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Conference Proceedings 2014 (65)

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Picture of the productA Comparison of Primary Gas Flow Standards
Casey Rombouts, Flow Metrologist, Fluke Calibration
We describe an international comparison of gas flow standards spanning the range 2.1 x 10-4 g/s (10 sccm) of nitrogen to 0.21 g/s (10 slm) of nitrogen. For all the participating laboratories, |En| 0.78, where En is the difference between the participant’s result and the comparison reference value divided by the uncertainty of this difference. The k = 2 uncertainties (corresponding to 95 % confidence level) of the comparison reference values range from 0.036 % to 0.052 %. These comparison uncertainties include a contribution of 0.042 % from the uncertainty of the three laminar flow elements used as transfer standards. The participating laboratories were: Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Fluke Primary Pressure and Flow Laboratory, Phoenix Arizona USA (FCP), Èeský Metrologický Institut (CMI), and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB).


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CP_14_6B_ROMBOU
Picture of the productA Novel Calibration Method and Computer Simulation
Hsin-Hung Lee, Center for Measurement Standards
Greenhouse gas emissions have been regarded as a global challenge and several national metrology institutes have started research on this topic. Smokestacks are one of the main emission sources and its flow measurements draw much attention due to the unstable flow conditions and complex gas composition. Pitot tubes are widely used in the environmental analysis. However, the traditional pitot tube can only provide one-dimensional flow velocity and the measurement locations also need to be placed with care. Multi-hole pitot tubes have been claimed that it can be applied to three-dimensional swirl flow measurements in the smokestack and provides more accurate results. The main drawback for using multi-hole pitot tubes is the time-consuming and complex calibration procedures before implementation. The possible way to significantly reduce the time and costs is to establish an automatic calibration traversing system and programmable calibration method. Moreover, the latest research also revealed that flow separation and hysteresis occurred during multi-hole pitot tube calibration and resulted in discrepancies in the repeatability testing. Therefore, flow visualization, surface pressure analysis and calibration data modeling need to be further studied in order to establish appropriate measurement technology for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions effectively.

In this paper, ANFIS (Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System) method was first applied to multi-hole pitot tube calibration modeling owing to its capability of efficient learning, easy implementation and excellent explanation through fuzzy rules. The results showed that ANFIS method can help identify the dominant parameters and construct the network of pitot tube calibration parameters among non-dimensional pressure coefficients, flow angles and flow velocity. Additionally, a commercial CFD software, ANSYS Fluent 14, was used to simulate the flow hysteresis during pitot tube calibration. The simulation was carried out by unsteady computation and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) κ-ω: turbulence model was also adopted to study the adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. The simulation results showed that the location of recirculation area can be identified by the contour of negative X velocity and vorticity. It’s helpful for elucidating the laminar boundary layer separation and the behavior of flow transition on the pitot tube when flow hysteresis occurs.


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CP_14_2C_LEE
Picture of the productA Practical Guide to Adjusting Calibration Intervals
Kim K. Chu, KIHOMAC, INC
It is the role of management to decide what method to use for adjusting calibration intervals. There are many methods and theories to calculate calibration intervals, such as those found in NCSL RP-1, Method S1 (Classical Method), Method S2 (Binomial Method), and Method S3 (Renewal time Method). As a result, it is very difficult to pick the right method to determine the interval. What is needed is the process that can help management decide the best method.
To make the right decision, they need the right information. Why do we need to perform calibration on a regular basis? We calibrate to control uncertainty growth and reduce the risk of substandard performance of measuring and test equipment (MTE) during use. Over a period of time, the error probability starts to increase on MTE. The purpose of a calibration interval is not to prevent out-of-tolerances from occurring. It is to ensure we have an acceptable in-tolerance probability between calibrations. What is an acceptable in-tolerance probability? How do we determine in-tolerance probability targets for use in the calibration interval analysis?
The optimal calibration interval is the one that not only saves management money and promotes cost effectiveness but can also help management maintain uncertainties at an acceptable level. This paper develops a simple process for the company to select the most appropriate method to adjust the calibration intervals.


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CP_14_1C_CHU
Picture of the productA Self-Calibrated Method to Measure the Load Effect
Zhengkun Li, Jian Wu, Zhonghua Zhang, and Qing He, National Institute of Metrology, China
Since 1999, quantum Hall resistance (QHR) has been widely used as the primary standard of resistance in national metrology institutes (NMIs). The standard resistors can trace to the QHR standard by Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) bridge or Direct Current Comparator (DCC) bridge. In the calibration, the current applied to resistor should be a certain value. However, in most industrial applications, the current applied to the resistor is not the same as the one used in the calibrated procedure. Due to the temperature change from the resistor’s self-heating with current, the value of the resistor will also change, which is called load effect. Besides, the load effect is also determined by the environment temperature. Thus in many precise measurements, the load effect or power coefficient of the resistor should be considered and evaluated. So far, there is not an instrument can be used to measure the load effect of a resistor directly. Lack of a standard resistor with known load effect is also a problem. Here, a self-calibrated method is proposed to get the load coefficient of a resistor at different temperature. A series of 500 ohm resistor components with the same temperature coefficient is used to form a 100 ohm resistor and a 20 ohm resistor by series-parallel connection. A DCC bridge is used to compare two resistors at 1 volt and 0.5 volt alternately. The power change of 500 ohm component in 20 ohm resistor is 4 times of that in 100 ohm resistor. Thus the ratio change is mainly from the change of the 20 ohm resistor and the load coefficient can be got with this approach. The 100 ohm resistor is put in an oil bath with fixed temperature, and the 20 ohm resistor is put in another oil bath, which temperature is changed to get the load coefficient of the 20 ohm resistor at different temperature. Measurement results show that the load coefficient of the 20 ohm resistor is at 1E-9 level when the oil bath is set at 23.5 degree. Then it can be used as a reference to measure the load coefficient of other resistors.


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CP_14_5C_LI
Picture of the productAdvances in Instrumentation using FPGAs, Microcontrollers
Paul Packebush, National Instruments
Improved accuracy, faster sampling, higher resolution, increased bandwidth; all key words used by instrument designers to describe new products. Custom software, embedded controllers, and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are enabling instrument technologies that rarely get marketed. However, their use in embedded instruments leads to challenges in evaluating measurement accuracy and servicing products.
The evolution of instruments from vendor defined functionality through user defined functionality in software is on the verge of another revolution. Continued improvements in embedded controllers and programming environments, coupled with engineers growing up programming, is leading to a new generation of embedded instruments. User defined and customized for specific applications these real time systems are showing in applications that range from medical and commercial to military.


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CP_14_10B_PACKE
Picture of the productAn Advanced Software Designed Intelligent Electronic Device
Roberto Piacentini, National Instruments
Technology progress combined with aging infrastructure and a use case model that evolved and changed completely over the years is a common external force affecting energy companies worldwide. As a result, the idea of a “smart grid” has taken center stage • an evolution of advanced technologies that make the availability of a smarter, more efficient electrical power grid possible. Whether this is providing an abundant supply of electricity, deploying distributed intelligence at the measurement nodes or improving overall reliability, monitoring, and safety, energy companies are realizing the importance of technology to address the complex challenges facing grid systems today. As a result, a new generation of instruments, also known as Software Designed Intelligent Electronic Devices (SD-IEDs) are rapidly being deployed throughout the power system. Utilizing computer-based remote control and automation, these devices can be efficiently controlled and adjusted at the node level as changes and disturbances on the grid occur. In another example, utilities could use a generic SD-IED platform, and define the instrument functionality and algorithms executed completely in software using graphical design tools. At the heart of these advanced SD-IEDs lies the powerful technology of the FPGA, yielding additional flexibility and reliability that allows convergence of multiple functional devices into a single unit, which in turn lowers the cost of smart grid systems as a whole. Because FPGAs can be reprogrammed in the field, as requirements and standards for the smart grid mature, functional enhancements can be deployed to SD-IEDs without the need to modify the hardware layout or replace the entire device. SD-IEDs represents a fundamental shift from traditional hardware-centric instrumentation systems to software-centric systems that explore computing power, productivity, and connectivity capabilities of popular desktop computers. This paper describes how to apply the virtual instrumentation approach to create advanced SD-IEDs and illustrates it with two deployment examples: (1) smart switches for a leading energy delivery utility in the USA, and (2) advanced PMU research for distribution grids.


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CP_14_6A_PIACEN
Picture of the productAn Enterprise Resource View of Metrology Software Systems
Michael L. Schwartz, Cal Lab Solutions, Inc.
Software running on a single computer or platform is a thing of the past. Today’s metrology software needs to be scalable, flexible, and dynamic. It must be designed to integrate with enterprise business systems, taking full advantage of distributed computing and service oriented protocols. It is time to recalibrate our assumptions of efficiency, accuracy, and flexibility. We live in a connected world. While that world is slowly becoming the “The Internet of Things,” many of those things are network enabled measurement instruments.


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CP_14_6A_SCHWAR
Picture of the productAvoiding Measurement Errors from Manipulating Data
Logan Kunitz, National Instruments
In the age of digital technology, the act of calibrating a device nearly always requires the conversion of an analog signal into a digital representation that will be used and manipulated in software as a part of the calibration process. This conversion from analog to digital and the subsequent processing that occurs in the digital domain can introduce additional errors in the measurement. If the data types and methodologies are not properly controlled, the magnitude of these errors can add significant uncertainty to the calibration. The objective of this paper is to explore the various ways that software can introduce errors and uncertainty into measurements, with the purpose of raising awareness for developers about the choices that can be made when manipulating measurement data in software.

This paper will investigate several sources of software error that apply across different programming environments, including excel, text-based, and graphical programming environments. The sources of error that will be discussed will include the following:
    •Rounding errors associated with datatype conversions and data truncation.
    •Numerical errors are related to the limitations of computers in representing numeric values.
    •Computational errors that can be introduced by common math functions and methodologies.
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CP_14_5C_KUNITZ
Picture of the productBest Lessons Learned from FDA Warning Letters
Walter Nowocin, Medtronic Inc.
The current regulatory climate is intense as the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has ratcheted up their compliance oversight with more Warning Letters being sent to Healthcare companies. Warning Letters are issued only for violations of regulatory significance.

The good news is that the FDA publishes all Warning Letters on their web site as a public service. And they have a very easy search engine that allows you to find Warning Letters that contain topics particular to your industry or job.

This paper reviews calibration related FDA Warning Letters generated over the past twelve months. We will analyze the best Warning Letter examples and discuss best practices that would avoid these violations. With this knowledge, we can learn from these violations and ensure that our metrology programs do not negatively impact the cost of quality of our organizations.


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CP_14_9A_NOWOCI
Picture of the productCalibrating A UUT on a Remote Computer Using Fluke Met/Cal®
Michael L. Schwartz, Cal Lab Solutions, Inc.
This paper will show how a Fluke MET/CAL® procedure can be written integrating Metrology.NET® tools to remotely calibrate a UUT connected to a remote computer on a completely different operating system. To do so, we will first cover the basic design patterns of remote computing, show how we create the command interface for a non-message based instrument, then how to remotely communicate with the instrument.


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CP_14_3B_SCHWAR
Picture of the productCalibration and Uncertainty Evaluation of a Zeta Potential
Yu-shanYeh, Hsin-Chia Ho, Center for Measurement Standards (CMS)
Zeta potential is one of the important indicators to address the dispersion stability and toxicity of micro- and nano-materials. Due to the increasing importance in EHS (Environment, Health and Safety) related issues, there is an urgent need to build a standardized measuring system which provides reliable zeta potential values with appropriate traceability. This paper describes the detailed procedure of the calibration and uncertainty evaluation of the zeta potential measurement system in CMS/ITRI, Taiwan. Utilizing a commercial zeta potential analyzer manufactured by Malvern Instruments, the measurements are carried out with the electrophoretic light scattering technique according to “ISO 13099-2 Colloidal systems - methods for zeta potential determination, Part 2: optical methods”.


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CP_14_3B_YEH
Picture of the productCalibration of optical fiber laser sources
Samuel C.K. Ko, Aaron Y.K. Yan, and Barry K.Y. Chan, The Government of the Hong Kong
The Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) has set up facilities to provide calibration for optical fiber laser sources. The measurements of wavelength, output power level and output power stability of an optical fiber laser source fitted with FC/APC connectors are detailed. The wavelength is directly measured by the laboratory wavelength meter. The measurement uncertainty obtainable by this calibration method is better than 1 picometer (pm). The output power level is the summation of the measured power by the laboratory Electrically Calibrated Pyroelectric Radiometer (ECPR) and the insertion loss between the source and the ECPR with measurement uncertainty better than 0.5 dB. The output power stability is measured in accordance with the international standard ISO 11554. The output power stability is evaluated by measuring fluctuation of the measured emission intensity. The laboratory ECPR has 0.001mW power reading resolution which is sufficient to quantify stability as small as 0.015 dB.


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CP_14_1B_1_KO
Picture of the productCalibration of ultrasonic flaw detectors
Samuel C.K. Ko, Aaron Y.K. Yan, and H.W. Li, The Government of the Hong Kong, Standards and Calibration Laboratory
The Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) has set up facilities to provide calibration for ultrasonic flaw detectors in accordance with the international standard EN12668-1:2010. The calibration covers all the periodic and repair tests (the group 2 tests) required in the standard EN12668-1:2010 for checking the performance of the ultrasonic instruments, including its stability, transmitter pulse parameters, receiver response parameters and time-base linearity. During the calibration, the ultrasonic flaw detector’s transmitter is connected to a combination of delay generator and function generator which simulates a delayed version of the transmitted signal as the reflected signal. The simulated reflected signal is then fed to the receiver of the ultrasonic flaw detector. The stabilities over time and voltage variation of the received waves are measured. The receiver frequency response is obtained by sweeping the function generator’s frequency. Other performance parameters of the receiver such as gain accuracy and linearity are calibrated by comparing gain steps with step attenuators. Lastly a burst of pulse waves are generated by the delay/pulse generator to simulate a burst of reflected waves to check the linearity of the time base.


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CP_14_7B_KO
Picture of the productCalibration Requirements and Good Practices for Modular Inst
Dimaries Nieves and Patrick Robinson, National Instruments
A monitoring, measuring, or testing activity with test instruments is only useful and effective when the measurement results are reliable. To ensure the reliability of the measurement results from the test instruments, a calibration must be performed. Every electronic device needs a calibration schedule to verify its performance. As with traditional instrumentation, modular instruments should be verified and adjusted in a consistent manner to ensure its performance and to maintain its accuracy over time. However, unlike traditional instrumentation, modular instruments have additional requirements and considerations that need to be accounted for in order to perform a proper verification and adjustment process. As you may know, modular instrumentation consists of a combination of chassis, embedded controller and modules, and each module needs to be considered and maintained in order to obtain a consistent and reproducible process. Additionally, a software application is necessary in order to communicate with the instruments and obtain the results. The impact of these system aspects is not always considered. In this paper, calibration requirements and considerations that may influence the quality and confidence of the results for a modular instrument calibration process will be presented. Good Calibration Practices for modular instruments are defined and explained in order to considered and applied during the process. These good calibration practices also can be used by end users to ensure the quality of their measurements.


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CP_14_9A_NIEVES
Picture of the productCalibration Set-up for Reference Radiosondes Meeting GRUAN
Hannu Sairanen, Centre for Metrology and Accreditation • MIKES
Accurate and reliable weather observations are necessary for transport, industry and everyday living. Along with ground observations upper air observations provide data for forecasts and for climate change studies However, the quality of upper air measurements does not yet fulfil the requirements of climatologists but improved methods and procedures are needed.

To enhance the quality Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) has established GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) comprising about 40 stations that will provide reference observation data for the global radiosonde station network. GRUAN has specified targets and their priority for measurements of all important parameters at upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Water vapour pressure is one of the first priority parameters with the uncertainty requirement of 2 % in terms of mixing ratio at the measuring range from 0.1 to 90,000 ppm.

In order to meet the water vapour accuracy requirements set by GRUAN traceable calibrations for radiosondes are needed. Due to a short lifetime and a high calibration cost comparing to price of a sonde GRUAN aims to ensure radiosondes stability, traceability and uniformity by standards [4]. Regardless of that GRUAN requires calibration and traceability to SI for each radiosonde in order to be accepted to GRUAN.

This work presents a new apparatus for reference radiosonde calibrations meeting the GRUAN uncertainty requirements. The apparatus was designed to meet the requirements and still to be quick enough for practical calibration use. Applying a hybrid humidity generator method with two saturators, the high accuracy of a single pressure generator and the short stabilisation time of a flow mixing generator are achieved in a single apparatus. The operation range covers dew-point temperatures from 183 K to 283 K and air temperatures from 183 K to 293 K. This paper presents the design of the apparatus with a preliminary uncertainty analysis.


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CP_14_6B_SAIRAN
Picture of the productCan we calibrate a 1 mW @ 50 MHz power reference SWR
Jorge Martins and Corey Claxton, National Instruments
This paper evaluates a process to use a VNA to measure the SWR of a 50 MHz power reference output found in most power meters. Normally measuring this parameter involves the use of a thermistor mount, a power meter, and a more or less complex method that involves in a first step measure the output with the power meter set to the normal bridge setting of 200 ohm and then change it to 100 ohm. The SWR can then be determined, by calculating the mismatch of these two different load conditions. However, if you don’t have a thermistor mount or they are out for calibration is it possible to use a VNA to make the same measurement accurately? Using the VNA and setting up a sweep around the 50 MHz output signal we can measure the SWR in immediate vicinity of the 50 MHz signal. This creates a possible alternate method for measuring the SWR of the reference output using the VNA. We will compare results using the traditional method and the VNA method to find if the VNA method is an acceptable alternative solution.


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CP_14_9C_MARTIN
Picture of the productDescriptive Implementation of Prior Knowledge in Conformity
Jonathan Harben, Agilent Technologies
JCGM 106:2012 provides guidance for the implementation of prior knowledge in conformance decisions. Prior knowledge must be well defined and account for population distributions common in production testing, including commonly measured outliers. This paper demonstrates how to increase confidence by implementing the methodology of JCGM 106 via use of population statistics. This process optimization applies to any application where conformance decisions are made and there is measurement uncertainty. We report on the use of prior knowledge in real world scenarios and the impact on decision making from both a cost and implementation standpoint. A number of case studies to determine if this decision method provides robust results have been conducted. The reader of this paper will be more informed to decide if incorporating prior knowledge into conformance decisions for ISO/IEC 17025 & ANSI Z540.3 compliance can be leveraged.


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CP_14_2B_HARBEN
Picture of the productDetermination of Emissivity by Using Reflected Thermal
Frank Liebmann, Fluke Calibration
The determination of emissivity is crucial in any temperature measurement using radiation thermometry. Without this knowledge, large measurement uncertainties result. There is a lack of information on emissivity for common materials. Where there are databases, these databases often give emissivity for a specific material in a range or give emissivity for different conditionings of the material. This information may not apply to certain uses of the material. This creates quite a bit of doubt for anyone making measurements in the field. What is needed is a method to determine emissivity for a material object in the field. In 2011, Yamada and Ishii discussed a method that was set up in a fixed geometry to determine the emissivity of a specular object. In this paper, a method is discussed to determine the emissivity of both specular and diffuse objects using a thermal radiation source. The theory is presented. Then, practical measurements which were made are discussed. These measurements are compared to emissivity determined by other methods.


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CP_14_1C_LIEBMA
Picture of the productDevelopment of Greenhouse Gases Measurement Standards
Jui-Hsiang Cheng and Tsai-Yin Lin, Center for Measurement Standards, Taiwan
The control of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission is one of the most critical environmental challenges facing all countries worldwide. CO2, the most representative greenhouse gas, is the primary GHG emitted through human activities, and the regulation of its emission has been an international issue. However, certain non-CO2 GHGs possess global warming potentials (GWPs) as high as tens to even ten thousands times that of CO2. For example, fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-GHGs), including CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F8, CHF3, CH2F2, SF6, NF3 and so on, have been widely used as etching process or chamber cleaning gases in semiconductor-related industries. Due to their high GWPs, F-GHGs are the most potent and longest lasting type of anthropogenic GHGs. Therefore, it has been an international goal to reduce the emissions of F-GHGs as well as other GHGs into the atmosphere.

To evaluate the effectiveness of an F-GHG abatement system, measurement standards are needed for accurate and reliable quantification of the F-GHG emissions. CMS/ITRI is developing primary reference gas mixtures (PRMs) for high GWP GHGs, such as CF4, SF6 and NF3, to achieve the highest metrological qualities in gas concentration measurement. The production of gas mixtures follows ISO 6142: 2001, and the quality system is in compliance with ISO Guide 34: 2009. These PRMs can be used as primary standards to calibrate analyzers, and can act as the source of metrological traceability when performing instrument certification or validation. They can also be applied to check the accuracy of commercial infrared spectra installed in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers for quantification to evaluate the destruction or removal efficiency (DRE) of F-GHG abatement equipment in electronics manufacturing.


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CP_14_2B_CHENG
Picture of the productEnsuring Accurate and Safe Calibration of Electrical Safety
Michael Bailey, Transmille Ltd
Across the globe building codes are being tightened up to include adequate electrical safety with the installation of protection devices such as GFI’s as well as setting standards for loop impedance in new buildings and electrical installations.

Providing calibration of these devices presents many issues to calibration laboratories, primarily safety as these instruments are designed for use on mains power. Testing methods are also typically much different from traditional calibration of multimeters and other typical equipment, requiring measurement of low resistance (from 10mOhms to 10 Ohms) as well as accurate timing of fault currents (traditionally requiring usage of oscilloscopes). This paper describes typical Electricians test tools, and how to perform complete yet effective verification through traditional methods where modern electrical test equipment calibrators are not available.


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CP_14_8A_BAILEY
Picture of the productEstimating solar energy requirements to meet US energy needs
Daniel V. Esposito, Columbia University
This paper describes an educational outreach activity based on the following question: How large of an area must be covered with solar photovoltaic panels in order to meet U.S. energy demand? This activity is organized around a flexible structure that can be modified for the target audience (ranging from middle school students to adults) and contains ample opportunities for hands-on participation. After providing an overview of the activity and objectives, we describe the supplies needed to carry out this activity and guidelines for selecting and using them. Materials/supply costs for this activity are around $100-$250 but can be as low as $30. A detailed description of a baseline lesson plan is provided, and optional, add-on activities are described. The activity can be completed in as little as 15 minutes and extended to as long as several hours. Key learning objectives are to introduce the audience to the basic operating principles of solar cells, measure the performance of solar cells, and apply the metric system and order-of-magnitude reasoning skills to the above-stated question.


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CP_14_3A_ESPOS
Picture of the productEstimating Thermal Effects for Granite Surface Plate Cal.
Gordon A. Skattum, ASQ Fellow, CQE, CCT
ASME B89.3.7-2013, Granite Surface Plates, is a revision of the 1973 Federal Specification GGG-P-463c which has been used exclusively in American industry since its publication as the standard for calibration practices. Accredited and non-accredited calibration services cite compliance to the Federal Specification and are now becoming aware of the new ASME replacement. The calibration and acceptance of overall flatness for new certification, recertification in the field, and recertification after resurfacing is highly influenced by temperature variation and spatial thermal gradients. However, a complete understanding and application of thermal effects by users and calibration services has been hit-or-miss.

The 2013 standard, in Nonmandatory Appendix F Guidance to Estimating Uncertainty in Surface Plate Measurement, identifies the importance of temperature but provides limited guidance for estimating uncertainty in flatness due to thermal effects.

This paper will explore the sources of variation and thermal effects applied to granite surface plate calibration and impact on the quality, uncertainty, and appropriate decisions when to resurface. It will also address ASME B89.3.7-2013, Appendix F, section F-4.1 Temperature, and provide an approach for estimating uncertainty components due to these temperature related sources. The components, especially temperature stability, are always present and can significantly affect or dominate uncertainty in calibration of overall flatness. Examples will demonstrate that thermal effects should be included in any uncertainty budget for calibration of overall flatness as required by ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005(E). [2] Finally, the session will demonstrate an Excel application to assist evaluation of thermal effects on granite surface plate calibration.

An important and ongoing effort related to this paper seeks to research, identify and document current industry practices so as to provide guidelines for “best practice” calibration of granite surface plates.


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CP_14_3C_SKAT
Picture of the productEvaluation of Proficiency Testing Results
Chen-Yun Hung, Pin-Hao Wang and Gwo-Sheng Peng, Center for Measurement Standards
Proficiency testing (PT) is evaluation of participant’s performance against pre-established criteria by means of interlaboratory comparisons. In the calibration field, the normalized error (En) is the most widely used performance statistic for determining the measurement capability of a calibration laboratory. One of the variables in the En equation is Uref, which is the expanded uncertainty of the reference laboratory’s assigned value. To evaluate a participant's performance effectively, if any effects of the PT scheme are significant, the additional uncertainties should be combined with the reference laboratory’s reported expanded uncertainty to estimate Uref. Among such uncertainties, the stability of artifacts is an important uncertainty component in the PT scheme, especially for a calibration laboratory. Based on practical PT experience, most artifacts can be regarded as sufficiently stable if the difference between three reference laboratory measurements is small. In such cases, the median of the three measurements is usually chosen as the assigned value, and its reported expanded uncertainty is used as the Uref value. However, some artifacts, such as standard resistors, drift over time. There is some uncertainty about how to accurately determine the assigned values and expanded uncertainties of these artifacts. The confidentiality of the participants' information must also be considered. This paper utilizes the PT scheme for standard resistors performed by CMS/ITRI to demonstrate the evaluation of PT results with a drifting artifact. The standard resistor measurement capability of each calibration laboratory in Taiwan is also provided.


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CP_14_10A_HUNG
Picture of the productFile Abstraction Layers for Data Storage
Damien F. Gray, PhD, National Instruments
Calibration systems are intimately linked to their data storage mechanisms. The file storage must have many different capabilities, and these can vary depending upon whether the calibration is being done in a lab or in the field. Handling and/or changing the multiple ways the data can be stored or accessed can result in a lot of change in the top level calibration code. However, placing a file access abstraction layer between the calibration code and the file access code allows for upgrade and modification of the file access code without changing the calibration code. This allows such things as switching between a local and remote database depending upon whether a lab or field calibration is being performed. But it also requires more planning when implementing the file access.


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CP_14_2A_1_GRAY
Picture of the productFleet Wide Monitoring: Sensors to Prognostics
Preston T. Johnson, National Instruments
Next generation fleet wide asset monitoring solutions are incorporating machine failure prediction and prognostics technologies. These technologies build on signal processing of vibration time waveforms, process parameters, and operating conditions of the machine. For prognostics algorithms to work well, the signal processing algorithms need to be applied correctly and the results need to be reliable. This paper provides a survey of signal processing techniques as applied to specific machine component with a focus on the output and use with prognostics technologies. With properly organized outputs, prognostics algorithms transform the fleet condition and health management challenge into a deployable fleet health management solution. To arrive at the deployable fleet management solution, a systematic approach in the design of the prognostics system is preferable. This approach includes data and model driven failure patterns, sensory data connectivity from deployed assets, prognostics analytical applications, and advisory generation outputs which guide the asset owners and maintainers.


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CP_14_6C_JOHNSO
Picture of the productGPS Sensor Electronics Unit Environmental Stress Screening
Nghiem Van Nguyen, PhD., SVC- Metrology RF / Microwave, Raytheon
The Environmental Stress Screening test objective is to validate proper manufacturing and find any manufacturing defects in a flight unit before delivery by using temperature modulation and vibration simulations. The ESS test performs temperature cycling and employs random vibrations to test the reliability of the unit. Temperature regulation is also provided via the poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) coolant flowing through the unit under test (UUT), which is controlled by a cooling system.


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CP_14_2B_NGUYEN
Picture of the productHosted Laboratory Management Systems
Thomas P. Pessa, Exelon PowerLabs, LLC
For many metrology laboratories, the management system used to track and schedule the daily work is critical to the success of the laboratory. Many labs, if not most, inevitably purchase software from a commercial provider as a means to have a calibration management system in place. A primary concern with the purchase of typical software is the onerous reality that the software systems must be installed on each and every computer or at best served to every computer from a central server.


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CP_14_9A_PESSA
Picture of the productHow to Select the Appropriate Type of Control Chart
Chen-Yun Hung, Gwo-Sheng Peng and Paul Kam-Wa Lui, Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute
According to section 5.9 of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 [1], laboratories shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations undertaken. The resulting data shall be recorded in such a way that trends are detectable and, where practicable, statistical techniques shall be applied to the reviewing of the results. In order to meet the requirements given above, control charts are commonly used to monitor the stability of the measurement systems. However, based on the practical experiences in laboratories, inappropriate selection of process parameters or control charts may result in failure to detect the changes of measurement systems. For this reason, this paper focuses on how to select the appropriate types of control charts in metrology, such as for process parameters characterized by trend or lower resolution. In addition, some patterns are also provided to help the laboratory staffs detect the signals of measurement systems immediately. The accuracy of the measurement results could be ensured continuously through the correct use of the control charts.


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CP_14_9A_HUNG
Picture of the productIdeal vs. Reality: Metrology Education in the US and Abroad
Michael L. Taylor, DTE Energy/Monroe County Community College
The following paper will first describe an ideal scenario in regard to metrology education in North America, next an attempt will be made to describe actual present circumstances regarding this, mostly in North America. Information also has been gathered regarding this same situation in several other countries of our world. Some mention will also be made of facts gathered as a comparison and attempts will be made to determine differences which may exist.


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CP_14_8A_TAYLOR
Picture of the productImproved Performance, Remote Realization, and Accessibility
Jose Mauricio Lopez-Romero, Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM)
The time and frequency metrology working group of the Inter-American Metrology System (SIM) maintains a number of time measurement systems that were designed to coordinate frequency control and timekeeping throughout the Americas. These systems compare the national time standards maintained by national metrology institutes (NMIs) in the SIM region. Currently, 19 NMIs participate in the SIM Time Network (SIMTN) and contribute to and/or utilize the SIM Time Scale (SIMT). This paper presents the main features of the SIMT algorithm and provides an evaluation of its recently improved performance. The paper also describes how five SIM NMIs currently maintain rubidium clocks as national time standards that are automatically adjusted to agree with SIMT. The paper concludes by discussing how the SIM frequency and time data can be easily accessed from any Internet device, including mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones.


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CP_14_2C_LOPEZ
Picture of the productIn-situ Temperature Calibration Capability for Dimensional
P. Rachakonda, D. Sawyer, B. Muralikrishnan, C. Blackburn, C. Shakarji, G. Strouse, and S. Phillips, National Institute of Standards and Technology
The Dimensional Metrology Group (DMG) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has the capability to perform large range dimensional measurements in a facility called the Tape Tunnel. The Tape Tunnel is equipped with a 60 m long steel bench and a reference interferometer. Various artifacts and instruments, such as tape measures, optical cables, laser trackers, laser distance meters etc. are calibrated against the reference interferometer. The relative uncertainty (Uk=2) in the displacement measurement is 2.4×10-7.

A major component of this uncertainty is the uncertainty in measuring the temperature in the Tape Tunnel. There are 14 temperature probes installed along the length of the steel bench; two each at seven equidistant locations. One probe measures the air temperature and the other measures the material temperature (of the steel bench). Historically, calibrating these probes involved removing all the 14 probes and sending them to the NIST Thermodynamic Metrology Group. This process introduced a considerable amount of downtime to the DMG’s measurement capabilities. This also introduced uncertainties due to a) variation in the contact geometry of the material probe with the steel bench during reinstallation, and b) variation in the resistances of the probes’ cables due to pinching and/or elongation.

In an attempt to address these issues, a new in-situ temperature calibration system was developed. This paper discusses the system components, an in-situ calibration procedure, the uncertainty sources involved in the calibration process, presents an uncertainty budget, and examines it with a Monte Carlo simulation.

This system enables the DMG to perform quicker in-situ temperature calibration, at frequent intervals, with minimal downtime and provides better uncertainties in the dimensional measurements.


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CP_14_2C_RACHAK
Picture of the productInstrument Measurement Assurance Applications
William B. Miller, Lockheed Martin
This paper is intended to present an overall approach to measurement assurance by providing examples in measurement assurance at the instrument level. We often seem to be overwhelmed with measurement assurance and understanding of uncertainty analysis. Most who do the analysis are not PHD's in mathematics or statistics yet find themselves between their requirements and the real world applications.


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CP_14_3B_MILLER
Picture of the productIssues in the testing of Portable Coordinate Measuring Sys.
Edward Morse, Center for Precision Metrology, UNC Charlotte
Historically, coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) are delivered to a room provided by the customer, with environmental controls (primarily temperature) that meet the CMM manufacturer's requirements. More sophisticated compensation methods and the use of advanced materials have led to the ability to place CMMs on the factory floor, but there are still environmental limits which must be satisfied in order for the CMM to perform as specified. Performance testing of CMMs follows (in general) the rubric that the error observed in a length measurement of a reference artifact must not exceed the CMM specification, provided the required environmental conditions are met.

If we consider portable coordinate measuring systems (CMSs), such as articulating arm CMMs and laser trackers, the same general guidelines pertain to performance testing. There are, however, two differences in these instruments that introduce ambiguity with respect to the testing and calibration of these instruments.

The first difference is that these instruments use an operator to perform measurements, where a CMM is computer controlled and largely independent of the operator. It is possible that an inexperienced operator may have difficulty in successfully completing a performance test of the instrument. If a technician representing the instrument manufacturer can successfully complete the test, is this adequate? Or must it be possible for any properly trained operator to achieve a successful result?

The second difference in portable CMS is that . due to their portability . they are often sent to an offsite laboratory for performance testing and calibration. These offsite laboratories often have very good temperature control, performing the tests at 20 ± 2°C, while the instruments are specified to perform at (for example) -5 °C to ±40 °C. How then is the user able to be confident that the instrument will perform as designed in their own environment? What avenues are available to determine that the instrument continues to remain in conformance to the manufacturer specifications?


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CP_14_3C_MORSE
Picture of the productLab2Lab Data Exchange Using ATML
Suresh Ramachandran, National Instruments
Electronic Exchange of information between businesses (B2B) have reached levels of maturity over the years, establishing a backbone for electronic commerce built up on top of standards for data exchange such as UN/EDIFACT, ebXML and cXML etc. Standardizing electronic exchange of calibration information is becoming more and more relevant as assets are distributed across the world with limited centralization even within organizations. There are a number of vendor specific lab management tools and automated test equipment with a wide array of formats for capturing and storing calibration information. A protocol and standard that allows for electronic exchange of laboratory information will reduce the need for paper based calibration certificate and will help reduce the need for centralized asset tracking.
This paper aims to cover the need for evolving a standard for electronic information exchange of calibration data across laboratories via the Internet in a secure fashion. This document covers the requirements and some of the use cases for real-time exchange of calibration information. The paper describes some of the approaches to building these standards using existing technology and infrastructure available such as using ATML and webservices. The paper addresses some of the challenges and known issues of sending information through the Internet.


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CP_14_6A_RAMACH
Picture of the productLaboratory Activities for a Dimensional Metrology Class
Joseph P. Fuehne, Ph.D., P.E., Purdue College of Technology
The Purdue College of Technology in Columbus recently offered for the first time a class in Dimensional Metrology. Similar classes have been offered in the past but this was the first that focused on dimensional metrology. In keeping with its hands-on, project-based learning philosophy, the class mixes many laboratory activities with the lecture component of the class. The laboratory activities focus on accomplishing some engineering function that requires measurement. These activities are not just a matter of measuring a few items with the tools. There is always a clear engineering or manufacturing objective with each laboratory activity. In some cases, this may also include a reverse-engineering project that incorporates a measure-manufacture-measure iterative cycle to determine the effectiveness of the manufacturing operation. This work will discuss in detail those experiments utilized in the class. Some examples include gage R&R studies, a calibration exercise, determining constants of springs, measuring threads and measuring gears. Ultimately, the addition of realistic and engaging measurement activities to a class serves to better prepare students for careers in product design and manufacturing.


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CP_14_3A_FUEHNE