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Conference Proceedings 2006 (76)

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Picture of the productAn Aerosol Concentration Primary Standard
Miles C Owen, U.S. Army TMDE Activity
This paper presents a method created to calibrate a condensation particle counter (CPC) used to measure aerosol concentration by comparison to a primary standard aerosol electrometer, traceable to the U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL). The electrometer measures the current produced by an aerosol flow containing particles with a known charge distribution. By measuring the aerosol volumetric flow rate and the number of charges over time, the particle concentration can be calculated through a traceable electronic measurement. This is then compared to the CPC's optical measurement. A charge correction factor is used to correlate the two different measurement methods.


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CP_06_9C_3_OWEN
Picture of the productAn Approximation Method For Finding Emissivity and Temp.
Larry J. Paul, The Bionetics Corporation
Characterizing temperature sources is required for maintaining a temperature scale. The determination of a blackbody's emissivity and temperature can be found by comparing the measured spectral radiance of a test blackbody to the measured spectral radiance of a standard of known emissivity and temperature. Using Planck's law, calculating the temperature and emissivity of the blackbody can be accomplished by finding the temperature that minimizes the standard deviation of emissivity measurements. This can require specialized programming. An approximation method can be employed that uses simple statistical functions. The temperature and the emissivity of the standard blackbody are known within uncertainties.


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CP_06_5B_1_PAUL
Picture of the productAn Intercomparison of a Two-Pressure/Two-Temperature Frost
Ken Soleyn, Product Manager Metrology, GE Sensing
Dew point sensors are used in industry to detect the presence of small levels of water vapor. Critical measurements in compressed air, breathing air, metals processing, battery making, plastics processing, natural gas and petrochemical production require water vapor levels to remain in the 16000 PPMv (parts per million by volume) or equivalent -76 to 0ºC Td (frost point temperature) range or less. Two Temperature/Two Pressure Generators are used to supply a test gas steam for calibrating and validating a wide variety of sensors and instruments. The system produces a controlled dew or frost point temperature (Td) by saturating air or other test gas at a depressed temperature in a pressure controlled vessel. The gas exiting the saturator is then depressurized and warmed to the test conditions. Chilled mirror hygrometers fundamentally measure dew or frost point temperature by controlling the temperature of metal mirror to an equilibrium point by the use of feedback from an infrared emitter and detector pair such that the mass of condensed mass of water (frost) is constant. A design of experiment and review of the expected uncertainty of the system will be presented.


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CP_06_8B_3_SOLE
Picture of the productAn Interlaboratory Comparison Of Vector Network Analyzer
Dr. Li Pi Su, US Army Primary Standards Laboratory
This paper will report on an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) of measurements performed on Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs). The ILC was conducted with the three primary standards laboratories of the U.S. Department of Defense and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This provided an appraisal of the capabilities and degree of equivalence of the participant laboratories to perform coaxial Type N 1-port VNA measurements accurately and consistently. This also demonstrated proficiency of VNA operators in the context that they can produce measurement results consistent with other comparable laboratories.


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CP_06_7B_3_SU
Picture of the productAn NMI User's View Of Practical Experience Of The CIPM
Fiona Redgrave, National Physical Laboratory
Much progress has been made since the CIPM MRA was signed in 1999 and a number of lessons learnt. One of the major issues facing the NMIs is that of resourcing. Developing and reviewing the CMCs and coordinating and participating in comparisons has understandably proved very labor intensive, but that level of activity is not sustainable in the long term for the NMIs, particularly as the number of participants in the CIPM MRA continues to grow. Whilst many NMIs have promoted the CIPM MRA to their stakeholders, detailed activities and assistance have been limited during much of the transition period as the information within the KCDB was somewhat limited This paper describes those activities from an NMI's viewpoint, the lessons learnt and the challenges faced in the future, including ensuring that the benefits of the CIPM MRA are taken out into the wider international community and that the CIPM MRA can be developed and sustained in the long term.


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CP_06_10D_1_RED
Picture of the productAn Overview of Josephson Voltage Standard
Yi-hua Tang, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Josephson voltage standard (JVS) system is widely used as the primary voltage standard in many national metrology institutes around the world. A traditional "traceability path" of an unbroken chain of comparisons to stated references does not apply to the case of JVS operated in different locations. However, the equivalence of JVS used by different laboratories must be demonstrated through intercomparisons. This paper reviews the protocols for JVS intercomparison developed in the last decade. This paper will use examples to illustrate various protocols in JVS comparisons. The uncertainty analysis using real JVS comparison data will be demonstrated. New developments and future perspective in the JVS comparison will also be discussed.


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CP_06_1E_2_TANG
Picture of the productAn Overview of Key and Supplementary Comparisons of DC
Dean G. Jarrett, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Key and supplementary comparisons are of interest to the metrology community because they provide the means of demonstrating the degree of equivalence between the measurement capabilities of national metrology institutes. In recent years, NIST has been involved in both key and supplemental comparisons for DC resistance in the range 1 ohm to 1 Gohm. While participating in and piloting several of these comparisons, much has been learned, and as a result, both the comparison process and our view of this process has evolved. Topics that will be addressed here include development of protocols, characterization of standards, uncertainty analysis approaches, and the present status of several comparisons in the area of DC resistance.


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CP_06_1E_1_JARR
Picture of the productApplications of High-Field Asymetric Waveform Ion Mobility
Margaret McCooeye and Zoltán Mester, National Research Council of Canada
High-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry, FAIMS, is a novel gas-phase separation technique, developed at INMS and commercialized by Ionalytics. The FAIMS device operates at ambient conditions and is installed between an atmospheric pressure ion source and the mass spectrometer. Key benefits of the technology include reduced chemical background, increased selectivity and, in some cases, the ability to separate isobaric compounds, often leading to reduced limits of detection and faster analysis times. The first use of FAIMS data in the certification of a reference material was in support of the NIST project to certify ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplements.


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CP_06_4E_2_MCCO
Picture of the productAudits: Why They Aren't Enough
Harry C Spinks, Boston Scientific
Organizations have many ways to evaluate or determine their ability to conform to quality requirements, whether those requirements are internally (i.e. corporate policy) or externally imposed (i.e. regulatory law, etc).

One method in through audits. Calibration/metrology lab will be periodically audited to determine the level of compliance to their own quality manual (policies) and to regulatory requirements if they apply. Of particular interest are audits required by the Food and Drug Administration. The products regulated by the FDA have a direct affect on society whether they be food, medicine, or medical devices. Failure to comply with regulatory requirements could result in serious and significant harm to the public.

Is it possible for a lab to pass audit after audit and still have "holes" in their quality program? Could they be compliant with their own quality policies yet fail to meet regulatory requirements?

These are just some of the questions to be discussed in this paper.


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CP_06_4A_3_SPIN
Picture of the productAutomating and Upgrading the 27.1 kN Dead Weight Machine
Kevin Chesnutwood, National Institute of Standards and Technology
This paper focuses on the automation and upgrades performed on the 27.1 kN (6100 lbf) dead weight machine located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Of the six dead weight machines maintained at NIST, this was the only machine that was not automated under the original automation program in the 1980s. The new automation approach, which incorporates the latest available technology, is detailed and compared to the original automation systems used on the other five dead weight machines.


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CP_06_10E_2_CHE
Picture of the productBalancing Projects Supporting Sustainability Issues
Helen L. Amos, Department of Trade and Industry, National Measurement System
The United Kingdom (UK) National Measurement System (NMS) uses a process of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to allocate its annual £60 million budget for advancing metrology through 20 research and development programmes. Metrology has historically been considered to impact mainly within trade and industry. The increasing importance of sustainability issues means this is no longer the case, and as such it requires the development of the MCDA process used to prioritise funding of metrology programmes in the UK. The decision making process used within the NMS uses an expert panel which is provided with information on the projects up for evaluation.


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CP_06_7D_2_AMOS
Picture of the productBringing Touch Trigger Probe CMM Calibration In House
Shawn Mason, Boston Scientific
This paper will present the in-house development and implementation of a calibration process for calibrating touch trigger probe CMMs using a Master Ball and Step Gages.

Topics covered

♣ Issues and Problems Encountered During the Development
♣ Uncertainty Components and a Uncertainty Budget
♣Calibration Process
♣ Future Improvements
♣Conclusion


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CP_06_2E_2_MASO
Picture of the productCalibrating Linear Distances
Robert A. Ellis, David L Ellis Company, Inc.
Verifying Linear Distances for Brinell, Vickers and Knoop Hardness Testing Systems Using Image Analysis Systems.
Image analysis has grown rapidly in industry for determining linear distances in Brinell, Vickers and Knoop hardness testing. The apparent quick and easy calibration techniques can give the user false security that the system is correct. Since linear distances are a key component of the Brinell , Vickers and Knoop test, it is very important to determine if the system is correctly measuring the linear distance. Typical calibration methods may not give the user a correct bias. Direct verification can best be accomplished by measuring traceable indents from a national laboratory or a secondary laboratory traceable to national laboratory. In addition, lighting and focus can play a significant role in calibrating an Image analysis system used for hardness. These verification / calibration methods are necessary so that Image analysis systems can maintain national and international hardness standards.


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CP_06_13P_3_ELL
Picture of the productCalibration DATA Management System For ISO17025
Masaru Sanoh, Agilent Technologies
There has been much progress in powerful, generic software products for organizing work. However, in the calibration laboratory many tasks are still done by hand or not at all. Unable to down load the working standard data in graphical form. Visual trend analysis of calibration data is not available. Historical data (if available) is in various formats on individual test stations. Environmental data recorded manually (Humidity, temperature) or paper records from a chart recorder. Customer information recorded manually, even for returning customers. Does this describe a laboratory environment for which you are responsible? This paper will describe how the Measurement Standards Center of Agilent Technologies International Japan, Ltd. addressed these issues. By creating a user friendly custom application constructed on the MS Word, MS Excel and MS Access platforms, we have improved our systems to store and re-use consistent data about calibrations from a common data base. As a result, improved quality and efficiency have proven to be a bountiful return on this investment.


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CP_06_7C_3 SANO
Picture of the productCalibration of an Electrometer From 100 fA to 500 fA
Miles C Owen, U.S. Army TMDE Activity
A method is presented with parameters traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to accurately generate and measure a standard DC current in the range of 100fA to 500fA (fA = 10-15 Amps). The measurement system consists of a voltage source, 100GΩ (1011 Ohms) resistor, multimeter, and digital electrometer. A custom-made Faraday cage is used to improve the signal to noise ratio. Based on Ohm’s law, the voltage source and resistor create a calculable current used to calibrate the electrometer. Uncertainties are estimated to be 2% from 500fA to 300fA, and 5% from 300fA to 100fA.


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CP_06_9B_2_OWEN
Picture of the productCharacterization and Calibration of an Optical Time Domain
Kenneth C. Blaney, U. S. Air Force, AFMETCAL
We report the results of an investigation into the signal characteristics and behavior of an instrument used to calibrate optical time domain reflectometers (OTDRs). This instrument implements the Telecommunications Industry Association standard TIA/EIA-455-226 "External Source Method." Previous results of calibrations performed at various US Air Force Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratories have included some anomalous pulse delays. Our investigation focused on identifying the cause of this anomalous behavior and developing corrective procedures for it. We also describe the measurement method and associated uncertainty analysis used to calibrate optical fiber delay lines employed in the calibration of the OTDR calibrator.


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CP_06_5B_2_BLAN
Picture of the productCMM Calibration and the ISO Standards
Edward P. Morse, Ph.D., Center for Precision Metrology, UNC Charlotte
Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) are evaluated to National and International standards for the purpose of commerce, i.e. the buying and selling of measuring machines. In addition, periodic re-verification is required so that the continued validity of measurements is assured. However, the data obtained from these measuring tests are used for other purposes, among them: suitability for various measuring tasks and inferring measurement uncertainty.


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CP_06_2E_3_MOR
Picture of the productComparison of Results of the Volume Determination
Jorge Nava-Martínez and Luis M. Peña-Pérez, Centro Nacional de Metrología
Comparison of Results of the Volume Determination of Mass Standards by Weighings in Air and Conventional Hydrostatic Weighing Method.
Two methods for the volume determination of mass standards are compared. The conventional hydrostatic weighing method where the mass standards are immersed in water and weighings in air where the mass standards are subjected to a variation in air density of ± 10 % or less. The balance is installed in an air-tight chamber. Two kilograms were used and uncertainty analysis is compared.


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CP_06_10C_2_NAV
Picture of the productComputer Technology Increases Productivity
Brian Thompson, AssetSmart
Metrology professionals can help increase productivity and efficiency, improve process repeatability by minimizing opportunities for human error, increase internal/external customer satisfaction, achieve and maintain compliance while saving money through advances in computer technologies.

Key points include:

•Discussion of key metrology current drivers including the sharing of common procedures/standards and data, instant worldwide information availability and the need to address new critical regulatory issues including UID and Sarbanes Oxley.
•The desire to eliminate multiple non-integrated "silo" systems to reduce IT administration costs as well as the ability for new technology to be tailored to each lab's unique business requirements without customization.
•Cost savings and value associated with deploying a web/intranet based metrology solution.
• Email-based notifications and workflow resulting in instant paperless delivery of alerts and documents while keeping stakeholders continuously involved in the asset management process to ensure accurate user/location records.


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CP_06_1C_2_THO
Picture of the productCOOMET: An Overview
Hans-Dieter Velfe, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
COOMET is the regional metrology organisation (RMO) of eastern European and Asian countries; other countries may join COOMET as Associated members. The paper gives a short review of the history of COOMET and a description of its tasks, its members and its organisational structure. It deals with the project activities of COOMET. A focus of activities is related to the efforts of COOMET NMIs for the realization of the CIPM MRA. The presentation ends with a short view on the perspective and the strategy for the future of our RMO.


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CP_06_4D_1_VELF
Picture of the productCrosscheck On Realisation of Illuminance Scale Between NML
Mohd Nizam Abdullah, National Metrology Laboratory
We crosschecked illuminance realisations between NML-SIRM and KRISS. The illuminance scale of NML-SIRIM is traceable to NPL, UK, by annually calibrating photometers and luminous intensity lamps. To prepare an artefact for the crosscheck, at KRISS, we measured spectral responsivity of a photometer using a spectral responsivity comparator traceable to a cryogenic radiometer. The external aperture area of the photometer was measured using a two-axis translator with a microscope. Through this approach, preparation of artefacts is crucial in respective of spectral responsivity scale. Uncertainty of the artefact photometer is less than 0.5 % (k=2) in terms of illuminance responsivity. The setup and procedure for the crosscheck is described in detail.


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CP_06_5B_3_ABDU
Picture of the productDCMA's Government Contract Quality Assurance Program
Robert Field, Defense Contract Management Agency
The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) is responsible for helping to assure that products and services provided by industry on U.S. Department of Defense, NASA and international contracts comply with business and technical requirements. Where contracts include technical and management system requirements, DCMA performs technical surveillance of supplier, and where necessary, sub-supplier operations. This paper describes the new DCMA Product Assurance Policies that implement the Agency's contract quality assurance program required under the United States Government Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 46, Quality Assurance.


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CP_06_8A_1_FIEL
Picture of the productDetermination of Uncertainties for Temperature Fixed Point
Doug Scheck, Bionetics Corporation
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) defines temperature values over the range of -259.3467 to 961.78 °C at fourteen Fixed Points. ITS-90 temperature values between these Fixed Points are defined using a Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SPRT) as an interpolation device. In order to determine the uncertainty of the values produced by an SPRT between the Fixed Points an uncertainty propagation analysis must be performed. Due to variations between SPRTs (non-uniqueness) the uncertainty propagation is different for each SPRT. This paper shows data for fixed points ranging from the Triple Point of Argon (-189.3442 °C) to the Freezing Point of Zinc (419.527 °C). The uncertainties at the fixed points are then used to determine the uncertainties of the applicable subranges. The method for determining the uncertainty propagation of a typical SPRT is explained in detail. Examples are given for ITS-90 subranges 4, 7, and 8. The method described may be applied to other ITS-90 subranges.


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CP_06_1B_2_SCH
Picture of the productEn Number 101
Michael A.V. Cruz, Metrology Consultant, Science Technology & Research, Inc.
Have you ever asked the question "what is an En Number?" If you have you are not alone. I had the opportunity to ask several senior metrologists recently and the only answer I received was "I'll get back to you on that one". En Number (denoted as En in ISO Guide 43-1) is a widely used method in analyzing performance levels in inter-laboratory comparisons. Well, I had discussions with metrology statisticians and did additional researched on En and finally came to a basic understanding on its use and application. Understanding the meaning and use of En can be a very useful tool to the working metrologist. The intent of this paper is to describe the basic understanding and application of En to your inter-laboratory measurement data.


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CP_06_4A_1_CRUZ
Picture of the productEducating the Customer About Calibration?
Graeme C. Payne, IndySoft, Inc.
The people who are customers of calibration often do not have the same understanding of calibration that we do. Also, while many understand that calibration is required by quality standards, regulations or laws, they often do not understand the larger reasons for having instruments calibrated, or the benefits to them or society. Some of the problems include different understandings of what calibration means, or what is involved in the calibration process; and lack of understanding of the problems of interval analysis or equipment substitution. This presentation will give some examples and ideas we can use for increasing that understanding of the calibration process.


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CP_06_5E_3_PAYN
Picture of the productEnhancing Long Scale Digital Multimeters and Calibrators
Mark Evans and Tim Stark, Guildline Instruments Limited
This paper discusses some developments in utilizing automation of a Direct Current Comparator based resistance measurement system [1] to improve the working specification of long scale Digital Multimeters and Multi-Function Calibrators Resistance Functions. With the use of automation in the Direct Current Comparator based system, minimal user intervention is required to perform a complete traceable characterization for the resistance functions of these devices that will allow short term specifications be applied with long term type calibration. It now becomes practical to utilize frequent complete characterization of the resistance functions in both Long Scale Digital Multimeters, and Multifunction Calibrators. This frequent calibration cycle enables the use of these standards as transfer devices and operate them beyond the manufacturer’s specification.


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CP_06_2B_3_EVAN
Picture of the productEnhancing Trade Facilitation and Market Access
Edward Nemeroff, MAS-Q Consulting
Trade is the crucial driver for economic growth in developing countries. In seeking to expand international trade, it is virtually impossible to underestimate the importance of adopting and implementing international practices in the area of metrology, accreditation, standardization and certification (MAS-Q), as they provide a vital link to global trade, market access and export competitiveness. In view of the ever increasing globalization of trade and investment and the widespread adoption of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and other regional trade agreements such as in the European Union, rules on non-tariff trade barriers, adopting and implementing these approaches has become a central political task for many countries as well as an enormous challenge.


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CP_06_1D_1_NEME
Picture of the productEvolution of Philosophy and Description of Measurement
Charles Ehrlich, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Different approaches to the philosophy and description of measurement have evolved over time, and are still evolving. There is not always a clear demarcation between approaches, but rather a blending of concepts and terminologies from one approach to another. This sometimes causes confusion when trying to ascertain the objective of measurement in the different approaches, since the same term may be used to describe different concepts in the different approaches. Important examples include the concepts and terms value, true value, error, probability and uncertainty. This paper examines the evolution of common philosophies and ways of describing measurement, highlighting some of the differences and providing some of the rationale for the entries and structure of the March 2006 draft of the 3rd Edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology, Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms, or VIM3.


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CP_06_5C_1_ERLI
Picture of the productFuture Developments in EUROMET
Michael Kühne, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
In 1987 EUROMET was established as a cooperation of European National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) with the objective to promote the co-ordination of metrological activities and services with the purpose of achieving higher efficiency. Since the foundation of EUROMET the number of members has grown to now 33 NMIs and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission represented by IRMM. In 1999 EUROMET became - as a Regional Metrological Organisation - strongly involved in the realisation of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the CIPM. NMI activities within EUROMET focussed on calibration and measurement capability review and review of the Quality Management Systems (QMS) of its members.


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CP_06_5D_1_KUHN
Picture of the productHigh Precise Thermo-Anemometer
Andrzej Rachalski, Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences
The presented work paper describes a high accuracy method of gas flow velocity measurements. The method employs a continuous, sine thermal wave rather than a short pulse. Computer controlled CTA system constraints transmitter's overheating ratio to vary sinusoidal with predicted amplitude and frequency regardless of flow velocity. Presented analysis, based on the heat conduction equation leads to formulas necessary to flow velocity calculation as well as requirements for probe and range of velocity to be measured. There are two techniques applied in velocity measurements: the first consists of the phase shift measurements at established wave frequency and the other where the phase shift was measured at some manifold wave frequencies and then the dependence the phase shift on the frequency was used .Described method is destined to calibration of wind tunnels as auxiliary methods and to precise measurements of laminar flows.


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CP_06_12P_1_RAC
Picture of the productImproved AC-DC Current Transfer Standards
Torsten Funck, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
Recent developments resulted in new planar multijunction thermal converters on quartz substrate (QPMJTC), which are now used as the basic calculable ac-dc current transfer standards with very small uncertainties. To reduce the contribution of the measurement set-up to the uncertainty budget, potential driven guarding has been implemented. With new current shunts from the National Metrology Institute of Norway, Justervesenet (JV) and a new transconductance amplifier the frequency range of the ac-dc current transfer has been increased up to 1 MHz and 1 A. The current level dependence of the ac-dc difference of the current shunts is the predominant uncertainty contribution in the step-up procedure starting from 40 mA to higher currents. With the newly developed high current micropotentiometers the current level dependence of the Justervesenet shunts has been measured to be negligibly small up to 10 A. A newly designed single-stage current transformer for up to 100 A and 100 kHz with the ratio of 100 to 1 allows to evaluate the current level dependences of the ac-dc difference of current shunts from 30 A to 100 A.


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CP_06_8E_1_FUNC
Picture of the productImprovement Study on the Use of Dry-Well Calibrators
Mingjian Zhao, Fluke Hart Scientific
Since dry-well (dry-block) calibrators are designed primarily for convenience and efficiency in a calibration process, a few inherent limitations are inevitable. In order to reduce calibration errors and improve the performance of dry-well calibrators, a new dry-well calibrator with dual-zone control was developed at Fluke Hart Scientific. The performance of the new dual-zone dry-well was evaluated. Horizontal and vertical temperature gradients in the block and stability and hysteresis of the control sensor are main deficiencies that affect the performance of dry-well calibrators. Besides the inherent deficiencies of dry-well calibrators, correct use is also very critical to minimize calibration errors. Some common operational mistakes and measurement errors will be discussed. Based on the test results, a few methods to reduce the measurement errors will be introduced. Several PRTs with different structures were calibrated at fixed points and then tested in the dual-zone drywell to identify measurement errors.


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CP_06_1B_3_ZHAO
Picture of the productImprovements in the NIST Calibration Service
Thomas E. Lipe and Joseph R. Kinard, National Institute of Standards and Technology
We report on multiple improvements made in the calibration services offered for thermal converters and thermal transfer standards in the AC-DC Difference Standards and Measurement Techniques Project at NIST during the past year. The major improvement in this calibration is the consolidation of three disparate calibration services low voltage thermal transfer standards, low-frequency thermal converters, and RF-dc difference calibrations into the AC-DC Project. This consolidation has the immediate benefit of offering NIST calibration customer's one source for ac-dc calibrations from 2 mV to 1000 V and from 10 Hz to 1 GHz. In addition, bringing these calibration services together results in a marked improvement in efficiency, allowing us to lower the fees for thermal converter calibrations, and reduce the turnaround time for calibrations. Finally, the new combined calibration service will implement recent technical achievements in the AC-DC Project to reduce the uncertainties offered for thermal converter calibrations.


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CP_06_10B_3_LIP
Picture of the productInter-Comparability Tests of Gas Flow Measurement Standards
Jiunn-Haur Shaw, Center for Measurement Standards/ITRI
This paper describes the proficiency evaluation of the low-pressure air-flow national standards at Center for Measurement Standards (CMS). Three sets of gas flow standard facility, namely, a Brooks five-tube piston prover, a 60liter small bell prover and a 600liter large bell prover, were verified and quantified of those uncertainty sources based on the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The expanded uncertainties for mass flow rate measurement are 0.1%, 0.19%, and 0.14%, for piston, small bell and large bell, respectively. In order to validate the claimed uncertainties and to check the measurement consistency among these standards during calibration services, three different sizes of Laminar Flow Elements (LFE) and two Critical Flow Venturies (CFV) were taken as transfer standards for comparison tests.


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CP_06_12P_2_SHA
Picture of the productInter-comparison Example
Maritoni Litorja, National Institute of Standards and Technology
This paper overviews results from the Supplementary Comparison S2 organized by Consultative Committee on Photometry and Radiometry (CCPR). It details measurement and analysis of aperture areas involving 9 laboratories using 8 distinct artifacts, each having a different nominal value.

Individual laboratory estimates are compared with a comparison reference value (RV). The evaluation also includes the investigation of effects attributable to different measurement methods. Three artifacts were measured by several laboratories using both contact and noncontact methods. The pilot laboratory proposed the use of an optional second method to compare the bias of these methods (validation of methods) of the two different methods. More complex experimental designs would enable the study of other influential factors such as differing manufactures or measurement positioning schemes.


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CP_06_4B_3_LITO
Picture of the productIntroduction of Metrology Training in Japan
Shoichiro SHIN, National Metrology Institute of Japan
Metrology Training Center of National Measurement Institute of Japan is an organization of legal metrology training for people from local governments in Japan and of training for certified measurers from private enterprises. There are two state examinations of metrology in Japan. One is Environmental Certified Measurer (of concentration measurement or of acoustic noise and vibration) and another is General Certified Measurer. Some of the General Certified Measurers are responsible for inspection of specified measuring instrument in legal metrology, for example, scales used in a supermarket and so on and half of them work for quality control and measurement control in private enterprises. The cost of the trainings for people of local governments in Japan is paid by the government of Japan and there are many courses of from 3-days to 3-months trainings for legal metrology.
Outlines of the curriculum and the trainings of these courses are introduced.


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CP_06_2C_1_SHIN
Picture of the productJCSS Calibration System for Capacitance Standard in Japan
Akihiko Shimoyama, Japan Electric Meters Inspection Corporation(JEMIC)
This paper presents the calibration system of the Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS) for the capacitance standard. The capacitance standard in Japan Electric Meters Inspection Corporation (JEMIC) is maintained using a 100 pF capacitor and is supplied by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Furthermore, the capacitance standard is extended from 10 pF to 10 ΟF using a high-precision transformer bridge (10:1 ratio) based on the 100 pF capacitor. The best measurement capability (BMC) is 0.73 ΟF/F (k = 2) at 100 pF and 1 kHz.


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CP_06_9B_3_SHIM
Picture of the productk=3.9 ? . . . Why Not ??
Howard Zion, Transcat, Inc.
This paper will begin with an elementary review of the differences between TAR and TUR, underscoring the reasons for ISO-17025 and the GUM. In the discussion on TUR, a demonstration of the application of k=2 will be presented with respect to the UUTs tolerance.

Previous NCSLI papers discussing "Indeterminate" calibration results will be addressed and quantified, illustrating the probability that a reading may indeed be out of tolerance (OOT). When attempting to determine this probability using k=2 for the reporting of a TUR, a problem arises if the entire area under the Normal Probability Density Function is not considered: the result is a misrepresentation of the OOT probability.

This will lead to the concept that, although k=2 is a good reporting format for the uncertainty of a measurement, TURs should be standardized using k=3.9. It is the authors hope that this will spark discussion that will take the Metrology industry to the next step in tackling this Indeterminate area.


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CP_06_5A_2_ZION
Picture of the productLaboratory Accreditation and the APLAC MRA
Dr. W L Richards, Chief Executive IANZ
Laboratory accreditation is independent, authoritative, credible recognition of competence of the laboratory to undertake specific tests. The accreditation assessment process is by peer review, and uses compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 as the basis of the competence assessment. Details of the relevance of such assessments, in a number of industrial sectors, are given.

In the Asia Pacific region (which includes Canada, the United States and Mexico as an integral part of its geography), a number of accreditation bodies have worked together to form the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Co-operation (APLAC). APLAC developed a regional mutual recognition arrangement (MRA) in 1997, which now has 23 accreditation authorities as signatories, from 17 economies. APLAC signatories include accreditation authorities from Canada, Mexico and the United States. Full details of all signatories to the APLAC MRA are given.

The APLAC (MRA) provides a means to recognise competent laboratories from other economies, where they have been accredited by their local accreditation authority. Many regulators throughout the Asia Pacific region now rely upon accreditation, and the APLAC MRA, as assurance of rigour and credible validated measurement, in test reports to meet their mandatory requirements. Details of such recognition, and the consequent reduction in technical barriers to trade, are given with examples. The role of regulators, and their use of accreditation is discussed in some detail.


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CP_06_10A_2_RIC
Picture of the productLaboratory Accreditation--Impact on Society
John A. Wehrmeyer, Principal Consultant,
Quality Consultants of New York
Laboratory accreditation has had a growing and significant influence on the world of calibration and testing. Over the past decade, there has been a major increase in the number of laboratories which have sought and achieved accreditation of their services. In addition, a number of new accrediting bodies have been founded.

This presentation takes a critical look at the impact of laboratory accreditation and how it has affected the quality of the services delivered. It addresses such issues as the cost/benefit ratio of accreditation, the strengths and weaknesses of the process, and how accreditation might be improved.


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CP_06_10A_3_WEH