteresis, Dead Band, Repeatability Kelvin Effect, Raoult Effect

Calibration
Two Pressure Humidity Calibration, Two Pressure Principle, RH Generator, 
Computer Controlled System

Measurement Uncertainty


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WPT_1022
WPT1024 Certified Calibration Technician (CCT) Test Prep
GENERAL METROLOGY (30 Questions) 
Base SI Units, Derived SI Units, SI Multipliers and Conversions, Fundamental Constants, Common Measurements, Principles and Practices of Traceability, Types of Measurement Standards, Substitution of Calibration Standards

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS (25 Questions)
Measurement Methods, Measurement Data, Characteristics of Measurements, IM&TE Specifications, Primary Error Sources, Measurement Systems and Capabilities, Measurement Assurance Programs (MAPs)

CALIBRATION SYSTEMS (25 Questions)
Calibration Methods, Industry Practices and Regulations
Control of the Calibration Environment, Calibration Processes for IM&TE, Process flow; Logistical information, Roles and responsibilities, Scheduling, Manual and Automated Calibration, Systems Records and Records Management, Reporting Results

APPLIED MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (20 Questions)
Technical and Applied Mathematics (Application), Scientific and engineering notation, English/Metric conversions, Ratios, Linear interpolation and extrapolation, Rounding, truncation, and significant figures, Number bases, Volume and area, Angular conversions, Graphs and plots Applied Statistics, Basic statistical tools, Common distributions, Descriptive statistics, Sampling issues

QUALITY SYSTEMS AND STANDARDS (15 Questions)
Quality Management Systems; System components, Procedures
The Seven Quality Control Tools, Quality Audits, Preventive and Corrective Action; Process improvement techniques, Nonconforming material identification, Impact assessment of nonconformances Supplier Qualification and Monitoring, Professional Conduct and Ethics, Occupational Safety Requirements; Hazards and safety equipment, Hazardous communications (HAZ-COM), Housekeeping, Quality Standards and Guides

UNCERTAINTY (10 Questions)
Uncertainty Budget Components, Uncertainty Management, Uncertainty Determination and Reporting
Practice test questions based on the Six Levels of Cognition based on Bloom’s Taxonomy 


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WPT_1024
WPT1030 CMM's (Coordinate-measuring machine)
  • Review of Basic Concepts and Vocabulary
  • Basic CMM Measurements
  • Sampling Issues
  • Probing Systems
  • Basic CMM Accuracy and Specifications
  • Thermal Effects
  • CMM Calibration
  • Measurement Uncertainty


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WPT_1030
WPT1031 Water Quality, Measurement, pH, Conductivity
  • pH Measurement Intro 
  • Equipment Used to Measure pH Calibration 
  • Uncertainty of pH Measurement 
  • Power Measurements
  • Conductivity Intro
  • Conductivity Measurements
  • Influences on Conductivity Measurements
  • Applications


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WPT_1031
WPT1032 Metrology for Engineers and Scientists
This course is designed to familiarize Engineers and Scientists with Metrology, the science of measurement. A quantitative analysis of design based on sound metrology principles will help engineers and scientists to design better products and services.

In order to evaluate multiple solutions to the design, physical measurements are made and the data analyzed. Predictions need to be made on how well the design will perform to its specifications before full scale production begins. Tests are performed using prototype models, computer simulation, designed experiments, destructive and non-destructive tests, scale models and stress tests among the many other methods of evaluation.

An engineer works with many other people when designing their products:
  • Marketing to understand customer requirements.
  • Testing department to specify test requirements and understand test results.
  • Manufacturing and production to ensure that products are made to specifications.
  • Quality departments to ensure quality requirements.

Measurement Parameters
  • Calibration technicians in the pre and post design phase.
  • Principles and Instrumentation to Measure the following: Electrical, Dimensional, Pressure, Temperature, Humidity, Mass, Light Radiation, Acoustics, and Chemical

Statistics
  • Basic and Reliability Models, Measurement Decision Risk

Measurement Uncertainty
  • Types of Uncertainty
  • Determining Measurement Uncertainty
  • Uncertainty calculations
  • Combined uncertainty calculations
  • Combining uncertainty methods
  • Determining expanded uncertainty
  • Analyzing and reporting uncertainty
  • Analyzing and understanding calibration reports
  • Applying uncertainty data

Applications
  • Applying metrology concepts in product and instrument design
  • Selecting Instruments
  • Quality Aspects
  • Validation/verification issues
  • Safety Characteristics
  • Determining Test Specifications
  • Assigning appropriate Tolerances
  • Calibration Aspects
  • Special topics in Measurement Uncertainty
  • Assessment Checklist


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WPT_1032
WPT1033 Safety in the Calibration Lab


Introduction
General Roles and Responsibilities for Supervisors and Technicians

Electrical Safety for Cal Lab Operations;                                                                                        
Floors, Grounding, Benches, Mobile Equipment, Safety Devices; Fuses, breakers, interlocks, grounding sticks, Connecting and disconnecting equipment, RF Permissible exposure, Arc Flash, Electrical equipment cleaning, Solvents, 2-man teams

Fires;                                                                                                                                                  
Electrical, Dry Chemical

Chemical;                                                                                                                                              
MSDS, Toxic and physical, mercury, hydrazine, disposal, Good housekeeping, Liquid Nitrogen and Oxygen; physical, physiological, and chemical

Pressure;                                                                                                                                          
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) and Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP), Test Pressure, Pressure Relief Devices, Component Requirements

Lasers;                                                                                                                                              
Principles, Industrial hygiene, Explosion hazards, Nonbeam optical radiation hazards, Collateral radiation, Electrical and flammable hazards, Biological Effects; Eye, thermal

Temperature;                                                                                                                                            
High heat, cold, cryogenics, Bath fluid flashpoints

Radiation; 
Material, handling, storage, incident response



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WPT_1033