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Conference Proceedings 2013 (58)

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Picture of the productA Closed-Form Solution for Quadratic Distribution
Mark Kuster, Pantex Metrology
A Closed-Form Solution for Quadratic Distribution Uncertainty from Containment Limits and Probability
Metrologists may obtain Type B uncertainties from such engineering estimates as “The error falls within 2 units 50% of the time.” The procedure requires selecting an appropriate distribution and determining its standard deviation in terms of the containment limits and probability. The latest revision of NCSLI Recommended Practice RP-12, “Determining and Reporting Measurement Uncertainty”, provides such equations for the normal, student’s t, quadratic, cosine, triangular, trapezoidal, u-shaped, and utility distributions. This paper summarizes the Type B estimation procedure, presents the previously unknown quadratic distribution solution discovered during RP-12 development for symmetric, asymmetric, and single-sided containment limits, and gives example uses.


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CP_13_9C_KUSTER
Picture of the productA New Coaxial Flow Calorimeter for Accurate RF Power Measure
Andrew S. Brush, TEGAM Inc.
A New Coaxial Flow Calorimeter for Accurate RF Power Measurements up to 100 Watts and 1 GHz. Establishing traceability of RF power measurements at power levels in excess of a few watts has historically used methods that we will categorize into two major branches. One class of methods uses low-power sensors traceable through microcalorimeters operating in the milliWatt range. This class is exemplified by the power measurement technique described by Bramall, in which the low power sensors are used to measure the insertion loss of attenuators or couplers, which are then cascaded to provide the required attenuation or coupling factor to enable measurement of high power using low power sensors. The other major division is the direct measurement of the higher power using high power calorimeters. The basic theory and history of flow calorimeters is described well in chapter 5 of Fantom, and recently available commercial flow calorimeters are described in their respective user manuals.

The cascaded coupler method has been refined to the point at which, for 100 Watt measurements below 1 GHz, NIST reports the ability to calibrate transfer standards with an uncertainty of 0.67%. This uncertainty seems adequate to provide traceability for typical power sensors giving an overall uncertainty of 3% to 4%, but is higher than the 0.6% required to calibrate the most accurate of high-power RF sensors. The method is also reported to be, “cumbersome and lengthy”[8].

Commercially available calorimeters represent that the user will obtain measurement uncertainty in the neighborhood of 1.25%. One of the referenced models claims 0.5%, but “not including load error”, which apparently does not include offset due to a leakage path. In real calibrations performed by the authors, that unit’s total error exceeded 2% of full scale. However much better results have been shown to be possible, such as by Bird showing that their lab can calibrate to 0.6% when required.

In the project being reported on, the authors addressed the challenge of finding as many of the sources of error in a flow calorimeter as possible, and followed up on the findings by developing new instrumentation, process automation, and heat flow to minimize error as much as possible.


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CP_13_6C_BRUSH
Picture of the productA Proposal to Update the International Temperature Scale.
Alan G. Steele, National Research Council of Canada
Since its inception in 1927, the International Temperature Scale (ITS) has changed to meet the needs of the time. The ITS protocol specifies phase transitions with assigned temperatures (the defining fixed points), defining instruments (thermometers), and interpolating (or extrapolating) equations. Since 1927, the selection of fixed points and their assigned temperatures have changed, defining instruments have been added and deleted, and the equations have become more complex. In 1990, reference functions were introduced both above and below the triple point of water, and the addition of overlapping sub-ranges increased the flexibility of realization.

Over the 22 years since its introduction, the ITS-90 has served its user community well. However, its departure from thermodynamic temperature is more than is desirable for the most demanding applications. One approach is to continue making measurements on the ITS-90 (T90), and then correct the temperatures for better accord with thermodynamic temperature (T) using the Consultative Committee for Thermometry’s best estimates of (T - T90). Alternatively, these shortcomings can be addressed in a one-step process, through an evolutionary change that maintains the familiar mathematical structure of the ITS-90, by updating the coefficients of the reference functions and the temperatures of the defining fixed points.

This route to updating the ITS has relatively modest requirements for implementation. The impact on embedded instrumentation is minimal - requiring only an updating of the coefficients of the reference functions and not a complete reworking of the mathematics.


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CP_13_7D_STEELE
Picture of the productA Simple Approach to LEAN in the Laboratory?
Dean S. Williams, Duke Energy
Whether a commercial calibration laboratory or an in-house corporate laboratory, and whether we like it or not, the realities of today's economy demand we embrace continuous improvement efforts. But how do you go about it? Where do you start? And where do you find the time, resources, budget and most importantly the corporate backing to undertake a comprehensive process improvement program?

The author describes his Lab's journey through the continuous process improvement maze, why LEAN became the next logical step for the Duke Energy Lab, and why you don't need to have a black belt in LEAN-SIX SIGMA to get started.

The author provides a simple primer on the background and principles of LEAN. The seemingly complex collection of Japanese words and ideas will be demystified and the difference between words like Muda, Mura, and Muri, or Kanban, Kaizen, and Kaikaku will be explained in plain English. Value Stream Mapping and how it can help you spot areas for improvement will be described, and why the concept of Pull is so important to reducing inventory and turn-times.

The author then details a few of the specific LEAN initiatives that were designed and implemented at the Duke Energy Standards Lab, showing how these initiatives reduced waste, improved effectiveness of the overall operation, and provided the customer with a higher level of service with no additional man-power resources and little out of pocket costs.

Finally the author provides some resources and helpful hints for implementing LEAN in a simple and effective way.


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CP_13_4B_WILLIA
Picture of the productA Transportable Josephson Voltage Standard
John Ball, University of Alabama, Huntsville SMAP Center
The Army has actively participated in the development and application of quantum voltage standards since the US practical Volt was redefined by NIST in terms of the Josephson Effect in 1972. An Army-led collaborative effort resulted in the commercialization of Josephson array technology in the mi-1990s. Today, the Josephson Effect defines the SI representation of the Volt and Josephson-based systems serve as standards in national metrology institutes and primary laboratories throughout the world. An Army effort is currently underway to make quantum voltage metrology systems practical for use outside the primary standards laboratory by making them more robust, simpler to operate, and eliminating the requirement for liquid helium.

The first prototype of a more practical quantum voltage standard is currently being tested at the Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL) in Alabama. The new voltage standard is compact, transportable, self-contained, and cryogenically-cooled. This paper describes the prototype and the results of performance tests, including indirect comparisons to the Army primary Josephson voltage standard.


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CP_13_2C_BALL
Picture of the productAdvances in Vision Systems Will Enable Significant Improveme
Stephen E. Pirnat, Quest Metrology, LLC
Advances in Vision Systems Will Enable Significant Improvements in Thread Metrology.
Visions systems have had a profound impact on manufacturing productivity and quality over the last decade. These optical/laser-based systems will continue to enhance the speed, productivity, cost and quality within a broad range of manufacturing processes globally. “The global machine vision market is estimated at $3.1 billion in 2012, and is expected to grow with a CAGR of 8.2 percent to $5.1 billion in 2018. The major factors driving the market are paradigm shifts in the global market demand for machine vision products, emergence of smart cameras ……” according to Market and Market, a global market research and consulting company.

This article is intended to increase the reader’s awareness of advances in vision systems that will impact the manufacture and inspection of thread forms and thread gage calibration. These unique systems can be found in the metrology lab, shop floor, or in the field, providing enhanced speed, productivity, quality and cost for their users.

Thread forms are of particular interest and importance to metrology and manufacturing/ quality professionals since they are a fundamental component that virtually holds our manufacturing world together. Thread forms are available in a wide variety of geometric shapes and industry standards. They are a principal method of fastening manufacturing components, and they form a critical component within a variety of industries like defense/aerospace, automotive, and energy. These thread forms can be simple, or eloquently complex. Nevertheless, the accuracy of their geometric shape is critical to the quality, reliability, and safety in many applications. The traditional methods for measuring and inspecting thread forms can be slow and costly, requiring skilled, experienced personnel. Vision systems will allow greater quality surveillance, lower costs, shorter cycle times, improved reliability/safety and overall productivity. We will examine two totally different types of vision system designs to provide non-contact, high-speed measurement and/or inspection of thread forms.


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CP_13_1D_PIRNAT
Picture of the productAn Overview of the NCSLI 151 Healthcare Metrology Committee.
Marcus McNeely, Blue Mountain Quality Resources
The 151 Healthcare Metrology Committee currently has a membership of 185 Healthcare Metrology professionals worldwide and is one of the most active Committees in NCSLI. While this achievement is significant, we continue in further outreach to a large group of Pharmaceutical, Biotech and Medical Device Metrology professionals that are not yet aware of the benefits of participation in the 151 Committee. This paper details the committee background, purpose and activities to new Healthcare Metrology professionals and industry providers, and to new NCSLI members. All are welcome to attend and participate.


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CP_13_4A_MCNEEL
Picture of the productAnalytical Evaluation of Response Characteristics
Ali A. Jalalzadeh-Azar, Ph.D., P.E., Pratt & Whitney
Analytical Evaluation of Response Characteristics of Temperature and Pressure Measurement Systems for Gas Turbine Engines.
Instrument response plays an important role in data validation for experimental and real-world systems, including gas turbine engines (GTE). A widely used metric for characterizing sensor response is the time constant, which is typically determined experimentally in a laboratory environment by examining the output response to a step, ramp, or sinusoidal input. Although such an approach is useful for screening and selecting appropriate sensors for an application, it is not necessarily applicable to the measurement system integrating the sensor.

Gas pressure and temperature are among the thermodynamic properties whose accurate measurements are crucial to GTE performance assessments in transient as well as in steady-state operations. To evaluate the response characteristics of the respective measurement systems, implementation of a technique utilizing actual test data can complement laboratory test results that may not fully cover the operating range of interest. Subtle differences between the laboratory setup and the actual test apparatus is another factor that underscores the utility of such a hybrid approach for discerning the effective response parameters.

The proposed analytical technique entails an inverse analysis requiring advance knowledge of the actual properties for discernment of the sought instrument response parameters. Therefore, forecasting the properties along the transient path becomes an intrinsic facet of the response characterization. Comparison of the results from this twofold methodology with vetted laboratory data can help modify the analytical and the laboratory techniques for convergence. The search for this coveted emergence may also constitute a viable strategy for addressing the seemingly paradoxical notion regarding the need for predictability of the properties being measured. This paper presents the conceptualized analytical methodology for determining the effective time constants of the total pressure and temperature measurement systems in a GTE compressor involving subsonic axial flow regimes. To predict the transient data, historical steady-state measurements for a wide range of engine speeds were used and correlated to the rotational speed. Although this effort does not take the center stage here, it provides a means to explore the efficacy of the proposed technique that approximates instrument parameters using first- and second-order response models for temperature and pressure, respectively.


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CP_13_8D_JALAZA
Picture of the productAutomation Design of Multiple Intelligent Integration System
Nghiem Van Nguyen, Ph.D., Raytheon Company.
Automation Design of Multiple Intelligent Integration System. The multiple system integrator automation (MSIA) is a business that builds computing systems based on the rapid advancement of integration automated technology for clients, by combining hardware and software products for multiple testing. The multiple system integrator automation (MSIA) could be applied to upgrade our metrology manual calibrations to be an automated system. In today's business environment, project teams are expected to do more and deliver higher quality systems in less time with fewer resources. And when companies tighten their budgetary belt, multiple system integration testing is often one of the first systems-development items to be done away within.

• Reduce cost of ownership by 45% to 60%.
•Reduce time to automate tests by 50% to 70%.

Using the multiple system integrator automation (MSIA), a company can align cheaper, pre-configured components and off-the-shelf software to meet key business goals, as opposed to using more expensive, customized implementations that may require original programming or unique components. Multiple system integrator automation (MSIA) is a business that builds computing systems based on the rapid advancement of integration automated multiple testing technology.


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CP_13_10C_NGUYE
Picture of the productBest Practices for Pipette Calibration Uncertainty Budgets
George Rodrigues, Artel
Best Practices for Pipette Calibration Uncertainty Budgets and CMC Determination.
With unit sales in excess of one million pieces per year, pipettes are ubiquitous devices and found in a wide variety of laboratories. Applications vary from non-quantitative uses (such as mixing or decanting) to highly quantitative uses such as dispensing of standards and preparation of accurate serial dilutions. Because pipettes are used extensively in critical laboratory tests such as quality control assay of injectable drugs and DNA analysis which results in conviction or exoneration, proper calibration of pipettes is important and the consequences of poor calibrations can be severe.

There is a definite upward trend in the number of pipette calibration laboratories and service organizations which have obtained accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Each of these laboratories will have performed an uncertainty analysis and calculated their calibration measurement capability (CMC).

In this paper, the available scopes of accreditation from forty different pipette calibration laboratories are compiled, compared and contrasted. The various formats were translated into a common basis and then plotted to show how CMCs vary with pipette volume and vary between laboratories. One of the most notable differences is the significant variation in the CMCs among laboratories, which can vary by factors of 100 or more. There appears to be little correlation between a published pipette CMC and other laboratory variables such as experience in the discipline, equipment, reference standards, environmental controls, and capabilities in related disciplines such as mass or volumetrics.

To understand the reasons behind these differences in CMC, pipette uncertainty budgets from some leading laboratories were compared. Based on this evaluation, the authors conclude that laboratory practices for establishing pipette calibration CMCs are not well standardized, and the largest source of variation seems to be practice in how the repeatability contribution from the pipette unit under test (UUT) is evaluated and considered. ILAC policy P-14 [1] defines CMC and establishes general policy regarding inclusion of repeatability and reproducibility of the “best existing device”. In practice, there is currently no consensus on which sources of variation in the pipette calibration process should be included in the CMC evaluation, nor is there agreement on how to apply the concept of a best existing pipette. This paper attempts to begin filling this gap by providing recommendations for a best practice in evaluating and communicating the uncertainty of a pipette calibration and for evaluating the CMC of a pipette calibration laboratory. The important questions of reporting measurement uncertainty and the impact it has on evaluating inter-laboratory comparisons and determining compliance with tolerances are also discussed.


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CP_13_8D_RODRIG
Picture of the productBest Practices of Metrology for Small and Medium Enterprises
Salvador Echeverría-Villagómez, CENAM
Metrology is an important aspect to be cared for in Small and Medium Enterprises, mainly in the field of manufacturing. A Mexican entrepreneur said that "metrology is in the ladder step that brings a manufacturing enterprise from the craftsmanship level to the industrial level." Beyond, metrology can be a competitive advantage of a SME for achieving higher levels of quality, productivity, competitiveness and innovation.

SMEs often find it difficult to devote the necessary resources to metrology, sometimes they do not know what metrology can do for them and other times they do not know how to take an adequate strategy for this important aspect of their company.

The present work is based on the experience of a number of years attending the metrological aspects of manufacturing companies with the MESURA methodology and work team. The methodology has a number of principles which include a lean approach to metrology with a fit for purpose tactics, equilibrium among the elements of measuring systems and live integration.


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CP_13_1A_ECHEVE
Picture of the productBiometrology: Measurement Science for Life
Roberto Benitez Chavez, CORPORACION BH, S.C.
The 21st General Conference on Weights and Measures, in the 11th resolution, recommends to metrology specialists to work in adequate an international infrastructure to ensure traceability of the biotechnology measurements to the International System of Units (SI). Some countries have been working in some metrological areas, but it is necessary to coordinate that work in a global manner. This paper presents the work of a private calibration laboratory made collecting information in different applications of metrology in biotechnology and recommends establishing the term Biometrology as the measurement science for life.


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CP_13_2A_BENITE
Picture of the productCalibration and Specification Considerations When Using Mod.
Michael Dobbert, Agilent Technologies
Calibration and Specification Considerations When Using Modular Instrumentation.
Modular instrumentation, such as PXI or AXIe modular instruments, offers significant configuration flexibility, plus interchangeability, speed, and size advantages when it comes to deploying measurement systems. However, the architecture that enables these advantages also presents unique challenges when calibrating modular instruments. Calibration often occurs outside of the use environment. For modular instrumentation, this may mean performing calibration on a module with a different chassis and its related electronics. Additionally, the module’s ambient environmental conditions depend upon chassis fan speed, the use of slot blockers and EMC filler panels and the presence of other modules. The operating software and CPU for modular instruments are contained outside the module in an external computer, which may not travel with the module for calibration. Modular instrumentation may require multiple modules configured together to provide measurement capability. This may require calibration on the set of modules as a system or, a method to relate system level performance to the calibrated performance of individual modules. These issues affect both the calibration and the calibration report and influence how manufacturers may define specifications for modular instrumentation. This paper examines these issues in detail and considers both in situ calibration and calibration performed outside the use environment. Recommended is information to be included on the measurement report that is unique to calibration of modular instrumentation. Addressed are the requirements for assuring the ability to make traceable measurements using calibrated modular instrumentation.


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CP_13_3B_DOBBER
Picture of the productCalibration of Coordinate Measuring Machines Meeting the Req
Dennis W.K. Lee, The Government of the Hong Kong
Calibration of Coordinate Measuring Machines Meeting the Requirements of ISO 10360-2:2009 at the Standards and Calibration Laboratory.
A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a measuring system, with the means to move a probe system, to determine spatial coordinates on a workpiece surface. It is a 3-dimensional measuring device for determining the physical geometrical characteristics of objects. To verify the performance of a CMM, it is essential to carry out acceptance tests and with subsequent periodic checks to it in accordance with ISO 10360-2, which is an international geometrical product specification standard for CMM testing.

At Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL), a calibration method, meeting the requirements of the latest edition of ISO 10360-2, is developed using precision step gauges as the reference standards to calibrate CMMs with measurement results traceable to the unit of length (i.e. the metre). Method for estimation of measurement uncertainty is also developed in accordance with the JCGM 100:2008 (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement), ISO/TS 15530-1:2011 and ISO/TS 15530-3:2011 (Guidelines for the Evaluation of CMM Test Uncertainty).

Learning Objectives: To develop methods for CMM calibration meeting ISO 10360-2:2009 and uncertainty evaluation in accordance with JCGM 100:2008.


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CP_13_3C_LEE
Picture of the productCalibration of Rogowski Coils at High Pulsed Currents
Branislav Djokic, National Research Council of Canada
Calibration of Rogowski Coils at High Pulsed Currents. The many applications of Rogowski coils include their use as current sensors in AC resistance welding. Weld quality depends on monitoring/controlling the welding currents. The accuracy of these current sensors matters, and so does the accuracy of their calibration. A high-accuracy system for calibrating Rogowski coils at continuous AC currents was previously developed at NRC. However, in AC resistance welding, high pulsed currents are used. A new calibration system was developed to calibrate current sensors and related equipment under high pulsed currents.


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CP_13_10B_DJOKI
Picture of the productComp. of Eval. Criteria in the Use of Measurement System
Jonathan Eric Cortéz-Rincón,
Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya
Comparison of Evaluation Criteria in the Use of Measurement System Based on Regression with Gauge R&R Study.

This project involves two systems of measurement evaluation: a Method based on Regression and a Gauge R&R study. There are different tools for the analysis, control and improvement of processes but this paper will only address those that involve the data of the realized measurements. These tools will be defined by a Method based on Regression and the Method of the ANOVA in the Gauge R&R Study. Besides using different criteria to accept or to reject measurements realized under certain conditions, the approach used a number of significant numerical models that meet certain statistical conditions to be evaluated using both tools. This way it will be possible to compare the results shown by the Regression and a Gauge R&R Study by method ANOVA. By obtaining the number of different categories [4] and the relation between the projections in the measurements, it is possible to know if what is reliable for one system is also suitable for the other. Finally, this thesis proposes a comparative table of criterion of evaluation of both systems, showing where the line between acceptance and rejection is broken.


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CP_13_9B_CORTEZ
Picture of the productComparison of Traditional and Emerging Technology
Henry L. Alexander, Calibration Program Manager, Perry Johnson Laboratory Accreditation, Inc.
Comparison of Traditional and Emerging Technology for the Calibration of Thread Plug Gage Pitch Diameter. .
Threaded fasteners are critical elements of modern manufactured products. As such the evaluation of dimensional attributes of threads and threaded fasteners is a subject of much interest for metrologists, engineers and others concerned with quality, safety and performance. One of the most important calibrations associated with gaging for threads and threaded fasteners is the pitch diameter calibration of thread plug gages.

PJLA is in the planning stage of an inter-laboratory comparison of thread plug gage pitch diameter calibration intended to provide proficiency testing opportunities to a number of our accredited laboratories. As the plans were being developed we decided to use this opportunity to investigate the performance of emerging non-contact technologies for the same calibration. The common artifact will be calibrated using the non-contact calibration method and the results obtained from the inter-laboratory comparison. Since the inter-laboratory comparison is in the preliminary stage the initial comparison will include only one laboratory using the three wire method. Additional data will be included in the comparison as it becomes available..

The artifact will be a ¾-10 UNC-2B Thread Plug Gage produced by Leader Corporation of Shelby Township, MI. The gage was provided with an initial calibration from the manufacturer which will be retained and used as a control if necessary.


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CP_13_1D_ALEXAN
Picture of the productCreating a Calibration Measurement Monitoring System for Man
John Wilson, Agilent Technologies, Inc
Creating a Calibration Measurement Monitoring System for Many, Ever-changing, Complex Instruments.
Today’s fast paced instrumentation world pushes the demands on calibration quality systems to new levels with:

1) Reported measurement uncertainties.
2) Tighter test limits by applying guard bands.
3) Increasing number of complex instruments needing calibration.
4) Increasing number of automated calibration routines.
5) Global delivery of calibrations.

These demands raise a number of questions and challenges for keeping up with the pace:
1) How does one ensure the calibration is within measurement uncertainties claimed?
2) Where’s the biggest impact for improving procedures by reducing uncertainties?
3) How does one:
   a) Identify issues?
   b) Correlate issues to root causes?
   c) Quantify the impact of issues?
   d) Communicate to fix issues?
   e) Verify the issue is fixed?
4) How does one accomplish this with global teams in a timely and economical fashion?

To address these issues, a “Calibration Measurement Monitoring System” (CMMS) brings a wealth of the most pertinent information to bear, expanding on control charts to provide timely checks, communicate issues and correlate issues to root causes quickly and easily. This paper explores the development and implementation of one such system.


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CP_13_10C_WILSO
Picture of the productDetermining the Uncertainty of Frequency Measurements
Michael A. Lombardi, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Determining the Uncertainty of Frequency Measurements Referenced to GPS Disciplined Oscillators.
GPS disciplined oscillators (GPSDOs) are commonly used as references for frequency calibrations. Over long intervals, a GPSDO is an inherently accurate source of frequency because it is continuously adjusted to agree with the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) time scale maintained by the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). However, most frequency calibrations last for intervals of one day or less, and it can be difficult for metrologists to determine the uncertainty of a GPSDO during a short interval, and even more difficult to prove their uncertainty claims to skeptical laboratory assessors. This paper can serve as a guide to metrologists and laboratory assessors who work with GPSDOs as frequency standards. It describes the relationship between GPS time and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and explains why GPS time is traceable to the SI. It discusses how a GPSDO utilizes the GPS signals to control the frequency of its local oscillator. It explains how to estimate frequency stability, and how to apply estimates of frequency stability to determine the uncertainty of a GPSDO used as the reference for a frequency calibration.


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CP_13_6C_LOMBAR
Picture of the productDeveloping an Integrated Curriculum in Metrology
Joseph P. Fuehne, Ph.D., P.E., Purdue College of Technology, Developing an Integrated Curriculum in Metrology for a Mechanical Engineering Technology Program.
The Purdue College of Technology statewide location in Columbus, Indiana has partnered with Cummins Inc. over the past several years to develop a metrology lab on the campus in Columbus. In conjunction with this effort, faculty of the Mechanical Engineering Technology program is continuing to make progress in developing an integrated curriculum to support the new lab. The curriculum is integrated since new classes and laboratory activities have been blended into the existing Bachelor of Science degree program in Mechanical Engineering Technology. Industry in the greater region surrounding Columbus is heavily weighted toward manufacturing and the metrology lab and curriculum development has received positive responses from many companies throughout the region.

An existing freshman-level class has been modified, maintaining its current core learning objectives, by emphasizing the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) aspects of the class. Companies often use GD&T in the manufacturing of products so a good understanding of topics such as circularity, parallelism, perpendicularity, cylindricity, and runout is necessary. And these characteristics of parts can only be inspected utilizing measurement techniques developed in the metrology lab and then applied to real parts.

A sophomore-level class is under development with the title of “Dimensional Metrology”. This class serves as an introduction to tools used in dimensional measurement: micrometers, vernier calipers, height gages, coordinate measurement machines, and optical methods of measurement. Other subjects introduced during the class are statistical techniques, particularly gage repeatability and reproducibility studies, calibration using gage blocks, surface measurement, measurement by comparison, and pneumatic measurement.

Two upper division classes have already been developed and offered to students in the MET program. The first was “Inspection and Validation of Product Design”, and the second was titled “Measurement Systems Analysis”. The first course extended the objectives and outcomes of the freshman-level course by completing a full study of GD&T and using the CMM to investigate parallelism, perpendicularity, and flatness. The second course focuses on evaluating a measurement system using statistical methods such as gage R&R studies. A capstone metrology reverse engineering assignment completes the class.


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CP_13_6A_FUEHNE
Picture of the productDigitally Generated AC Reference Source.
Michael Bailey BSc, Transmille Ltd
The design of an AC voltage reference source using a digital to analogue converter controlled by microcontroller to produce a calculable RMS AC voltage reference with accuracy suitable for calibrating high performance Digital multimeters.


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CP_13_4C_BAILEY
Picture of the productDirect traceability for ultra-pure water conductivity.
Hans D. Jensen and Carsten Thirstrup, Danish Fundamental Metrology
Direct traceability for ultra-pure water conductivity. DFM has established a calibration setup with direct SI traceability for conductivity sensors and measurement systems for conductivity of pure to ultra-pure water. Electrolytic conductivity is a widely used parameter for the characterization of purity of water, due to its high sensitivity to ionic content e.g. from contaminants. The Pharmacopoeias (US, EU, etc.) specify (traceable) conductivity measurements as the method for documenting compliance with requirements of Water for Injection (WFI), and other regulations on pure water quality also rely on conductivity as the quality parameter. Conductivity sensors are presently calibrated either using reference materials with conductivity many orders of magnitude different from the level of measurement, and/or in a matrix different (sometimes very different) from pure water. Some users rely on indirect properties such as the temperature coefficient of water as a quality control parameter. DFM has developed a geometrically characterised measurement cell, hence a primary standard, relevant for ultra-low conductivity. Combined with a bulk resistance derived from impedance spectroscopy, also traceable to international standards, it allows direct measurement of low conductivity (less than 20 ìS/cm). A calibration setup with comparison to the primary cell establishes direct traceability to SI, without the need for assumptions on scaling properties of conductivity cells or insignificant matrix effects. The setup has been validated through an international measurement comparison at the NMI level.


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CP_13_10C_JENSO
Picture of the productFully Automated Thermometer Calibration System at the Stand.
Julian C.P. Cheung and Aaron Y.K. Yan, Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL)
Fully Automated Thermometer Calibration System at the Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL).
Traditionally, thermometers are calibrated by comparison with reference thermometers, such as standard platinum resistance thermometers in liquid baths. The process is time consuming and costly since an operator is required to adjust the bath temperature and take the readings of the thermometers. The Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region recently developed a fully automated calibration system for thermometer calibration which does not require the attention of an operator. The system makes use of a computer to control the bath temperature and take the thermometer readings by using pattern recognition techniques. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Liquid Level Recognition (LLR) techniques are employed to take the readings of the digital and liquid-in-glass thermometers respectively. The reading process starts with taking pictures of the display of the thermometer under test by a smart video camera. The images are analyzed by Labview based programmes to find the thermometer readings. The system can be trained to recognize various display formats of the thermometers under test. The images of the display readings are retained for proof checking when a report is produced.


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CP_13_7D_CHEUNG
Picture of the productFurther Interpretation Study on the Term of “Reference”
Lung-Hen Chow, Center for Measurement Standards/ITRI
Further Interpretation Study on the Term of “Reference” in VIM 3.
This paper focuses the study on different measuring (or calibration) systems during the process of metrological traceability, due to the different characteristics between the base quantity and derived quantity of the target parameter (or measurand), leading to that representation of the "measurement standard” can not be clearly and consistently made statement. The author will refer to VIM 3 (ISO / IEC Guide 99-2007) for the term of “reference”, using several practical cases of measuring (or calibration) systems related to the measurand of both base quantity and derived quantity, to further interpret and analyze such issue of metrological traceability and calibration hierarchy in terms of measurement standard. In detail, this paper discloses a newly established process for drawing the metrological traceability diagram at National Measurement Laboratory (NML, Chinese Taipei) which includes seven steps, starting from identifying the “measurand” of the expected “measurement result”, then the “reference”, which traditionally would be “measurement standard”, the “measuring system”, the measured “quantity kinds” and “quantity values” of the system, the developed “measurement model (or equation)”, finally the “reference” of the measurement result in each calibration traceable to the “measurand” of the measurement result in the previous calibration of the higher hierarchy. Such new representation of the metrological traceability diagram combines a newly mathematical approach with the conventionally schematic approach to realize the practical interpretation of “metrological traceability” to show how the unbroken calibration chain is functioning seamless and robust on each measurement system in NML.


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Picture of the productGWP® - The Weighing Standard: Why We Should Challenge
Dr. Klaus Fritsch, Mettler-Toledo AG
GWP® - The Weighing Standard: Why We Should Challenge the Established Way We Calibrate and Test Weighing Instruments.
In the pharmaceutical laboratory, weighing is only one step of a whole analysis chain in drug discovery and quality control; however it strongly influences the overall quality and integrity of the final result. Also in production, weighing is decisive to achieve batch uniformity and consistency, e.g. in dispensing or formulation processes. For the food industry, accurate weighing processes also act as an important contribution for two of its most demanding challenges: Increasing public health and consumer safety, and increasing productivity and competitiveness. The same or similar issues are also prevalent in other industries as the chemical, fragrance or automotive industry, and also apply for testing labs and companies focusing on contract research and manufacturing. Everywhere, accurate weighing is essential to ensure continuous adherence to predefined process requirements and to avoid a frequent source of Out of Specification results (OOS).

This article introduces GWP®, the science-based global standard for efficient lifecycle management of weighing instruments. It consists of the selection of the appropriate weighing system based on the evaluation of the respective weighing process requirements, and provides scientific guidance to the user regarding calibration and testing during the instrument's lifecycle. Based primarily on the user’s weighing requirements and prevailing weighing risks, it provides a state-of-the-art strategy to reduce measurement errors and to ensure reproducibly accurate weighing results. The understanding of the particular weighing process requirements and important balance and scale properties as minimum weight is essential to select an appropriate weighing system in the framework of the design qualification.

The performance qualification takes into account these requirements and risks to establish a specific routine testing scenario for the instrument. The higher the impact in case of inaccurate weighings, and the more stringent the weighing accuracy requirements are the more frequently calibration and user tests have to be carried out. However, for less risky and stringent applications, testing efforts can be reduced accordingly. Widespread misconceptions • specifically in respect to the definition of test procedures and the selection of appropriate weights for periodic performance verification • are critically analyzed. Based on scientific principles the user is guided on how to optimize his routine testing procedures and how to avoid unnecessary or even erroneous testing. Risk and life cycle management form an integrated part of the overall strategy of GWP® to bridge the gap between regulatory compliance, process quality, productivity and cost consciousness.


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Picture of the productHow to Achieve a 0.01 V/V Deviation on Your 10 Vdc Prof.
Gary Bennett, National Instruments
How to Achieve a 0.01 ìV/V Deviation on Your 10 Vdc Proficiency Test Without Using a Josephson Array.
This paper describes the steps the National Instruments Metrology Laboratory took to establish, in a short period of time, a sub ppm uncertainty 10 Vdc reference standard. One and a half years after the purchase of the 10 Vdc Zener references, the Proficiency Test (PT) reported an error of 0.01 ìV/V. The National Instruments Metrology Laboratory bought four 10 Vdc voltage reference standards in order to establish the 10 Vdc reference for the corporation and to enable the in-house artifact calibrations on calibrators.

As a new laboratory, we could not benefit from historical data since our references were new. A primary goal of the project was to perform artifact calibrations one year after the purchase of our reference standards. Starting without historical data, the laboratory was able to achieve an error of 0.43 ìV/V on the first PT, just six months after the references were put into service. Why perform a PT after just six months using new voltage references? The drift of the reference standard is specified at 2.0 ìV/V for 12 months. The 10 V reference used for the artifact calibration must have an uncertainty of 1.5 ìV/V or less in order for the calibrator to meet its published specifications. A six month calibration interval for the 10 V reference allowed the uncertainty to be low enough to keep the calibrators within their specifications.

This paper covers the program developed by National Instruments and the lessons learned that might help a new laboratory to make their progress quicker and cheaper. The most recent PT result is included, two and a half years after the purchase of the reference standards.


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Picture of the productHow To Use Risk Evaluation To Develop A Proficiency Testing
Jia-Fen Cheng, Taiwan Accreditation Foundation
How To Use Risk Evaluation To Develop A Proficiency Testing Participation Plan.
In the past, the proficiency testing items and participation frequency were formulated by accreditation bodies, regardless of the scale, customer type, and economic conditions of a laboratory. In 2010, ILAC P9 require the applicant laboratories considering needs and risk level to make their own proficiency testing participation plan , as long as proficiency testing program feasible both logistically and economically. In response to the requirements of ILAC P9, Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) revised the accreditation criteria document-- Requirements for proficiency testing activities. Submit a PT plan prepared by the laboratory seeking for accreditation is required in this revised document. To facilitate applicants to learn how to make a plan and implement thereafter, a guideline was developed by TAF based on the concept of risk evaluation. This paper will describe how to use qualitative risk analysis methodology to analyze the risk level of the factors affecting correctness/reliability of measurement results. The determining factors include experience, competence and turnover rate of staff, traceability sources, stability of measurement technique, number of tests, and significance and final use of the testing data, as mentioned in EA-4/18.


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Picture of the productImportant Broad-Based Metrology Concepts in the Revised U.S.
James G. Salsbury, Mitutoyo America Corporation
Important Broad-Based Metrology Concepts in the Revised U.S. Micrometer Standard.
A revision to the U.S. standard on micrometers, ASME B89.1.13, was approved by the ASME B89 dimensional metrology standards committee in 2012, and final publication of the standard is expected in 2013. This standard includes many modern and novel calibration concepts that apply beyond the dimensional field, and the purpose of this paper is to communicate some of the highlights of this new standard to the larger metrology community. Some of the key issues include defining the measurand, traceability requirements, conformance decision rules, calibration versus verification, and measurement uncertainty. It is expected that some of the concepts in the revised ASME B89.1.13 will be controversial, for example the intentional lack of inclusion of the resolution of the unit under test in the estimation of measurement uncertainty. By presenting this new standard in completion, it is hoped that others will understand and appreciate the reasoning behind some of the novel and controversial concepts in this standard and therefore be able to apply some of the ideas not just to micrometers but to other fields of metrology as well.


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Picture of the productIndustrial Metrology Engineering
Flora Mercader-Trejo, Universidad Politécnica de Santa Rosa Jáuregui (UPSRJ)
Industrial Metrology Engineering: educational strategy to fulfill the needs of the industry and the society.
Nowadays, modern industry that designs and maintains controlled production processes necessarily involves measurements in their decision making. Metrology, the science of measurement, is present in every aspect of our daily life. In fact, we live with metrology and do not often easily recognize its presence and importance. While technology advances, the presence of Metrology is essential for assistance and support. Metrology would be unfeasible without the existence of qualified personnel in the field of measurements. Metrology education is a key factor for the development of science and technology in any country.

Aware of the needs on professional training in the field of metrology, the Polytechnic University at Santa Rosa Jáuregui (UTSRJ), a public university located in the state of Queretaro in Mexico, conducted a survey on the relevance of opening a new educational program. This new program will contribute to the industrial, scientific, technological and social development of the state of Queretaro targeted to impact the rest of the country as well. This study detected the need for trained professionals in the field of metrology, productivity and quality. With the support of representatives from the academic, industrial, research and service sectors, the curriculum design of the Industrial Metrology Engineering was carried out. This new undergraduate program is an innovative and cutting edge educational option designed to satisfy the industrial and social needs which were identified.


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