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Conference Proceedings 2004 (94)

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Picture of the product1 A and 120 mA Thin-Film Multijunction Thermal Converters
Thomas E. Lipe, Quantum Electrical Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology
We report on the development of thin-film multijunction thermal converters for the measurement of ac current. The materials and designs chosen for these devices have been optimized to provide high accuracy over a wide range of input levels and frequencies. The design details of the MJTCs will be presented, and their performance described.


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CP_04_2B_1_LIPE
Picture of the productA Bayesian Approach to Estimation of a Key Comparison Refere
Blaza Toman, Statistical Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology
In a Key Comparison experiment, one of the objectives is to calculate the Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV) and its uncertainty. There are many possible forms of the KCRV, none have so far been accepted as a standard. Recently, this topic has received much international attention. In this paper, a fully Bayesian approach , consistent with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement is adopted to arrive at these quantities. The method is illustrated on data from a key comparison of cryogenic radiometers.


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CP_04_7E_1_TOMA
Picture of the productA COM Dynamic Link Library for Metrology Calculation
Alex Lepek, Newton Metrology Ltd.
A COM Dynamic Link Library (ActivX DLL) is a software program that responds to calls from other programs written in any language (under MS windows) and provides some services. This project encapsulates the functionality of two existing software programs, namely the Evaluator and Predictor into one DLL called MetroCom. The Evaluator and Predictor are stand-alone programs, which can estimate measurement uncertainties per ISO GUM or by Monte-Carlo simulation directly from the measurement equation, can estimate present value and uncertainty of a measurement standard (based on past calibrations) and estimate recalibration intervals. Being stand-alone programs with their own file saving methods, prevented users, which already had metrology software systems, to benefit. This DLL solves this problem and enables any existing metrology program to ask the DLL to do for it the required calculations. The calling programs, must have a function call to the DLL, which is relatively a simple task and send the required data as a text table.
This paper will describe the methods and algorithms used by this DLL to achieve the required metrology tasks.


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CP_04_9B_2_LEPE
Picture of the productA Consideration of Correlations in Modeling and Uncertainty
A Consideration of Correlations in Modeling and Uncertainty Evaluation of Measurements
Klaus-Dieter Sommer, Manfred Kochsiek and Bernd Siebert, Landesamt fuer Mess- und Eichwesen Thueringen (LMET)
It is nowadays generally accepted that the evaluation of measurement uncertainty is based on both, the knowledge about the measuring process and the input quantities that contribute to the uncertainty associated with the best estimate of the measurement result. Some of these input quantities are unavoidably correlated. Depending on the measurement method employed, correlation can increase or decrease the measurement uncertainty. This paper identifies typical measurement situation in which correlation may be of importance. Furthermore, based on a modelling procedure developed in recent years, a straightforward and practical concept is presented to easily include correlations in the modelling procedure of measurements as well as to properly estimate correlation coefficients from given data and other knowledge. The effect of correlation on the overall combined uncertainty is discussed.


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CP_04_8B_1_SOMM
Picture of the productA High Accuracy Differential Piston Gauge
Ken Kolb, GE Ruska
This paper presents the development and calibration of a new differential piston gauge. Despite the fact that the pressure transmitter's output changes with line pressure, many transmitters used in industry are still calibrated only at atmospheric pressure. The main reason these devices are not calibrated at line pressures is due to the high cost and complexity of the currently available calibration standards, typically twin-post piston gauges and pressure dividers. Therefore the development of this instrument started as a response to the increased demand of the industry for an accurate and easy to use differential pressure standard. Also the use of this instrument reduces substantially the calibration time by eliminating the initial crossfloat required for a twin post piston gauge or a pressure divider.

The calibration method of the high line differential piston gauge involves a unique approach to the calibration of a triple piston-cylinder assembly. The calibration method facilitated the determination the effective area of the triple piston-cylinder assembly, which proves to be independent from the line pressure. This fact resulted in a substantially reduced uncertainty of the pressure generated by the instrument.

The line pressure range is 0 to 30 MPa with a differential pressure range of 0.1 to 700 kPa.


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CP_04_10B_2_KOL
Picture of the productA High Accuracy Lab In The Private Sector
Doug Cooper, TAC Americas
When high accuracy lab facilities are constructed, the projects are usually associated with government laboratories. The demand to measure to smaller tolerances is an every day occurrence in the private sector. Therefore, design requirements for lab facilities in the private sector have become more precise over the last several years. This paper will review a high accuracy design build project in the private sector. Design requirements will be discussed. An overview of the architectural, mechanical and control system concepts implemented on the project will be presented. The presentation will associate the same concepts as they are applied to laboratories with more standard design requirements. Due to nondisclosure agreements with the customer, the customers’ name and reason for the lab requirements and process will not be discussed.


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CP_04_2E_3_COOP
Picture of the productA New Approach of Surface Roughness Measurement using Optica
A New Approach of Surface Roughness Measurement using Optical method and Image processing
K.P. Chaudhary, R.P. Singhal & Shashi K. Singh, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi
This paper presents a new approach in surface roughness measurement through the use of optical method and image processing. It has an obvious advantage over traditional tracing type of stylus method in that no contact is required with the surface. In the study, a ccd camera was used to grab the image. This paper explores why 2D parameters continue to be used and, what is more important, it describe how 3D parameters can be measured to provide greater insight into surface finish and performance It also includes two cases in which 3D parameters have helped in the design and development of high performance surfaces. Experimental results demonstrated good correlation between the received signal parameters and the root mean square surface roughness. A range of roughness up to 10 μm. was detected, with a resolution of 0.0 μ:m.


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CP_04_7B_2_CHAU
Picture of the productA New Method for the Calibration of the mV Ranges of an AC
A New Method for the Calibration of the mV Ranges of an AC Measurement Standard
Neil Faulkner, Fluke Corporation
Presented are different methods for the calibration of an AC Measurement Standard from 20 mV to 2 mV, 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The two methods currently used for this calibration are the comparison to an AC/DC Transfer Standard and the use of the bootstrap method given in the manufacturer’s service manual. A new method has been developed using the AC/DC Transfer Standard with a resistive voltage divider in a way that gives better Test Uncertainty Ratios (TURs) then the current methods. This paper describes these methods, sources of error and ways of reducing these errors. Also shown are test results comparing the methods.


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CP_04_2B_2_FAUL
Picture of the productA New Path for Metrology Education…
Herbert O’Neil, Ridgewater College
This paper is a combined view of one family’s insight’s concerning Metrology Education over the generations; the view is from an instructor with over thirty five year’s exposure to metrology from entry level “Pmel Tech.” to supervisor of Depot level Metrology, as well as, “guest lecturer” at Boeing. The second view is from a Sister technology in the technical field…This paper will list some reasons why we should choose this “Path” of study as well as the way to seek the funding …the paper addresses the lack of upcoming metrology tech’s who will fill in for the current crop of retiring metrology folks…

When I entered this current phase of preparing students to enter metrology as a field of study it was at the request of my Dean & the efforts of NCSL (now NCSLI) in 1983 to increase the number of people for industrial applications in the Midwest area. Two year colleges were nonexistent in the five State Area which trained people in metrology. The need for replacements was perceived and enunciated in a 1986 paper delivered at NCSL in Gaithersburg MD.


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CP_04_RES_ONEIL
Picture of the productA Weight Exchange System for an Absolute Pressure Balance
H. Kajastie, Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES)
For easier and faster barometer calibrations MIKES has developed a system for changing a load of a pressure balance while the reference vacuum is maintained. The pressure balance used for MIKES barometer calibrations is a DH Instruments PG7601 for the range 5 kPa • 350 kPa. The new weight exchanger system has been tested in routine calibrations. The construction of the new weight exchanger system for the pressure balance is described and the measurement results are shown.


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CP_04_10B_1_KAJ
Picture of the productAdvances in Transfer Coupler Reciprocity
Joseph F. Zalesak, Naval Undersea Warfare Center
The transfer coupler reciprocity technique is an improvement over the conventional coupler reciprocity in that it can provide absolute calibrations for hydrophones that are not specifically designed for use in a coupler and it can do so with high accuracy. The method uses two couplers to perform a calibration. The first coupler or reference coupler uses two similarly constructed reciprocal transducers. The acoustic compliance of this coupler is precisely known so that the reciprocity parameter is well known. The transfer impedances of the two transducers in this coupler are measured. This is the only measurement in which these transducers are electrically driven. This is desirable because transducers are more stable when used as hydrophones than as transmitters. The second coupler or transfer coupler uses the same two transducers as the first coupler as well as the hydrophone under test and a sound source. The two transducers from the first coupler as well as the hydrophone under test are symmetrically positioned in a circular arrangement with the sound source at the center of the arrangement. This arrangement provides the most uniform ensonification of the two transducers from the first coupler as well as the hydrophone under test. Using this technique an uncertainty approaching 0.1 dB with a coverage factor of 2 can be achieved.


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CP_04_7C_2_ZALE
Picture of the productApplication of Simulation Software To CM Measurement Uncert.
Application of Simulation Software To Coordinate Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation
Jon M. Baldwin, Kim D. Summerhays, Daniel A. Campbell and Richard P. Henke, MetroSage LLC
Uncertainty calculations for coordinate measuring machine (CMM) metrology are particularly problematic, due to the number, ranges, interactions and generally unknown sensitivity coefficients of the parameters that can influence the measurement uncertainty. The situation is particularly difficult when a task-specific uncertainty (i.e. one applicable to a specific GD&T parameter of a designated part feature, under particular conditions of manufacture and measurement) is required. This paper will describe a software system for estimating uncertainties of measurements made with CMMs. Several examples of its application will be presented and we will show that, in the arena of task-specific CMM uncertainty estimation, simulation methods exhibit notable strength and versatility.


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CP_04_4E_1_BALD
Picture of the productAutomatic calculation of measurement uncertainty
Dr. Blair Hall, Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand
The ´Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement’ (GUM) describes a mathematical procedure for estimating the combined uncertainty in a measured value due to various uncertain influence quantities. This paper describes a general-purpose software tool that can fully automate GUM-compliant uncertainty calculations. It uses a new data-type, called an uncertain number, which encapsulates value and uncertainty information. Mathematical expressions using uncertain numbers produce results complete with full uncertainty information.


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CP_04_9B_1_HALL
Picture of the productBasic Concepts of Global R&D for Global Nanotechnology Stan.
The Basic Concepts of Global R&D for Global Nanotechnology Standards
Andy Henson, National Physical laboratory
Scientific progress has driven nanotechnology to the top of the technological agenda. The momentum, and the accompanying expectations, is constantly increasing within industry, and predictions of the wealth-creating potential of a yet-to-be-created industry sector run into astronomical numbers. Interest is not limited to the economic potential. Nanotechnology has recently caught the imagination • and raised concerns • amongst the public at large. Whilst no one can be sure quite how the nanotechnology future really will unfold, we can be certain that industrial scale production, and possibly regulation, of products and devices will require sound standards. In the early days of the evolution of nanotechnology, measurement standards and common characterisation protocols are probably the highest priority. As products come into being, specification standards will be vital to their exploitation potential. With nanotechnology standards, we start with a clean sheet and have a unique opportunity to develop standards and tests that are accepted across the globe. The full potential of the nanotechnology sector is inexorably linked to a new paradigm; that is, science based global standards, built on truly international collaborative pre-normative research and development.


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CP_04_6_3_HENSO
Picture of the productBeyond Error Bars
Alan Steele, National Research Council of Canada
The traditional treatment of error bars is re-examined, using experience gained from formal inter-laboratory comparisons among the measurement standards of different nations. The probabilistic basis for error bars is discussed for treating measurement uncertainty from the laboratory scientist’s perspective: dealing with repeated measurements, histograms, distributions, standard deviations, coverage intervals and comparisons. Attention is paid to the notion of degrees of freedom in measurement, and linked to the Student distribution, which is sometimes used to calculate the error bars appropriate for the expanded uncertainty. Error bars appropriate for a reference value that summarizes a set of peer results are examined and illustrated with recent examples from international Key Comparisons. Monte Carlo methods are presented as a fast and convenient tool to create the distributions for any algorithm-based candidate reference value, and as a means to perform rigorous tests on pairwise measurement differences similar to traditional chi-squared null hypothesis testing. Application of these pair-difference chi-squared tests at every stage in comparison analysis can provide assurance that data pooling is appropriate, as well as giving physical insight into some of the occasions when it is inappropriate to statistically average measurement results.


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CP_04_10D_2_STE
Picture of the productBIPM - The 21st century role of a 130 year old organisation
Andrew Wallard, Director, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil
The 2003 General Conference on Weights and Measures approved BIPM's four-year workprogramme, agreed on several Resolutions addressed to national and international bodies. It gave BIPM new objectives and priorities as well as a modest increase in budget. The combination is rare in today's tough world of funding for international organisations

. As the new Director, it is my job to deliver this new programme and to adapt the work of BIPM to meet the needs of Member States. This contribution to NCSLI 2004 will set out the current issues and describe how a relatively small organisation can set priorities and tackle a wide range of global issues. Inevitably this involves close collaboration with accreditors and standards-making bodies as well as our traditional co-operation with colleagues in National Metrology Institutes and a range of related organisations with national responsibilities for various aspects of metrology.

I shall summarise our priorities and bring the Conference up to date on progress in a number of areas of current interest.


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CP_04_3_1_WALLA
Picture of the productCalibrating Precision Multimeters Using a Characterized Mult
Calibrating Precision Multimeters Using a Characterized Multifunction Calibrator
Gary Bennett, Fluke Corporation
Can a multifunction calibrator really verify a long scale digital multimeter that is more accurate than the calibrator? This paper describes methods to characterize a multifunction calibrator to better than manufacturer’s 24 hour specification at all points that are used to verify 8.5 digit multimeters. Using automated processes, data collection and statistical methods, it was found that a calibrator can be characterized at all required values to uncertainties capable of verifying long scale DMMs. Sources of error that had to be overcome include thermal EMF, loading errors from the devices used to measure the calibrator output and loading errors from DMMs when measuring the characterized output. Data from repeated measurements of the calibrator shows 10 V will drift less than 0.3 μV/V for 30 days. For resistance, 10 kΩ can be shown to stay within 0.25 μΩ/Ω for the same period. As the uncertainty of the calibrator was reduced, standards and techniques used to verify the multifunction calibrator had to be re-evaluated to decrease their uncertainty also.


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CP_04_1B_3_BENN
Picture of the productCalibration of Electromagnetic Field Probes and Power Den.
Calibration of Electromagnetic Field Probes and Power Density Meters in an ISO/IEC 17025 Accredited Laboratory
Dr. Li Pi Su, US Army Primary Standards Laboratory, AMSAM-TMD-SM
The US Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL) is committed to providing services to its customers which are accurate, traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), delivered on-time, and continuously improving. Since 1998 the APSL has been accredited in most of the major measurement parameters to the ISO/IEC 17025 quality standard by the American Accreditation of Laboratory Association. The APSL quality management system is also registered by NSF-ISR to ISO 9001:2000. This paper will discuss the processes involved with providing accredited calibrations of RF and microwave hazard probes and meters in the laboratory. The following technical areas will be discussed: analysis of measurement uncertainty, measurement assurance, proficiency testing, measurement uncertainty control and management, and statistical process control.


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CP_04_8A_3_SU
Picture of the productCalibration of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers
Calibration of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers by Comparison
D.J. Gee, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada
In order to take full advantage of the precision and stability of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (SPRTs), these devices are usually calibrated in the ITS-90 fixed points. This calibration process can be both time consuming and costly, and many labs can take advantage of the superior stability of a 25 Ω SPRT over a 100 Ω PRT by using a lower cost, larger uncertainty 'calibration by comparison' in fluid baths.


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CP_04_4B_1_GEE
Picture of the productCalibration System Compliance in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Kevin J. Daubert, Schering-Plough
The calibration of instrumentation, devices and equipment, along with many other functions performed during the manufacture of finished pharmaceutical products, are mandated within the FDA’s Code of Federal Regulations Part 211 (Current Good Manufacturing Practice For Finished Pharmaceuticals).

Based on our interpretation of the FDA’s compliance imperatives and GAMP Good Practice Guide for Calibration Management (through ISPE, International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering), pharmaceutical manufacturers have developed a robust calibration system, including, but not limited to: identification and classification of instrumentation/devices, master instrument list, standard operating procedures that define the calibration process, setting tolerances, responses for events, calibration technician qualification, effective use of standards, instrument change control, effective documentation, recordkeeping and calibration management systems.


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CP_04_9C_3_DAUB
Picture of the productCMS Response to SARS on Ear Thermometer Standards
Tzeng-Yow Lin and John Lin, National Measurement Laboratory
Ear thermometers have been widely used on public screening for SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) since its last transmission period in Asia Pacific area, such as mainland China, Singapore and Taiwan. As a variety of users, including hospital practitioners, complain the inconsistency between ear thermometers, CMS-NML (national metrology institute in Taiwan) reinforces a task force to response this issue immediately. We built up ear thermometer standards, and borrowed an ear thermometer blackbody from NMIJ Japan to ensure our uncertainty evaluation. At the same time, a calibrator is developed to disseminate measurement standard more quickly and widely. This paper described the measurement standard, calibrator development and the traceability network on ear thermometers in Taiwan.


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CP_04_2D_3_LIN
Picture of the productCombining Information from Interlaboratory Evaluations
Combining Information from Interlaboratory Evaluations using Random Effects Model
Raghu N Kacker, National Institute of Standards and Technology
This paper compares leading methods for combining information from interlaboratory evaluations of a common measurand through a random effects model of classical statistics. The leading methods are that of Cochran, Paule and Mandel, and DerSimonian and Laird. We show that all three methods are special cases of a unifying identity. The unifying identity suggests a new two-step method. This makes four methods for comparison. The comparison is based on six published data sets from three key comparisons. The method of Paule and Mandel is optimal in the sense of being conditionally restricted maximum likelihood under normality; the condition being that the estimated intralaboratory variances be treated as the true variances. The method of Paule and Mandel requires a simple iteration that can be easily done on a spreadsheet program. Therefore, it is the preferred method for combining results of interlaboratory evaluations through a random effects model. We compare the other three methods relative to the method of Paule and Mandel. The two-step method approximates the optimal method of Paule and Mandel better than the earlier methods of Cochran and DerSimonian and Laird.


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CP_04_5C_2_KACK
Picture of the productCommitment to Material Metrology at NMI
Commitment to Material Metrology at NMI, and international activity based on CIPM
Masahiro OKAJI, National Metrology Institute of JAPAN (NMIJ)
The paper will propose how to better organize the material metrology at an NMI based on the international measurement framework. Various activities for material metrology, material evaluation, evaluation of measurement methods, or standardization of material measurement are taking place at the global or regional level. Taking examples that NMIs are involved, there have been activities under CIPM CCs, such as CCQM, CCM, CCT and CCL, or an ad-hoc Working Group on materials in the APMP. These activities, however, are not systematically organized, and they are taking place in each field depending on its own thinking in inconsistent directions. From the view point of NMI, the basic idea of how to connect these activities with SI traceability is quite important. On the basis of this principle, the author would like to propose how to re-organize these activities in a systematic framework in order to chart the future of the material metrology.


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CP_04_1D_2_OKAJ
Picture of the productConformity assessment and metrology: where to go in future?
Dr. Pavel Klenovsky, Czech Metrology Institute
A couple of years ago ISO CASCO launched a major project of transforming all the existing ISO Guides on conformity assessment to a comprehensive series of ISO standards 17000 being now in various stages of development. As the concept of traceability underpinning all measurements has been a basic mission of metrology a number of these standards have a direct bearing on metrology. The series is logically based on a definition standard, ISO 17000, giving, among others, a guidance which activities fall under conformity assessment. The fact that calibration does not might have important consequences which must yet be assessed. A controversial discussion on some issues has been in progress concerning ISO 17011 on accreditation bodies which touches both on national metrology institutes (NMIs) with an accreditation function and on calibration labs at large. ISO 17040 on peer review could be used with an advantage to support mutual recognition arrangements among a limited number of bodies of a specialized expertise (e.g. CIPM MRA among NMIs under the Metre Convention). ISO 17025 has been the most important standard for the metrology community and it is now undergoing a major overhaul taking on board the uncovered requirements from ISO 9001:2000. These changes might have a great impact on quality systems in laboratories. ISO 9001:2000 can be easily cross-referenced with ISO 17025 but accreditors, in pursuance of their business interests, would prevent it from happening. The author is a member of the corresponding ISO CASCO WG 25 responsible for this revision. We are now confronted with a proliferation of ISO 9000:2000-based standards (clones), some of them requiring accreditation as the only way to demonstrate technical competence (e.g. ISO TS 16949). The paper will discuss alternative ways to achieve that. In general, the paper will give an up-todate information on the developments outlined above and discuss the consequences and further steps from the viewpoint of metrology.


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CP_04_7A_1_KLEN
Picture of the productConstruction of quality system ISO/IEC 17025 at NMIJ
Ichiro Fujima, National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST
National Metrology Institute of Japan in National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, NMIJ/AIST, has been advancing establishment of metrology standards based on the NMIJ master plan, which aims at 250 physical standards and 250 chemical standards by the year 2010. For the CMC registration as well as reliability of these physical standards, it is indispensable to construct the quality system based on ISO/IEC 17025. NMIJ/AIST has been positively working on construction of the quality system since 1999. 53 sets of technical manuals were issued in relation to 97 items of physical standards as of April 20, 2004, and the third-party assessments for accreditation of ISO/IEC17025 were performed by IA Japan about 95 items of physical standards. In this paper, NMIJ's quality system is introduced with a focus on management system documents and technical manuals. The templates for technical manuals are also introduced, which help researchers in NMIJ to write technical manuals.


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CP_04_5D_3_FUJI
Picture of the productCovariance and Correlation Demystified, Part 2
Ricardo A. Nicholas, The Boeing Company
Covariance and correlation can be somewhat of a mystery to evaluators of measurement uncertainty. Covariance, in particular, appears to be the most enigmatic, and therefore the least likely to be used. That need not be the case for those willing to learn or recall a few simple statistical theorems and study a small number of examples. A minimal mastery of them is a prerequisite to achieving a well-rounded competency in measurement uncertainty evaluation. This paper is a continuation and expansion of Covariance and Correlation Demystified, Part 1. Additional complexities and subtleties are now explored. Included is a review of these and related terms as used in The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). In addition to a review of the relevant GUM examples, new examples are presented and analyzed. Although a working knowledge of partial differentiation is required to follow some mathematical sections, other sections contain much information that are intended to provide helpful insights into the theory and application of covariance, correlation and related terms. Those insights should better enable the evaluator to develop metrologically and statistically sound measurement uncertainty evaluations. Better measurements to our customers will be the result.


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CP_04_8B_2_NICH
Picture of the productCurrent Feed Point and Torque Sensitivity of High Current dc
Dennis E. Destefan, High Current Technologies, Inc.
Accurate and traceable direct current measurements are often based on stable and repeatable high current 4-terminal resistors • current shunts. Great care is given to the selection of materials so that the 4-terminal resistance is stable with temperature. However, in many cases, the errors that result from self-heating effects are of minor significance compared to other effects. Effects such as the choice of current terminals and torque can be very significant to the use and calibration of shunts. These effects must be considered whether the shunts are common dc meter shunts or precision laboratory standard shunts. In many cases these errors may limit the uncertainty that can be assigned to a given shunt or family of shunts. In some cases, these errors are many times larger than the stated uncertainties for the shunts.


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CP_04_10A_2_DES
Picture of the productDetermination of Frequency Coefficients for Thermal Voltage
Determination of Frequency Coefficients for Thermal Voltage Converters and Digital Voltmeters by Comparison to Inductive Voltage Dividers
Joseph R. Kinard, Quantum Electrical Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology
The Ac-dc Transfer Project at NIST is expanding the use of inductive voltage dividers (IVDs) for the calibration of high-voltage ranges of thermal voltage converters (TVCs) and digital voltmeters (DVMs). We report a system to facilitate the comparison of the frequency coefficients between two ranges of TVCs or DVMs to the frequency coefficient of an IVD ratio.


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CP_04_1B_1_KINA
Picture of the productDevelopment, Design, and Calibration Methods for an Improved
Development, Design, and Calibration Methods for an Improved Hot Cathode Ionization Gauge for Vacuum Measurements
Paul C. Arnold, Helix Technology Corporation
An improved-design Bayard-Alpert hot cathode ionization gauge, now in general use for about nine years, is reviewed. The philosophy of its design to control electron trajectories, location of ion generation, efficiency of ion collection, and maintenance of these characteristics is described. For this technology, named the Stabil-Ion®, the development path consisted of calibration methods to analyze the performance of prior-technology gauges, computer simulations to understand those performance characteristics, the definition and execution of a new design to solve selected problems, and improvements for replication in commercial fabrication. Tests were performed to verify that the new design improved reproducibility gauge-to-gauge and repeatability time-to-time. A system for multi-gauge calibration to measure gauge sensitivity for quality control and also to provide gauge sensitivity software data for installation in the companion ionization gauge controller is described, as well as a system for maintaining the reference standards. These two systems continue in use today. Analyzing commercial use of these gauges has provided insights relevant to long-term operational characteristics which are related to gauge electrode function changes, resulting from the interactions of these electrodes with the environments of certain applications. Many of these concepts are generally applicable to most hot cathode ionization gauges and will be discussed.


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CP_04_8E_2_ARNO
Picture of the productEffects of Different Surroundings on the Stability of Stand
Effects of Different Surroundings on the Stability of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers from 650°C through 1000°C
Xumo Li, Hart Scientific, Inc.
It was reported that standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) are contaminated when their sensors are close to base metals or alloys above 980°C. The Ni, Cr, and Fe ions seem to be able to permeate fused silica sheaths at high temperatures. In order to know if similar contamination occurs below 980°C, many SPRTs with different nominal resistances at 0.01°C (25.5, 2.5, and 0.25 ohms) were annealed in blocks of different materials (graphite, alumina, Inconel, and aluminum-bronze) from 500°C to 1000°C for more than 1000 hours. Our results showed no contamination at 660°C for any of the block materials investigated. There was no contamination discovered in the graphite and alumina blocks up to 1100°C. However, contamination began near 800°C in an Inconel block. The drift rates of Rtp of three SPRTs in an Inconel block were measured from 750°C to 1000°C.


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CP_04_5E_1_LI
Picture of the productEliminating Thermocouple Inverse Errors Due to Approximating
Gregory E. Cenker, Southern California Edison
NIST Monograph 175 Temperature-Electromotive Force Reference Functions and Tables for the Letter-Designated Thermocouple Types Based on the ITS-90, provides reference functions for thermocouples, primarily with temperature as the independent variable. Approximate inverse functions that give temperature as a function of thermoelectric voltage are also presented. However, use of the inverse functions produces values of temperature that disagree with values given by the main reference functions by as much as 0.05 °C. This source of error may be disconcerting to those wishing to evaluate the effect of errors in voltage measurement on temperature. Although various mathematical procedures are available for eliminating this problem, unless published by NIST or similar authoritative source, which one would be universally accepted or understood by auditors? This paper provides a solution based on the NIST approximating functions and the Newton-Raphson iteration procedure that is straightforward and which reduces errors in the transfer function to the pK level.


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CP_04_5E_3_CENK
Picture of the productEnhancing Secondary Force Transfer Standard Performance
Michael Tovey, Tovey Engineering, Inc.
Primary standard force calibrations are performed by dead weights in the earth’s gravity field. Because of the expense of dead weight test facilities, particularly for high capacity requirements, many force calibrations are performed using secondary standards such as strain gage based force transducers (load cells) and proving rings, which are in turn calibrated by primary standards. The performance of strain gage based force transducers as secondary transfer standards has continued to improve. A summary measurement uncertainty analysis for a secondary standard force calibration is presented in order to identify the more significant factors contributing to measurement uncertainties. These factors are discussed with a view of achieving lower uncertainties in the future.


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CP_04_5B_3_TOVE
Picture of the productEquipment management: Different facets and approaches
Michael Sawatzki, Terrill Tanaka, Agilent Technologies, Global Solutions Business Unit
How to define the most appropriate methods and tools for equipment management (EM) if there are so many different ways of organizing and implementing EM? Why are lab management tools and financial asset management systems not meeting all the requirements of EM? Agilent Technologies, Global Solutions Business Unit has developed and implemented a suite of EM solutions in close partnership with customers.

This paper describes examples of implementations according to different customer profiles and requirements. We will present an analysis of how customers organize their EM environments. A roadmap of EM solutions will be presented, which is a result of stepwise development and evolution. Over the past five years, the software tools have grown from a single user tool to a family of tools with a workflow orientated .net® system at the top end. We will present detailed insight into the EM methods and tools offered as standard products today. Finally you will be introduced to advanced concepts of equipment lifecycle management, comprising the state of the art.


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CP_04_4A_3_SAWA
Picture of the productEstimating Stray Radiation of Spectrophotometer
Estimating Stray Radiation of Spectrophotometer in the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectral Ranges
Luciana de Castro Alves, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial
In general terms, stray light is radiant energy that has departed from its regular path in a spectrophotometer and then reenters the path so that it is sensed by the detector and causes false readings of transmittance and absorbance. This paper describes the estimate of the heterochromatic and isochromatic stray radiations in the Inmetro high resolution spectrophotometer, in order to determine the contributions of this parameter in the photometric scale.


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CP_04_2C_3_ALVE
Picture of the productExperience Gained from Offering Accredited 3rd Party Prof.
Experience Gained from Offering Accredited 3rd Party Proficiency Testing
Dr. Henrik S. Nielsen, HN Metrology Consulting, Inc.
HN Proficiency Testing has been offering third-party proficiency testing for about three years and has been accredited for the last two years. This paper discusses some of the experience gained and the lessons learned in the process. Accreditation bodies generally require accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency testing. Since most laboratories see this as nothing but an inconvenience and an added expense of maintaining accreditation, very few non-accredited laboratories participate. Consequently, the opportunity to analyze third-party proficiency test results provides a unique insight particularly into the state of the accredited laboratories that constitute the backbone of the US metrology infrastructure. As it turns out, technical insight into the measurement processes analyzed is at least as important for the proficiency testing provider as is a thorough understanding of the statistics behind the common proficiency testing metrics. The paper discusses some of the general trends that can be identified from this vantage point as well as some specific examples of where proficiency testing turned out to be more than just an expensive inconvenience for the participating laboratory. In accordance with the rules for accredited proficiency testing providers, the anonymity of all participating laboratories, innocent or otherwise, will be protected throughout the paper.


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CP_04_9A_1_NIEL
Picture of the productFrom Key Comparisons to the Shop Floor
From Key Comparisons to the Shop Floor • Missing Links in Interlaboratory Comparisons
Sharrill Dittmann, The Pi Group, Inc.
The ILC process is traditionally thought to be expensive in time and money. However, to characterize the measurement infrastructure from top (SI Units) to bottom (the “shop floor”) and from one geographical region to another, linking ILCs provides the evidence that measurements are as accurate as needed in less time with more confidence that end-point measurement results are traceable. Additionally, using more robust artifacts in ILCs will save expenses, as well as will using measurement values for artifacts based on the results of the ILC rather than on external calibration values. This paper discusses various models for generating the links between different levels of ILCs and using inexpensive methods to cut the time and financial costs of ILCs.


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CP_04_5C_3_DITT
Picture of the productGuardbanding Using Automated Calibration Software
Matt Nicholas, Fluke Corporation
The ISO 17025 standard (“General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories”) requires that measurement uncertainty be taken into account when statements of compliance are made. In other words, when a calibration laboratory calibrates an instrument and produces a calibration certificate indicating that the calibration verification procedure “passed” or “failed”, it is important that, for each test point, the measurement uncertainty be first calculated and then used in the determination of the test result. Guardbanding is a primary technique for assuring compliance with this 17025 requirement. Considerations of efficiency and productivity in calibration laboratories require full automation whenever possible. It is therefore desirable for automated calibration software to include guardbanding capability. This paper describes a flexible, configurable implementation of guardbanding in an automated calibration software system. A number of techniques are discussed, including both table-based and formula-based methods. Facilities for customization of the guardbanding algorithm are presented. A description of generated result data is included.


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CP_04_9B_3_NICH
Picture of the productHigh Vacuum Gauge Calibration A Practical Approach
High Vacuum Gauge Calibration A Practical Approach to Meet Industry Needs
Paul Chamberlain, Ronald Brown, LACO Technologies, Inc.
The proper calibration of high vacuum gauges (pressures less than 0.1 Pa) presents significant challenges. Extreme care must be taken in the operation of high vacuum gauge calibration systems resulting in a time consuming and often finicky calibration process. Commercial calibration labs are faced with many practical issues not experienced by government or primary standards labs. In a competitive world, a commercial calibration lab must provide cost effect and quick turnaround services while striving to provide the highest quality service. The lab must also be equipped and capable of handling a wide variety of customer gauge types. Often these gauges are not ideally configured for calibration or have been subject to less than ideal operating conditions.

This paper discusses the critical elements of a successful commercial high vacuum gauge calibration lab. We also review the practical challenges encountered and offer solutions to many of them. Particularly, we discuss the challenges associated with using the traditional spinning rotor gauge (SRG) as the vacuum transfer standard, and the tradeoffs using the Bayard-Alpert (BA) gauge as a transfer standard. We present this analysis in terms of cost and complexity of the calibration procedure, achievable calibration uncertainties, and long-term stability of the transfer standard. These are presented not only in terms of benefits to the calibration lab, but also in terms of the customer’s needs.


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CP_04_10B_3_CHA
Picture of the productHow APMP materializes the credibility of CIPM-MRA
Hidetaka IMAI and Takashi USUDA, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)
It has been a significant year for the RMOs (Regional Metrology Organizations) while the transition period of the CIPM-MRA has finished at the end of 2003. In order to materialize the credibility of CMCs (Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) under the umbrella of the CIPM-MRA of the Metre Convention, we have established 11 TCs (Technical Committees) in APMP (Asia Pacific Metrology Programme). Under the TC activities, the guidelines and procedures for accepting CMCs and QS (Quality System) have been drawn up by taking closer cooperation with the JCRB(Joint Committee of the RMOs and the BIPM). Therefore, the concept of the procedures and guidelines are effectively introduced in the course of intra-regional and inter-regional reviews for submitted CMCs within APMP and from other RMOs, respectively. Those documents are comprehensive to other RMOs and also applicable to developing NMIs. In this paper, the following topics are reported and discussed: Review process of CMCs of APMP NMIs, Review process of Quality Systems of APMP NMIs in support of the CMCs, Guidelines and procedures drawn up by APMP, Input to the JCRB QS Review Monitoring Process, Status of Quality Systems in APMP NMIs, The role of APMP TC Chairs Meeting, APMP-SIM Workshop on Addressing the Implementation of Quality Systems at NMIs.


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CP_04_4D_3_IMAI
Picture of the productHow DCMA Helps To Ensure Good Measurements
Robert Field, Defense Contract Management Agency
The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) is responsible for helping to ensure that the products and services provided by industry on U.S. Department of Defense and NASA contracts comply with business and technical requirements. Where contract requirements include standards such as ANSI/NCSL Z540.1, ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO 9001, DCMA performs technical surveillance of contractor and subcontractor operations. Compliance to contract requirements is important to our customers. This paper discusses the DCMA business, technical and customer focused policies, and standard practices that contribute to measurement integrity. It describes how DCMA uses risk-based surveillance techniques including process audit, system evaluation and analysis of second and third party data to perform its mission. Finally, issues of compliance to standards are presented.


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CP_04_8C_3_FIEL
Picture of the productHow Much Does It Cost To Play With Calibration Cycle Ext.?
How Much Does It Cost To Play With Calibration Cycle Extension?
Jean-Claude Krynicki, European Quality and Metrology Program Manager, Agilent Technologies Service and Support Unit
The starting point for a calibration cycle extension study is very often a financial motivation and the gains on the maintenance of reference equipment are quite immediately visible and easy to calculate. It is usually mentioned in the abundant literature concerning this topic that calibration cycle management is a trade off between maintenance cost and other factors less tangible like product quality, measurement integrity, company image, customer satisfaction and recall costs. The objective of this paper is to present a financial simulation to really quantify this trade off using the concept of Cost to Obtain Quality (COQ) and based on the experience of a large-scale asset optimisation project. Several solutions recently deployed in the industry to quantify this trade off will be also presented.


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CP_04_1A_1_Kryn
Picture of the productImplementation of a methodology for quantifying the economic
Implementation of a methodology for quantifying the economic effect of measurement errors
Luis A. Rodríguez, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana • Cali
In 1999, Mader et Al. [9] proposed a statistical model to evaluate the economic impact of measurement errors. We implemented this model with some local companies and calculated the costs involved in the measurement of errors for some of their critical variables. Additionally, we developed a friendly computer application to obtain the costs proposed by the model.

In this paper we show the results of our implementation of Mader. model. Additionally, we proposed an extension of this model to include systematic errors, which are a common factor in our local industry, due to the lack of calibration of the equipment.


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CP_04_1A_3_RODR
Picture of the productImproving Temperature Measurement Processes Through Prof.
Improving Temperature Measurement Processes Through Proficiency Testing
Jeff C. Gust, Quametec Proficiency Testing Services
Proficiency Testing (PT) is an excellent way to assure the quality of tests and calibration results produced by a calibration laboratory. A properly constructed proficiency test is an independent and objective assessment of the participant’s measurements and reporting of results. This presentation discusses the development of a temperature proficiency test that has been accredited by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA). The PT is intended to validate measurement uncertainties of participating laboratories in the range of 10 to 100 mK, in which a secondary reference Platinum Resistance Thermometer (100 ohm) is used as an artifact. The PT design, development, execution, quality assurance, analysis and report of results will be discussed. Anonymous data will be presented for the laboratory results of the proficiency test, and there will be a discussion of common mistakes that laboratories have made that cause unacceptable test results. Typical measurement uncertainty budgets for laboratories performing temperature calibrations will also be covered.


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CP_04_9A_2_GUST
Picture of the productImproving worldwide traceability and acceptance of meas.
Improving worldwide traceability and acceptance of measurements carried out within the CIPM MRA and the ILAC Arrangement
Rainer Kohler, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
During the last Conference, a report was made on plans for closer links between the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) established by the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) and the Arrangement made by the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC). Since then, the two organizations have met and drawn up a work plan which identifies points of common concern. This presentation will update the Conference on the actions to be taken by the two organizations. It will also bring the Conference up-to-date on the current status of the CIPM-MRA, including progress on installing quality systems in the MRA signatories.


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CP_04_5D_2_KOHL
Picture of the productInstrumentation and Procedures for AC Quantum Hall Effect
Instrumentation and Procedures for AC Quantum Hall Effect Based Impedance Calibrations
Jaroslav Bohacek, Czech Technical University
For a newly formed system for calibrating impedance standards, bridges and procedures have been developed which make it possible to calibrate resistance, capacitance and inductance standards by linking them with AC quantized Hall resistance. Only coaxial transformer bridges are used for this purpose, all of them being of modular design. Some of the modular units can be utilized in more than one bridge. Calculable resistors of various designs have been prepared as reference standards for characterization tests of quantum Hall devices


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CP_04_10E_3_BOH
Picture of the productInterlaboratory comparisons at the European level
Dr. Simona Klenovska, Czech Metrology Institute
In the globalised world mutual recognition agreements at various levels concerning measurement and testing certificates play a crucial role in elimination of technical barriers to trade and in this context interlaboratory comparisons (ILCs) have recently emerged as one of the most objective and effective methods of the laboratory proficiency testing. The infrastructure of intercomparisons has been set up to be organized at national levels, mainly in support of the accreditation system. The provision of such comparisons was launched e.g. in the Czech Republic in 1995 and since that time nearly 60 ILCs have been completed in implementation of annual plans. By their evaluation it can be easily demonstrated on a number of examples that ILCs have played a vital role in assessing the real technical competence of laboratories. At the same time it is not always clear to what extent are ILC schemes consistently operated across the whole regions, e.g. in Europe. On the other hand, proficiency testing in the testing area has been brought to a European level by the EU EPTIS project. Recently, the organization of European NMIs EUROMET was approached by the EA with a proposal to take over the organization of ILCs on a European-wide basis. Such a proposal does make a good sense: the EA Laboratory Committee is overloaded by work and EUROMET has been involved, in implementation of CIPM MRA, in key comparisons of national standards which can be extended to cover measuring instruments down the traceability chains. Promising chances for mutual cross-fertilization between physical and chemical metrology in relation to comparisons can be identified.

The main goal of this paper is to present a possible scenario of establishing such a harmonized system of ILCs in one of the world regions, being a free trade area at the same time. Some potential pitfalls in the management of the system will also be discussed.


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CP_04_5C_1_KLEN
Picture of the productInvestigations in Hybrid (multi-sensor) CMM errors
Investigations in Hybrid (multi-sensor) CMM errors based on artifact measurement
Edward P. Morse, Center for Precision Metrology
The use of hybrid, or multi-sensor, CMMs is desirable for the inspection of components where some of the features of interest are very small or delicate, but other features (often those used in the assembly of the components or the development of the datum reference frame) have characteristics or orientations which prevent their measurement with a video-based system. While many CMMs that utilize touch probing as their primary sensing mechanism are able to mount additional video probes, we are interested in those machines that have multiple sensors mounted simultaneously. These machines have a different metrology loop for each sensor, and must accommodate the geometric errors of the machine differently for each sensor in order to obtain optimum performance.


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CP_04_1E_2_MORS
Picture of the productIrradiance Responsivity Scale Realization
Irradiance Responsivity Scale Realization between 1 μm and 2.5 μm
George P. Eppeldauer and Joseph P. Rice, Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Irradiance measuring radiometers based on extended-InGaAs (EIGA) photodiodes have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These high performance irradiance meters are used to realize and maintain the spectral irradiance responsivity scale between 1 μm and 2.5 μm. The EIGA radiometers are working standards that also disseminate the irradiance responsivity scale to other institutions and facilities. Both the design considerations and the responsivity scale transfer to the EIGA#2 radiometer are discussed. The radiometer was calibrated for spectral irradiance responsivity on the new NIST Infrared Facility for Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations using Uniform Sources (IR-SIRCUS). The responsivity was derived from an Electrical Substitution Bolometer (ESB) that is traceable to an absolute cryogenic radiometer (ACR) through a silicon trap detector.


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CP_04_2C_1_EPPE
Picture of the productISO 10012 & THE MEASUREMENT PROCESSES
Bill McCullough, CSC/Dyncorp, McCullough Consulting
This paper presents an overview of ISO 10012 and that standard’s approach to measurement systems. While rooted in time proven metrological principles, 10012 extends those principles to wherever quantitative measurements are made. Some new words, or usages, are explored and shown to simply be new ways to express old processes. Customers’ requirements that product conform to determined requirements provides opportunities for improvement in the measurement process. ISO 10012 provides guidance and tools to help those whose product is measurement.


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CP_04_RES_MCCUL
Picture of the productISO-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement
ISO-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement: Conventional1 vs. Bayesian Statistical Methods
C. Antoniak, S. Dwyer, D. Huang, D. Jackson (All US Navy) and T. S. Lin, Central Metrology Lab, Taiwan, ROC
Conventional or Bayesian statistics, or combinations of both are applied to compute uncertainty in measurement commonly. ISO-Guide recommends applying conventional statistical methodology to estimate measurement uncertainty components from Type A data when available, and using non-statistical methods to estimate measurement uncertainty components from type B data where Type A data is unavailable. Yet, it has been pointed out that the procedure, which leads to the combined uncertainty and its interpretation needs clarification. This paper uses an example to compare four methodologies using Conventional, ISO-Guide, Bayesian, and Numerical simulations. An expert panel will address the implications of adopting each approach.


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CP_04_4C_HUANG