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Conference Proceedings 2005 (131)

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Picture of the product1 kg Comparison in Mass SIM/ANDIMET/SURAMET
Francisco García, Laboratorio Custodio De Los Patrones Nacionales De Masa en CESMEC LTDA (CESMEC-LCPN-M), CHILE
A mass comparison was carried out between the Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI, Argentina), Instituto Boliviano de Metrología (IBMETRO, Bolivia), Instituto Ecuatoriano de Normalización (INEN, Ecuador) y Laboratorio Custodio de los Patrones Nacionales de Masa at Cesmec Ltda. (CESMEC-LCPN-M, Chile), in order to estimate the degrees of equivalence for calibration of a mass artifact and the uncertainty associated to its measurement. This comparison was carried out in a nominal value of 1 kg. The results obtained by each laboratory are presented in this document for first time.


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CP_05_72_GARCIA
Picture of the product100 mV AC-DC Transfer Standard Measurements Using an AC Jose
100 mV AC-DC Transfer Standard Measurements Using an AC Josephson Voltage Standard
Charles J. Burroughs, National Institute of Standards and Technology
NIST is implementing the Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer as an ac Josephson Voltage Standard (ACJVS). Over the past few years we have demonstrated precise measurements of synthesized sine waves at rms voltage amplitudes up to 170 mV. The system can generate a variety of precision voltage waveforms including dc voltages and ac sinewaves, so that the system can be used as a quantum-based voltage source for ac metrology. In this paper, we explore the capability of the ACJVS as an audio frequency calibration source for the lower voltage ranges of an ac-dc transfer standard such as the 220 mV range where the transfer standard uses a high-impedance input buffer amplifier. In particular, we investigate the ACJVS measurement accuracy over the frequency range from 1 kHz to 10 kHz at 50 mV and 100 mV. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a practical ac Josephson voltage standard based upon a quantum voltage source that produces precisely calculable ac and dc voltages.


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CP_05_103_BURRO
Picture of the product2005 State Laboratory Program Workload Survey
Elizabeth Gentry, Oklahoma Bureau of Standards
Each biennial a survey of the State Weights and Measures Laboratory Program is conducted to quantify the workload of the State Laboratory Program (SLP) and document its impact on the United States economy. This survey has historically been conducted by the Metrology Subcommittee of the National Conference on Weights and Measures but for 2005 is being conducted by the NCSLI Legal Metrology Committee. Survey data is used not only to quantify the impact of the SLP on the U. S. economy, but also to plan and maximize the effectiveness of the program. Decisions on needed training and inter-laboratory comparisons are based on the information collected in the survey, and ultimately the survey information will improve the efficiency and maximize the benefit of the entire State Laboratory Program. The results of previous surveys have been used extensively at NIST to gain support and attention for the State Laboratories and have been helpful in assembling budget proposals. The surveys are useful for identifying the diversities of the workload on a national level and have served as a resource to industry in identifying the level of service available from each SLP laboratory.

Survey information will be provided in textual and graphical form and will be accompanied by a comparative analysis reflecting the changes that have occurred over the nine years since the first survey was conducted.


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CP_05_121_GENTR
Picture of the productA Calibration Paradigm for the Year 2020
Chester Franklin, Computer Sciences Corporation
A paradigm is defined by Webster as, “a clear or typical example”. We have clear examples of the calibration paradigm, many of them in the form of written procedures, and of calibration methodologies used in today’s laboratories. But what will be the likely calibration paradigm in the year 2020? The premises for this paper are; 1) that there will be a major shift in that paradigm, and; 2) that both public and private sectors need to be planning and preparing for the challenges presented for calibration that will be brought about by advances in technology and changes in business environments. Furthermore this paper will tend to concentrate on questions rather than on answers. In addition to the technological challenges there are business challenges. Many business managers, particularly of the “bottom line” point of view, look upon calibration as an overhead expense, just as they once did (and some still do) at quality assurance. Many managers do not have a feel for the answer to the question, “Why calibrate?” The answer to that would appear to be actually a very simple one: “To provide confidence in measurement results”. But what does that really mean to anyone but the engineer? There is always a push on to lower overhead expenses. The cost issues, and the rapid advances in technology, are necessarily driving changes in the ways in which we do business.


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CP_05_25_FRANKL
Picture of the productA Calibration Software With Advanced Uncertainty
A Calibration Software With Advanced Uncertainty and Prediction Capabilities Including Complex Numbers
Alex Lepek, Newton Metrology Ltd.
This paper describes a new calibration program, the MetroVal. The Calibration procedure is edited in a simple table. This approach enables non-programmers to prepare calibration procedures and review them in a glance. The table tells the program which modules to run, which data to use, which methods to use to compute the uncertainties and how to generate the calibration report. The uncertainty module can estimate measurement uncertainties per ISO GUM or by Monte-Carlo simulation directly from the measurement equation. The Prediction module can estimate present values and uncertainties of measurement standards from their past calibrations. The combination of prediction with uncertainty enables the real time use of the predicted values of the of measurement standards as components in the uncertainty budget. These two modules can deal with complex numbers.


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CP_05_93_LEPEK
Picture of the productA Disposable, Low-Temperature, Fixed-Point Standard
AKeith D. Wilson, Midwest Research Institute
To verify the accuracy of thermocouples used for monitoring ultra-freezers near their temperature of use in biosafety level 3 laboratories, we have developed a disposable, fixed-point standard that can be used in the laboratory and then autoclaved before removal. We are using the sublimation point of CO2 by making a slurry of isopropyl alcohol and dry ice in a stainless steel Thermos®. After stabilization and correction for ambient pressure, we transfer the standard and a stated temperature value to the biology laboratory technician, who takes it into the laboratory to check the thermocouples. When done, the technician autoclaves the Thermos® for reuse or disposes of it. This new technique enables accurate checking of thermocouples at a very low temperature without subjecting expensive standards to the rigors of decontamination after potential exposure to hazardous organisms.


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CP_05_62_WILSON
Picture of the productA Hierarchical Power and Energy Meters’ Calibration System
Rosane Moreira Debatin, INMETRO
energy meters. Major part of the complex system was developed by the Power and Energy Laboratory of INMETRO. First level is represented by a Reference System, capable of the highest accuracy measurement of power and energy in a wide range of voltage and current. The second level, a general purpose calibration system, serves for the mass calibration of standard instruments. The third level facilitates the calibration of consumers’ watt-hour meters as well as the type tests thereof. All the three systems are fully automated, traceable to national standards.


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CP_05_24_DEBATI
Picture of the productA Poor Man’s Resistance Bridge
Gary Bennett, Fluke Corporation
Using only a single DMM, scanner and software, a lab can have their own automated resistance bridge capable of accuracies from sub ppm to a few ppm over its entire range. This paper describes how we created a simple resistance bridge using off the shelf test equipment. Software was created to take dual four-terminal DMM resistance ratio readings and control a scanner to automate the process. Multiple forward and reverse measurements are taken to reduce the effects of thermal EMFs and to provide statistical information.

This “bridge” can be set up to automatically scale up or down over a wide range of resistance values. Results from various 1:1 and 10:1 measurements between 1 ohm and 10 kilohm will be presented.


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CP_05_107_BENNE
Picture of the productA Proposal for Focused Organizational Effectiveness Measures
Charles A. Motzko, P.E., School of Advanced Studies, University of Phoenix
With the many priorities faced each day, a question a leader may ask is; “Why should I be interested in instituting new or different measures of organizational effectiveness?” If an observer steps outside of the National Measurement Institute (NMI) day-to-day performance measurement infrastructure and critically views the role and function of the NMI on its nationstate’s economy, a conclusion can be reached that the NMI value-add services add measurably to that nation-state’s Gross National product (GNP). Furthermore, independent studies have shown these additions may be as much as 6 % of the GNP.

The 6 % figure was first proposed in the analysis performed in Paulson’s (1977) report titled, “Economic Analysis of the National Measurement System” submitted to the former United States National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This estimate was again validated in Birch’s (2003) report on the “Benefits of Legal Metrology for the Economy and Society” for the International Committee of Legal Metrology (CIML). Following this logic, it is hypothesized that focused strategic measures of Organizational Effectiveness within a National Measurement Institute (OENMI), in addition to traditional diagnostic measures, can have far-reaching economic and productivity benefits on the measurement support infrastructure and the structural operationalization for the delivery of a NMI’s goods and services.

The intention of this paper is to examine certain approaches and to thereby determine a set of focused metrics for organizational effectiveness. These recommendations could then assist in the shaping of the NMI and its sub-units activities, keeping in mind all the critical external factors and internal influence used to shape the OENMI.


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CP_05_137_MOTZK
Picture of the productAchieving Traceable and Accurate High Current Measurements
Dennis E. Destefan, High Current Technologies, Inc.
Achieving accurate measurements of electric current at high currents contains a host of technical challenges. High currents can be considered as perhaps as low as hundreds of amperes to greater than several millions of amperes. T he challenges and difficulties generally increase as the current amplitude increases as well as when the measurement uncertainty decreases. In some utility and research applications, physical restrictions and requirements further complicate the measurement process. Temperature and other environmental considerations such as rain, snow and humidity further restrict or complicate measurements and sensor designs. Typical measurement uncertainties may range between ±0.1% or lower to as much as several percent or greater. The challenges include providing traceability for the measurement of dc currents, ac currents, transient currents (pulsed), and often, some combination of several types of complex waveforms. The frequency spectrum can range from dc and sub-power frequencies to frequencies greater than several megahertz. Traceability issues are now more complicated in the United States because of the impending discontinuation of the NIST calibration services for current transformers and high pulsed currents to 60 kA for current sensing instruments and standards. Alternate means of establishing and maintaining traceability are presented.

This paper briefly reviews the most common current measuring methods comparing the pro’s and con’s of each method. Emphasis will be directed towards the use of high current shunts, and the use of Rogowski coils and their associated integrators. Advantages and disadvantages of each will be compared. The calibration support of each will be discussed. The bandwidth limitations of shunts and coils are briefly discussed and the impact this has on making measurements of high frequency and pulsed currents. Difficulties of establishing and maintaining traceability for high current standards and measurements are discussed.


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CP_05_51_DESTEF
Picture of the productAmendments to ISO/IEC 17025
Roxanne M. Robinson, A2LA
The testing and calibration laboratory community was just getting comfortable with the revision of ISO Guide 25 to that of ISO/IEC 17025 (1999). Then in 2000, we heard that ISO CASCO was insisting that all ISO conformity assessment standards must contain the same quality management requirements as those found in ISO 9000 (2000). The ISO 17025 working group was told that the 1999 version of 17025 had to be revised to meet this directive. The accreditation bodies sighed and the laboratories groaned. Thus began a series of negotiations with ISO CASCO and meetings by the ISO 17025 working group that resulted in the newly minted ISO 17025, dated 2005 and expected for publication in June 2005. This paper explains the give and take that occurred between ISO CASCO and the working group, and the specific amendments to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard that resulted. Possible ways to meet the new ISO 17025 requirements are suggested. Finally the schedule of implementation of ISO/IEC 17025 (2005) for the laboratories and the accreditation bodies is discussed.


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CP_05_117_ROBIN
Picture of the productAn Accurate Pulse Measurement System for Real-Time Oscillosc
An Accurate Pulse Measurement System for Real-Time Oscilloscope Calibration
David I. Bergman, National Institute of Standards and Technology
An accurate sampling system for calibrating the pulse response of real-time digitizing oscilloscopes up to 100 V is described. The measurement system is the result of ongoing efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish and maintain capability in waveform sampling metrology. A low-noise sampling probe in conjunction with a frequencycompensated resistive attenuator measures repetitive pulses with attainable amplitude uncertainty less than 0.2 % of the pulse amplitude at 1 ìs following the pulse transition. The probe and attenuator are calibrated against a wideband sampling probe and 50 Ù attenuator combination that serves as a reference standard requiring only a dc calibration. The method used to calibrate the low-noise probe and attenuator is described along with a tally of error sources. The biggest contributor to Type B uncertainty is the tuning of the attenuator's frequency compensation, achieved through a digital filter.


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CP_05_52_BERGMA
Picture of the productAn Application of Combining Results from Multiple Methods
An Application of Combining Results from Multiple Methods • Statistical Evaluation of Uncertainty for NIST SRM 1508a
A. Hornikova, Statistical Engineering Division, NIST
NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials that are developed at NIST and provided to laboratories (industry, government and academia) for assessment and improvement of measurement quality. This paper details the statistical analysis related to the recertification of SRM 1508a, benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) in freeze-dried urine, to incorporate new data. The recertification is based on combining measurement results from different measurement methods and time periods. Several different statistical models and corresponding estimators were considered for the certified value, its standard uncertainty and its expanded uncertainty.


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CP_05_19_HORNIK
Picture of the productAn Interlaboratory Comparison of Vector Network Analyzer
An Interlaboratory Comparison of Vector Network Analyzer Measurements
Dr. Li Pi Su, US Army Primary Standards Laboratory
The US Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL) is committed to providing services to its customers which are accurate, traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), delivered on-time, and continuously improving. Since 2000, the APSL has been accredited in most of the major measurement parameters to the ISO/IEC 17025 [1] quality standard by the American Accreditation of Laboratory Association. The quality management system of the APSL is also registered by NSF-ISR to ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001:2000. This paper will report on an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) of measurements performed on Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs). The ILC was conducted with the three primary standards laboratories of the US Department of Defense and NIST. This provided an appraisal of the capabilities and degree of equivalence of the participant laboratories to perform coaxial Type N 1-port VNA measurements accurately and consistently. This demonstrated proficiency of VNA operators in the context that they can produce measurement results consistent with other comparable laboratories.


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CP_05_160_SU
Picture of the productAn International Key Comparison of Water Triple-Point Cells
Stephane Solve, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil
The kelvin, the unit of thermodynamic temperature in the International System of Units (SI), is defined in terms of the triple point of water (TPW): TTPW ™ß 273.16 K. Furthermore, the TPW is the most important fixed point of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). In 2001, the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) decided to carry out a comparison of TPW cells of its member laboratories with low uncertainties, and charged the BIPM with its organization.

After a description of the protocol and the organization of this exercise, we present the results of the comparison of calibrated transfer cells from the 20 participating laboratories with two BIPM reference cells. Small drifts of the reference cells were determined by and corrected using a leastsquares adjustment of the whole data set.

The final statistical distribution of the results shows a bimodal distribution, the two peaks being separated by approximately 100 ƒÊK. This is a clear indication of the influence of the isotopic composition of the water, separating laboratories which use water of the isotopic composition of ocean water from those which do not. The ™gSupplementary Information for the ITS-90™h recommends the use of water equivalent to ocean water.

It can therefore be expected that a clear specification of the isotopic composition of the water to be used to realize the kelvin would considerably reduce the spread between WTP-cells and consequently the uncertainty of the realization of the kelvin.


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CP_05_158_SOLVE
Picture of the productApplication of Software Enhanced DCC Bridge Measurement
Mark Evans, Guildline Instruments Limited
This paper discusses some developments in utilizing the computing power of a PC to enhance the capability of DCC bridges in resistance and temperature measurements.

One enhancement is a dynamic reversal rate algorithm, which controls the bridge speed to balance speed vs. stability for both static and changing resistance measurement. This technique can help a DCC bridge better “Track” a moving temperature when it approaches or exits a stable temperature point, as well as a way to govern the stability of a fixed resistance measurement while allowing an increase in measurement speed.

Another enhancement applies an advanced use of bridge error coefficients to reduce systematic bridge errors that are not at, or close to, the initial test points used to generate the correction. This paper explores the use of a logarithmic interpolation/extrapolation approach, which can be used to improve the accuracy of measurements when measuring in between characterized points, effectively removing most of the systematic bridge error.


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CP_05_105_EVANS
Picture of the productAspects of Uncertainty Evaluation
Mariana Buzduga, Scantek, Inc.
In most cases, uncertainty evaluation leads to refinement of the test methods, to better knowledge of the test equipment limits, and to a more refined understanding of uncertainties due to different influences. When evaluating components of uncertainty, it is useful to question all estimations in order to avoid overlooking the obvious and the not-so-obvious situations that could lead to wrong results. In this paper we first present some considerations on the correlation of uncertainty components that affect measurements when using digital multimeters to compare voltages. Then we discuss some aspects of the treatment of uncertainty components due to influence of spurious signals on the test result, as encountered in the calibration of sound measuring instruments. Finally we provide short remarks about the computation of composed uncertainty when uncertainty components are expressed as decibels.


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CP_05_3_BUZDUGA
Picture of the productASQ’s Certified Calibration Technician Exam Update
Dilip Shah, Chairman: ASQ Measurement Quality Division
The ASQ’s Certified Calibration Technician (CCT) Exam has now been offered for more than two years and as of Dec 2004, over 300 candidates have passed the exam since its first offering in June of 2003. This presentation provides the report on the exam progress, industry acceptance and the body of knowledge covered. Misconceptions on the expectation of the exam are presented. The Measurement Quality Division’s involvement with the exam sponsorship, development and exam volunteer opportunities are discussed.


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CP_05_82_SHAH
Picture of the productAutomated Mass Handling for High Performance Pressure Bal.
Martin Girard, DH Instruments, Inc.
The piston gauge or pressure balance is essential to pressure metrology research and as a calibration tool. Over the years, its basic performance has been improved by several orders of magnitude. However, in most cases, the instrument’s operation remains tedious and labor intensive.

A line of piston gauges introduced in the early 1990s integrates the electronics necessary to support the automation of piston gauge operation. These include monitoring of piston behavior and environmental conditions. Limited automated pressure control became available in the mid- 1990s. Most recently, an automated mass handling accessory has been introduced, covering the full range of pressure in gauge and absolute modes. This makes fully automated operation over the complete pressure range possible.

Experience shows that the benefits of automated piston gauge operation are both practical and metrological. These range from obvious gains in productivity to other types of benefits such as reduced mass wear over time and making possible new test programs. The impact of automated piston gauge operation on transfer standard characterization and calibration is examined.


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CP_05_100_GIRAR
Picture of the productAutomatic Calibration of Precision Multifunction Calibrators
D.W.K. Lee, The Govt. of the Hong Kong SAR Standards and Calibration Laboratory
An automated system is developed at the Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) for calibration of DC voltage and DC current functions of precision multifunction calibrators, namely Wavetek 4X0X series and Fluke 57XX calibrators. UUTs are calibrated automatically against laboratory standards, including Zener voltage reference and standard resistors, which have previously been calibrated by the Laboratory’s intrinsic primary standards, namely the Josephson Array Voltage Standard (JAVS) and the Quantized Hall Resistance Standard (QHRS). Measurement results obtained are traceable to the Laboratory’s electrical reference standards. Calibration is performed using a high precision Digital Voltmeter (DMM), Agilent 3458A, whose gain and linearity errors have been determined by the Laboratory’s JAVS. Measurement errors due to the system DMM are minimized by applying offset and gain corrections. The system comprises control software and a user-friendly graphical user interface written in Visual Basic. The system takes approximately 4 hours to calibrate the DCV (full range measurements from 100 mV to 1000 V and linearity test at the 10 V range) and DCI (full range measurements from 10 μA to 2 A and linearity test at the 1 A range) functions. The best measurement uncertainties better than 1/4 of the UUT’s 1-year accuracy specifications.


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CP_05_106_LEE
Picture of the productAutomation of a Temperature National Standards Laboratory
Valentin Batagelj, University of Ljubljana
The presented software package automates the measurements in a primary temperature laboratory, but similar concepts can also be applied in other fields of metrology. The first part of the software is the central database, where all relevant data is stored. This includes data about measurements, instruments, standards, calibration orders, etc. The second part is the automation software for data acquisition and processing. This includes drivers for communication with instruments, routines for transforming the measured quantity to temperature, routines for saving, reloading and printing the measurements and a user interface for presenting the measured data. It is of crucial importance that both parts of the software package are tightly interconnected. The software part retrieves all relevant information about instruments, standards, etc from the database and stores back the measurement results. The resulting measurement data is completely traceable, since it includes all data about used equipment, performer, ambient conditions, etc. The major benefits of the software package are increased efficiency, transparent traceability, documented validation and the minimized influence of human error.


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CP_05_68_BATAGE
Picture of the productBath for Calibration of Medical Non-Contact and Contact Ther
Bath for Calibration of Medical Non-Contact and Contact Thermometers
Igor Puþnik, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Laboratory of Metrology and Quality
In Europe the Medical Device Directive (Council directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices) requires conformity of actual characteristics of medical devices with manufacturers' specifications. Therefore we developed a water bath for possible simultaneous calibration of medical non-contact (tympanic, ear, forehead) and contact (liquid-in-glass, digital) thermometers by comparison with a traceable reference thermometer. The bath is intended for use in hospitals, health and veterinary institutes or calibration laboratories. The developed bath fulfills also the requirements of other world standards and future ISO standard on general requirements for medical non-contact and contact thermometers.


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CP_05_146_PUSNI
Picture of the productBayesian Calibration Analysis
Dennis Jackson, Ph.D., Mathematical Statistician, NSWC Corona Division
One of the advantages of using Bayesian estimation techniques is that it deals well with the concept of estimating a measurement error. Starting with prior knowledge of the uncertainty of the test instrument (TI) and the unit under test (UUT), we can update our knowledge of the measurement error of the UUT using the calibration data obtained from comparing the UUT with the TI. The Bayesian estimate of the measurement error in the UUT is superior for tolerance testing and adjustment purposes as compared with simply using the difference between the TI and UUT measurements. In addition, this process can also use the same information to obtain an estimate of the measurement error of the TI.

The main purpose of calibration is to obtain an estimate of the measurement error of the UUT for tolerance testing or adjustment. The difference between the TI and UUT measurements can also be used to obtain updated estimates of the measurement uncertainty of the UUT and the TI. The Bayesian estimation process makes use of reasonable prior distributions on the TI and UUT measurement uncertainties and develops fairly simple and easy to implement equations for the updated measurement uncertainties, as well as for the updated measurement errors.


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CP_05_42_JACKSO
Picture of the productCalibration and Standardization Issues of UV Sensors
Thomas Larason, Optical Technology Division, Physics Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST) studied the current ultraviolet (UV) water disinfection standards, ÖNORM M5873-1 and M5873-2 (Austria), and DVGW W294-3 (Germany), on the requirements for UV sensors for low-pressure mercury (LMP) and medium-pressure mercury (MPM) lamp systems. Pertinent to the study, NIST is measuring and analyzing the characteristics of various types of UV sensors. This information will aid in the development of new guidelines to address issues such as sensor requirements, calibration methods, uncertainty, and traceability.

The results of the NIST relative irradiance responsivity measurements of 10 sensors from several different commercial vendors are summarized. Practical problems were found in the calibration methods and evaluation of spectral responsivity requirements for sensors designed for MPM lamp systems. To solve the problems, NIST is proposing an alternate sensor calibration method for MPM lamp systems. A description is given of a future calibration service intended for low and medium-pressure mercury lamp systems used in water disinfection applications.


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CP_05_15_LARASO
Picture of the productCalibration Intervals from Variables Data
Dr. Howard Castrup, Integrated Sciences Group
Historically, calibration results have typically been recorded and stored in the form of attributes data. In the past few years, however, an apparent trend has begun to emerge for recording and storing calibration results in the form of variables data. This is partly due to ISO/IEC 17025 requirements for uncertainty analysis and partly due to the growing implementation of six-sigma or other SPC quality control systems. The growing availability of variables data has positive implications for calibration interval analysis.

This paper describes a methodology for determining calibration intervals from variables data. A regression analysis analytical approach is developed and algorithms are given for setting parameter calibration intervals from the results of variables data analysis.


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CP_05_20_CASTRU
Picture of the productCalibration of Ratio Transformers and Inductive Voltage Div
Kenneth Kochav and Barry Wood, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada
This paper discusses the calibration bridge developed at NRC for in-phase and quadrature AC voltage ratio measurement. The primary purpose of this bridge is to calibrate ratio transformers and inductive voltage dividers. The design, measurement technique and future activities to improve the measurements are presented.


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CP_05_126_KOCHA
Picture of the productCanadian Experience in Metrological Education and Training
Graham Cameron Sta, ndards Council of Canada
During the late 1980s, the need for metrology education and training was identified by the member organizations of the National Conference of Standards Laboratories (NCSL), as it was then known. Industrial and governmental laboratory managers were looking for newly graduated personnel with basic knowledge and skills as they were recruited. They were also seeking sources able to provide short-duration training to expand the capabilities of existing staff.

    The outcomes of that initiative were:
    •An independent study, which reached over 900 Canadian industries, was conducted to determine the quantitative requirement for metrology personnel for the ensuing 5 years;
    •Definitions for "Metrologist" and "Metrology Engineer" were established as formal occupations;
    •The Standards Council of Canada helped articulate the needs of the measurement dependent community using the Develop A CUrriculuM (DACUM) process;
    •Our national metrology institute played an active role in encouraging "Metrological Development".

This paper identifies difficulties in reaching the right management person in industry and government from whom to garner support, and the lack of "Identifiable Metrology Career Paths" for secondary school students making course choices before entering post-secondary institutions. A cooperative initiative among the national accreditation body, the national metrology institute and NCSL International will be described.


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CP_05_17_CAMERO
Picture of the productChanged View on Calibration
Mladen Jakovcic, B.E.E. PLIVA Croatia Ltd
Traditionally, calibration has been considered a technical value: as one of the technical issues to be managed by experts in measurement. However, in today’s world of the new economy, a new paradigm has emerged. The calibration is usually treated in a more holistic and comprehensive way, the same as maintenance, HSE and other supporting functions (prior mostly considered to be lateral, secondary functions). This approach has been crystallized through the consideration of the overall physical asset life cycle and its influence on the value of the company: its financial effects measured through the asset’s functionality and the business risks. In that perspective, the calibration becomes an equal and important activity, which should not be viewed exclusively through a technical prism, but also through an economic dimension of added value, lost production costs, HSE risks, resources utilization and allocation. Another critical contributor in the calibration is the ownership issue observed through the tension between production and calibration personnel over equipment available for calibration at a certain time.

Putting so many confronted factors together, a complex situation in making decisions about a physical asset and its calibration may occur. Each of us has witnessed such a situation at some point of time. It can be perceived as a little battle between priorities: asset utilization, costs, quality or calibration. What should be the driving force of the highest value in making economy effective decisions? What is of utmost importance for the overall life cycle? How to balance between overall costs and benefits and external risks, measured in terms of quality, disposition of publicity, loosing good-will...


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CP_05_28_JAKOVC
Picture of the productCharacterization of Germanium Detectors for Applications
Characterization of Germanium Detectors for Applications of Spectral Irradiance Measurements
Mart Noorma, Metrology Research Institute, Helsinki University of Technology
In order to extend the Finnish national scale of spectral irradiance to the near infrared wavelength region, we have developed new detectors based on germanium photodiodes, which have sufficiently high responsivity between 900 and 1650 nm. In this work, we discuss the absolute characterization of germanium photodiodes and a trap detector, which consists of three germanium photodiodes. We show that the large area germanium photodiodes provide cost-effective transfer standard detectors in the near infrared wavelength region. The germanium photodiodes are characterized in terms of spatial uniformity, spectral responsivity, and spectral reflectance. The effects of temperature, polarization and low shunt resistance on the responsivity measurements are studied as well. We analyze also the anti-reflection coating of the photodiodes based on the reflectance measurements at oblique angles of incidence. The combined standard uncertainty of our near infrared spectral irradiance scale is aimed not to exceed the level of 2 %. The limiting component in the uncertainty budget arises from the spectral power responsivity in this wavelength range.


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CP_05_61_NOORMA
Picture of the productChecking Against the Manufacturer’s Specifications
Yeou-Song (Brian) Lee, Anritsu Company
Since the GUM was published in 1994 and the ISO/IEC 17025-1999 was released, most of the instrument manufacturers are caught in between the legacy and new products in both supplying and reporting the measurement uncertainty or accuracy. There are no immediate or quick solutions to this dilemma. Besides this, there is no general understanding and consensus regarding how specifications of a product shall be and are determined. An international standard addressing the conformity to the specifications is in place. As the precision and accuracy of instruments getting tighter, more test points are taken for any single instrument. It is really impossible to ignore the fact that by claiming the coverage factor K=2 would cause measurements failed to specifications and by tampering the confidence level would avoid the needs to re-test the instrument. It is the intent of this paper to discuss the formulation of a product performance and concept of specification settings by taking a closer look of examples from the manufacturers. To the calibration service providers, the author wishes to offer few insights if a statement such as the “Calibrated to Manufacturer’s Specification” is intended.


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CP_05_48_LEE
Picture of the productChip-Scale Atomic Clocks at NIST
J. Kitching, Time and Frequency Division, NIST
We describe recent efforts to develop microfabricated atomic frequency references capable of supporting a wide variety of commercial and military systems such as global positioning and wireless communication. These devices are anticipated to eventually have a volume of 1 cm3, dissipate less than 30 mW of electrical power and maintain a fractional frequency stability better than 10-11 over one hour. Because of the small size and low power requirements, these devices will enable atomic-level timekeeping in portable, battery-powered units.


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CP_05_70_KITCHI
Picture of the productCoating Thickness Gages
Coating Thickness Gages: Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty
James M. Ingram Jr., J.M. Ingram & Associates
There are many manufacturing processes that require the measurement of coatings. In the past the coating thickness gages were checked in the field with some sort of thin film placed on the bare metal or with a plated square of steel from NIST. Times have changed along with advances in technology. Coating thickness gages now come in many varieties. Instead of just plating on steel they now also measure many types of coatings on various substrates. These newer gages can measure thickness with an accuracy of ± 1% or better. These accuracy requirements, along with more and more quality system demands, mean the gages are showing up at the metrology lab for calibration. This paper covers coating thickness gages based on both magnetic and eddy current measurement techniques. The basic design and calibration requirements are discussed along with a report of repeatability studies and the main contributions to measurement uncertainty. The old reference materials used for calibration had a best accuracy of ± 3% and worse. A review of the standards available, to meet the ± 1% calibration requirement of the gages, is also presented.


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CP_05_112_INGRA
Picture of the productCommittee 163 Personnel Training Requirements
Gloria J. Neely, Naval Surface Warfare Center
The Personnel Training Requirements Committee charter was developed in 1995 with an objective to formulate a Recommended Practice (RP) concerning laboratory personnel training. The initial committee focus was on calibration technician training requirements and a means to “provide objective evidence” that a person who performed a particular calibration was qualified and competent to do so. In 1996 a DACUM (Developing a Curriculum), coordinated by HEAT (the Higher Education and Advanced Technology Center, Lowry, Colorado) was held in Bolder, Colorado. This project, sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation, was attended by government and industry representatives from throughout the metrology community. With the support of academia, the DACUM was successful in developing a competencies and skills profile for engineers and technicians. The content/output from this project was used as a basis for an NCSLI Guide that is now available. The original charter was fulfilled and left the committee with no further direction. As part of the current strategic planning activities in the NCSLI Education and Training committees, our charter has been updated to provide a bigger umbrella for long-term


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CP_05_37_NEELY
Picture of the productComparison between a Resistance Bridge and an Integrated-Cir
A Comparison between a Resistance Bridge and an Integrated-Circuit Resistance Thermometer Readout Used for SPRT Calibration
Xumo Li, Fluke Hart Scientific
Specially designed bridges are used for standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) calibration to achieve lowest uncertainty. Such bridges are expensive and their measuring speeds are slow. A new type of instrument reported a few years ago was compared against the bridge to see if it is possible to use the new instrument instead of the bridge for SPRT calibration in some cases. Four SPRTs were calibrated at the triple point of water and the freezing points of tin and zinc using a Model 6010T Bridge and the new instrument (Model 1590) simultaneously. At these calibration points the maximum differences between the two instruments were within 0.4 mK at the tin point, and within 0.7 mK at the zinc point. The maximum difference in resistance ratio W(t) at these points was within 0.9 ppm of the readings. The differences over the entire range from 0°C to 419.527°C were calculated for the four SPRTs. The maximum differences were within 0.1 mK close to 0°C, within 0.5 mK at 300°C and within 0.7 mK at 420°C. The comparison results show the new instrument can be used for SPRT calibration to achieve an expanded uncertainty (k=2) as low as 1.5 mK.


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CP_05_5_LI
Picture of the productComparison Between Calibration Programs for the U.S. Navy
Comparison Between Calibration Programs for the U.S. Navy and the Medical Field
Sharon Nguyen, Calibration Reliability Analyst
This paper presents some differences in calibration programs for the test equipment and instrumentation in the U.S. Navy and the medical field. The criteria for this comparison will be based on metrology and quality control in both calibration programs. Most of the calibrations that the medical field performs on test instruments follow manufacturer recommendations, or the College of American Pathologist procedures. The U.S. Navy evaluates calibration history using engineering evaluations and statistical data. This paper will demonstrate that timely calibration of test instruments will reduce risk, improve productivity, cost savings, safe operation, the saving of lives and limit percentage errors in the results. Examples will be provided to support for this comparison between calibration programs for the U.S. Navy and the medical field.


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CP_05_63_NGUYEN
Picture of the productComparison of Heterodyne and Direct-Sampling Techniques
Comparison of Heterodyne and Direct-Sampling Techniques For Phase-Difference Measurements
Samuel R. Stein, Timing Solutions Corporation
Precision clocks and oscillators can’t be characterized using counting or RF spectrum analysis because their frequency changes are so small over short intervals that they are below the resolution of these simple methods. In the time domain, the performance of counters has traditionally been enhanced by the use of “beat frequency” techniques, which expand the duration of a cycle. In the frequency domain, the performance of spectrum analyzers for use in measuring phase noise has been enhanced by analog “conversion to base-band,” which suppresses the carrier, improving the dynamic range.

We recently reported a technique for direct-digital phase measurements [1,2]. The RF signals are sampled using high-speed analog-to-digital converters (ADC) and all subsequent filtering, frequency conversion, and phase detection are performed using digital signal processing (DSP). The direct-digital technique combines the advantages of the “beat frequency” and the “conversion to base-band” approaches. Like the “beat frequency” technique, the oscillators can free run and long-term measurements are possible. On the other hand, appropriate anti-alias filtering can be applied to accurately estimate the spectrum, just as in the “conversion to baseband” approach.

This paper compares the “beat frequency” and analog “direct conversion to base-band” approaches illustrating both the power and limitations of the two techniques. Results from the new direct digital technique illustrate the advantages of this approach. A case is made that the new direct-digital approach makes it possible to simultaneously estimate time and frequency domain statistics with the same hardware. Other advantages of the direct-digital measurement technique are the ability to evaluate un-locked oscillators, to measure oscillators at different frequencies, and to make completely automated, self-calibrated measurements.


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CP_05_69_STEIN
Picture of the productConsiderations in the Measurement of Light Emitting Diodes
C. K. Andersen, U.S. Federal Highway Administration
This paper provides an overview of some of the issues that must be considered when characterizing the photometric performance of projector systems that use arrays of light emitting diodes (LEDs) as the source. While the various issues are not significantly different than those posed in the measurement of any projector system, the combination of issues is unique to LEDbased systems, and makes accurate measurement a challenge. Specifically addressed are: (1) a requirement for knowledge of the spectral responsivity of the photometer, (2) calculation or empirical evaluation of the minimum distance at which measurements follow the inverse-square law, and (3) a requirement to understand how the operating characteristics of the system, including the range of ambient temperatures, impact the output of the signal.

The performance requirements and testing procedures developed for LED traffic signal lights, as outlined in the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) proposed standard for Vehicle Traffic Control Signal Heads—LED Circular Signal Supplement (VTCSH—LED Supp.)1, are used as a case study. The VTCSH—LED Supp. specifies the performance requirements for red, green and yellow LED-based traffic signal lights, and provides test procedures for determining whether the photometric and colorimetric output of a given signal light meet those requirements.

Three series of measurements were made of LED traffic signal lights in order to evaluate the ability of a laboratory to readily obtain values of luminous intensity for devices using arrays of LEDs. The first set of measurements evaluated the impact on the measurements results due to the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the LED traffic signal lights and the spectral responsivity functions for two actual photometers used by separate laboratories. Next, a series of measurements of luminous intensity versus measurement distance were obtained, to consider the appropriate distance at which far field measurements should be made. Finally, the outputs of LED traffic signal lights were recorded over a span of time in order to determine the sensitivity of measurements to test conditions. The results of the three series of measurements were used to evaluate the completeness of the test procedures specified in the VTCSH-LED Supp.


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CP_05_14_ANDERS
Picture of the productCross Fab Metrology Tool Calibration Traceability
Cross Fab Metrology Tool Calibration Traceability and Golden Tool Identification
Eugene Wang, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp.
In modern manufacturing areas, high quality mass production relies on a good process as well as an accurate measurement system. In order to make the measurement tools working properly, it is very important to periodically calibrate them against worldwide traceable standards. Using semiconductor industry as the example, this paper introduces how to build a traceable calibration chain for cross Fab metrology tools. At a key step, we apply statistical methods to identify a golden tool as a baseline tool to make the calibration chain traceable.


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CP_05_113_WANG
Picture of the productData evaluation of key comparisons
Data evaluation of key comparisons involving linked bilateral measurements and multiple artefacts
M G Cox, National Physical Laboratory
This paper considers some of the data evaluation aspects of key comparisons identified by the Comitˆe International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) that involve a series of linked bilateral measurements of multiple artefacts by the participating national metrology institutes (NMIs). The input quantities to a model of such a comparison relate to the measurements provided by the NMIs and the uncertainties and covariances associated with these measurements. The primary output quantities relate to the unilateral and bilateral degrees of equivalence, as required by the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement. Further quantities are included in the model in order to help provide a fuller description of the measurements and their interrelationships.


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CP_05_30_COX
Picture of the productDetermination of Magnetic Properties of Weights
Determination of Magnetic Properties of Weights Using the Susceptometer Method
Thomas Froehlich, Sartorius AG
The International Recommendation OIML R 111 gives upper bounds for the magnetization and susceptibility for weights depending on the different error classes. Magnetization and susceptibility of mass standards should be known or determined. A widely accepted method is the susceptometer method. The Sartorius Susceptometer is a commercially available Susceptometer as described in the International Recommendation OIML R111. The maximum field at the bottom of the specimen and the initial measuring distance depending on the accuracy classes are given. The calibration procedure is described. A measurement comparing five calibrated susceptibility standards is discussed. The magnets used for calibration are monitored concerning the stability of the magnetic dipole moment over more than one year. A method for specifying the necessary geometric correction factors depending on shape and size of the weights is described. An example for such an approximation of a 1kg OIML-shaped mass standard with recessed base and practical hints for routine measurements are given.


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CP_05_73_FROEHL
Picture of the productDeveloping Strategies for the Technologies of Tomorrow
Carroll S. Brickenkamp, Ph. D., The Pi Group, Inc.
The future has a great deal in store for us, especially from the world of technology. The increasing ability (and actuality) to incorporate a computer with anything, along with increasing miniaturization, now allow remote sensors to measure temperature, pressure, humidity, determining global position, etc. These remote wireless instruments, furthermore, can now include image and sound capture. These instruments are becoming inexpensive enough that they can be disposable, and soon will be within reach of the average consumer.
How should these remote, disposable sensors that are also measuring instruments be calibrated to the necessary accuracy? How will you and your organization’s people, processes, and products need to evolve to integrate these new technologies?
We will explore these and other new technologies that are becoming more feasible in terms of their impact on metrology and metrology organizations, laboratories, instrument manufacturers, government agencies, and standards and professional organizations, and, indeed, the general public.


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CP_05_65_BRICKE
Picture of the productDevelopment of a Proficiency Testing Quality System for U.S.
Development of a Proficiency Testing Quality System for U.S. Legal Metrology Laboratories
Jeff C. Gust, Vice President, Quametec Proficiency Testing Services
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Weights and Measures Division (WMD) is tasked with promoting uniformity in U.S. weights and measures laws. In order to provide confidence in the traceability of measurement results for State Weights and Measures laboratories, NIST has developed proficiency testing requirements that mirror the proficiency testing requirements of the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. To further supplement the NIST WMD measurement quality requirements, they have now developed a Quality Manual for Proficiency Testing and Interlaboratory Comparisons.

The Quality Manual has been developed to meet all of the requirements of ISO Guide 43- 1:1997, Proficiency Testing by Interlaboratory Comparisons • Part 1: Development and Operation of Proficiency Testing Schemes and ILAC-G13:2000, Guidelines for the Competence of Providers of Proficiency Testing Schemes. This paper provides information on the background and development of the Quality Manual, and how it has been customized to meet the quality and operational requirements of NIST WMD.


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CP_05_122_GUST
Picture of the productEquipment Management: No Standardization in Close-Equipment
Equipment Management: No Standardization in Close-Equipment Documents and Consequences in Practice
Peter Jäger, German Armed Forces Calibration Service
The inexorable progress in science and technology inevitably results in the development of and exertion of influence on latest measurement engineering / metrology.

Branches of industry specialize and supply their customers with technology and know-how. In the course of this development, “technology islands” emerge which confront users having large bandwidth and spectrum with a lot of problems

Taking the German Armed Forces as an example we will show how the gap widens between modern and conventional technology, and between traditional calibration technicians and system operators with metrology know-how.

The specialization of industry in specific areas or product groups cannot be equated with unified standards.

This presentation will try to bring out basic requirements to be met by institutions, programmers, and manufacturers. Problem areas will be pointed out and general approaches will be formulated.


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CP_05_110_JAGER
Picture of the productEstimating Measurement Uncertainty from Calibration Testing
Dennis Jackson, Ph.D., Mathematical Statistician, U.S. Navy
During a calibration test, a unit under test (UUT) is compared with a test instrument (TI) to determine if the error in the UUT is smaller than some predefined tolerances. Generally, the resultant data that is stored from such a calibration consists of an indicator of whether the UUT was in tolerance at each test point. Using this information, a complete Type A analysis of measurement uncertainty can be performed that fits the definitions given in the GUM. This Type A analysis will contain the information generally obtained using Type B, or heuristic analyses and may actually be more accurate. The advantage of such an approach is that a Type A uncertainty analysis based on data that is normally gathered during a calibration test can be automated.


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CP_05_152_JACKS
Picture of the productEvaluating the Contribution of Stability in the Measurement
Evaluating the Contribution of Stability in the Measurement Uncertainty of Resonant Quartz Pressure Transfer Standards
Michael Bair, DH Instruments, Inc
As the role of a transfer standard is to propagate measurements defined by another standard, the ability of a transfer standard to resist changes in output due to age or frequency of use is a significant aspect of its performance. This type of uncertainty is often called “stability” or “reproduceability”.

Stability is a predicted systematic uncertainty. Errors from stability may be reduced through prediction of the direction and magnitude of the change and application of a mathematical correction based on this prediction. However, the uncertainty in this type of correction tends to be very high if it is not developed from experience with a specific artifact. Generally, the uncertainty contributed by stability error is controlled by regular comparison of the transfer standard with a reference and readjustment as necessary (recalibration). An instrument whose instability or drift follows no predictable pattern requires an extensive calibration process in which many points in the range are verified and a complex compensation model is used for readjustment. An instrument whose drift follows a predictable pattern may be able to be calibrated with a simpler compensation scheme.

This paper examines the stability of resonant quartz pressure transfer standards (referred to commercially as a quartz reference pressure transducer or Q-RPTÿ). The results are analyzed to determine the extent to which either full or partial compensation is justified to lower measurement uncertainty and/or extend calibration intervals.


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CP_05_98_BAIR
Picture of the productEvaluation of Capacitive Humidity Sensor as Working Humidity
Evaluation of Capacitive Humidity Sensor as Working Humidity Standard in the Humidity Calibrator
Jinpeng Fan, Shineteck Instruments Co., Ltd
The performance of some capacitive humidity sensors has been significantly improved in both accuracy and long term stability. But, not all capacitive humidity sensors perform the same and a challenge still exists which capacitive sensor can be used in instrumentation that could be considered as a working humidity standard. A capacitive sensor was first used by an American company in a humidity calibrator and then improved on with special performance characteristics. This concept was accepted and followed by some European companies, so that now several manufacturers of humidity calibrators use control probes with capacitive humidity sensors.

An evaluation was done on a new humidity calibrator that incorporated an RH sensor with special performance characteristics. This system was compared with the two-pressure humidity generator and precision dew- point hygrometer seven (7) times in the past year to evaluate the accuracy and stability over long term. Tests were done over a humidity range of 10-95%RH and a dew point temperature range of -15 to 20 °C with chamber settings of 15 ∼ 35°C. Results indicate that the measured differences show an uncertainty of <1.5%RH and clearly shows that this humidity calibrator using the capacitive RH sensor with special characteristics has an accuracy and stability which makes it suitable as a working standard for humidity measurements. The Certification by a NVLAP Accredited laboratory and the National Research Center for Certified Reference Materials (NCRRM, China) proved these results.


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CP_05_149_FAN
Picture of the productEvaluation of the Uncertainty of Measurement of Mechanical
Evaluation of the Uncertainty of Measurement of Mechanical Properties on the Tensile Testing
Luiz Roberto Oliveira da Silva Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica do Rio de Janeiro
The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for determining the result of measurement concerning tensile mechanical properties and their respective uncertainties. Such methodology, which has a possible systematic application, is associated with advanced metrology concepts, aiming a guarantee of metrological reliability to the results of the tensile properties, as well as the possibility of implementation in industrial laboratories, researches centers and in the Testing Laboratory Network.


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CP_05_156_SILVA
Picture of the productExperimental Design of NCSLI 2005
Experimental Design of NCSLI 2005 Josephson Voltage Standard Interlaboratory Comparison
Speaker: Yi-hua Tang, National Institute of Standards and Technology
The National Conference of Standards Laboratories International3 (NCSLI) 2005 Josephson voltage standard (JVS) Interlaboratory Comparison (ILC) provides participating laboratories with a means of comparing dc voltage measurements in order to meet accreditation or contractual requirements, and to establish reliability, confidence, and improved system operation. Several changes in procedures are implemented in the 2005 JVS ILC. NIST, as the main pivot lab, will make comparisons with a set of 4 subset pivot labs using the NIST compact Josephson voltage standard (CJVS). NIST will ship the CJVS to a subset pivot lab and make a comparison with the subset pivot lab’s JVS in situ using a set of four Fluke 732B Zener standards as transfer standards. Each subset pivot lab is responsible for making comparison measurements with 3 participants using the same protocol as in the NCSLI JVS ILC 2002 [1]. In order to monitor the condition of the transfer Zener standards, they will be shipped back to the subset pivot lab for a second set of measurements. This “daisy” pattern will be repeated with 4 comparisons between NIST and the subset pivot labs, and comparisons with about 12 additional participant labs using the transfer Zener standards. It is anticipated that this method will greatly reduce the uncertainties corresponding to the non-linear drift characteristics associated with the environmental and transportability effects of the transfer Zener standards.


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CP_05_161_TANG
Picture of the productFiber Deflection Probe Uncertainty Analysis for Micro Holes
Bala Muralikrishnan, Department of Mechanical Engineering & Engineering Science
We have recently reported on a new probe, the Fiber Deflection Probe (FDP), for diameter and form measurement of large aspect ratio micro-holes (100 μm nominal diameter, 5 mm deep). In this paper, we briefly review the measurement principle of the FDP. Then, we discuss different error sources and present an uncertainty budget for diameter measurements. Our analysis indicates an expanded uncertainty of only 0.07 ìm on diameter.


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CP_05_111_MURAL
Picture of the productFour-Terminal-Pair (4TP) Air Capacitor Measurements
Four-Terminal-Pair (4TP) Air Capacitor Measurements using a New Generation RF Network Analyzer
Makoto Kasuga, Agilent Technologies Japan
The Measurement Standards Center of Agilent Technologies Japan, Ltd. calibrates the Agilent 16380A air capacitor set using the Agilent 8753C RF network analyzer. Our laboratory initiated a project to replace the 8753 series with a model from the new ENA series of RF network analyzer. Consequently this paper describes the effective method for replacing the 8753C with the Agilent E5071B of the ENA series and compares results from both products when measuring the 16380A standard air capacitor set. Considering remote control commands, the 8753 series can be easily replaced by the ENA series. The ENA series also provided better measurement performance than the 8753 series in terms of speed, stability and trace noise.


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CP_05_91_KASUGA