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Conference Proceedings 2007 (99)

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Picture of the product20° C - A Short History of the Standard Reference Temp.
Ted Doiron, National Institute of Standards and Technology
While most dimensional metrologists know that the reference temperature for dimensional measurements is 20° C , very few know how or why that temperature was chosen. Many people have thought it was, in some sense, arbitrary. In actuality, the decision was the result of 20 years of thought, discussion, and negotiations that resulted in the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) unanimous adoption of 20 °C as the reference temperature on April 15, 1931.


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CP_07_4B_1_DOIR
Picture of the product2007 State Laboratory Program Workload Survey
Elizabeth J. Gentry, National Institute of Standards and Technology
The State Weights and Measures Laboratory Program survey is conducted to quantify the workload of the 55 State Laboratory Program (SLP) metrology laboratories and document its impact on the United States economy. The results of previous surveys have been used extensively at NIST to gain support and attention for the State Laboratories, plan and maximize program effectiveness, and assemble budget proposals. The surveys are useful for identifying workload diversities on a national level and serve as a resource to industry in identifying the level of service available from each SLP laboratory. The survey has served as a significant resource when State laboratory administrators must provide justification of their program or when proposing changes to staffing and service rates.

The survey reporting deadline was April 15, 2007. This preliminary report provides an overview of survey information that will be provided in textual and graphical form at the 2007 NCSLI Conference in St. Paul, Minnesota. These results will be accompanied by a comparative analysis reflecting the changes that have occurred over the eleven years since the first survey was conducted.


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CP_07_11A_1_GEN
Picture of the productA Case Study In Characterizing & Disciplining Electrical
Jack Somppi, Fluke Corporation
This paper examines a solution to the problem of insufficient accuracy of calibration sources used for dc and low frequency ac electrical voltage, resistance, and current calibration when the instruments being tested have an accuracy which approaches that of the calibrator. The solution lies in techniques of using higher accuracy precision measurement devices to characterize the calibrator and thereby improve the measurement uncertainties obtained in these tests.

Problem Statement: Quite often the accuracy of the most commonly used electrical calibrators is insufficient to adequately verify performance of the better performance test instrumentation. For example the higher precision 6½ digital multimeters that are commonly used in industry must be tested with signal accuracies that are better than the capabilities of the most commonly used calibrators. Laboratories equipped with these “better but not best” calibrators find they must
    1) use a different and more accurate calibrator, or
    2) develop the metrology techniques which provide the proper measurement uncertainties (or test specification ratios) to satisfy these better units to be tested, or
    3) be forced to provide a limited calibration with less than desired quality.

Proposed Solution: Using the precision 8½ digit multimeters commonly found in metrology labs to characterize or discipline lesser accuracy calibrators is a method to source signals with improved accuracies and provide appropriate measurement uncertainties.

Benefit: Using improved metrology techniques with existing instrumentation is very attractive when compared to investing to replace a lab’s lesser performing calibrators. However, such accuracy enhancement techniques haven’t necessarily been rigorously studied. So many laboratories haven’t implemented these techniques due to a lack of understanding or technical support. This paper evaluates several techniques and methods used to obtain test accuracies that are more than sufficient to make proper tests of higher performance dmms.

Summary: This paper is a case study of metrology methods that offer improved accuracies and measurement uncertainties for the calibration of a precision 6½ dmm using a calibrator with some initial test ratios less than 2:1, and ending up with metrology where these tests have been improved to ratios of more than 4:1.


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CP_07_11C_3_SOM
Picture of the productA Comprehensive Metrology Program
David E. Schiebel, Butler Community College
The metrology program at Butler County Community College was first offered during the fall semester of 1981. The program founders wanted to establish a program designed to supply the need for standards and calibration laboratory technicians for industry and government agencies. Early on, they recognized the need for a comprehensive metrology program. Comprehensive implies that the program will cover a broad range of metrology practices. A program that would train the student to be competent in such a broad range of skills, and in only two years, seemed virtually impossible. We would educate the student to the field of metrology and leave the specific training to the employer - a partnership, so to speak. Contrary to popular belief, education and training are not the same. Yes they are closely related, but they are not synonymous terms. For my presentation, I will first show the difference between the two. I will then explain how we (BC3 faculty/staff and Metrology Program Advisors) were able to use that concept to develop, and maintain, a successful Comprehensive Metrology Program.


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CP_07_5A_3_SCHI
Picture of the productA Dual-Channel Microwave Attenuation Measurement System
Thomas Y. Wu, National Metrology Center, SPRING Singapore
A microwave attenuation measurement system has been developed to calibrate microwave attenuators from 50 MHz to 26.5 GHz. The system is based on a dual channel audio frequency (AF) substitution method, designed to obtain high precision coherent measurement. The attenuation value is derived from a reference inductive voltage divider (IVD) at 1 kHz. The system is capable of measuring microwave attenuation from 0.001 dB to 110 dB. The expanded system measurement uncertainty (k=2) for a 20 dB attenuator at 5 GHz is estimated to be 0.0014 dB. This paper describes the design and its implementation considerations, as well as the performance evaluation of the system.


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CP_07_11E_1_WU
Picture of the productA Practical System to Evaluate the Non-Linearity of 4TP
Koichi Mitsuo Agilent Technologies International Japan, Ltd.
Non-Linearity characteristics of a commercial four-terminal-pair (4TP) LCR meter can be a contributor to the uncertainty of a 1:1, direct comparison, capacitance measurement. The 4TP capacitance measurement procedure has been previously described in the literature by our organization. This paper will deal with problems encountered when characterizing the LCR meter. Evaluating the LCR meter non-linearity has been a manual process. In addition, the test system construction required many complex connections. An effort was made to improve the manual process by making a special interface fixture. Further improvement to the measurement and data management was realized by adding software automation.


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CP_07_7F_2_MITS
Picture of the productA Quality Calibration System
Jay L. Bucher, Promega Corporation
Whether a company is trying for registration to ISO 9000 standards, or accreditation to ISO 17025, or trying to make a good, valid, repeatable measurement they will need to have a system of some sort, and it is just as easy to implement a quality system as opposed to a non-quality system. But what is a quality system? The basic premise and foundation of a good quality calibration system is to "Say what you do, do what you say, record what you did, check the results, and act on the difference". Within this quality system are the basics for any calibration or metrology function: calibration procedures, traceability, uncertainty, calibration records, environmental controls, out-of-tolerance procedures, etc.


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CP_07_8C_1_BUCH
Picture of the productA Unified Approach to Multisensor Information Fusion
Sören Kammel, University of Karlsruhe, Germany
Every measurement task can be seen as a parameter estimation problem aiming at both the value of the measurand and the uncertainty associated with it. The measurement process provides one or more values or signals that contain information about the measurand. To optimally exploit the knowledge on the measurand, this information should be combined with the available additional information on the technical and external factors influencing the measurement result. Integrating additional sensors or information sources and performing a fusion of all information available can further enhance this inference process. The paper presents a unified description of both uncertainty evaluation and multisensor information fusion approaches in measurement systems. Additionally, it presents general criteria on how to successfully carry out such parameter estimation and fusion tasks.


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CP_07_11D_2_PUE
Picture of the productA user guide to the information in the Key Comparison Data
Prof A. J. Wallard, BIPM
The launch of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM MRA) created a process within which calibration and measurement certificates from National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) which are signatories could be recognized and accepted worldwide. This process has become of great interest to regulators and accreditors. More recently, it has attracted the attention of international companies who wish to take advantage of the mutual recognition offered by these certificates by taking traceability to the International System of Units (the SI) through local NMIs. This latter aspect of the use to which the Key Comparison Data Base (KCDB) can be put has recently been made more straightforward as the result of a new search engine installed by the BIPM. The paper describes the current situation and shows how to access the relevant data. The paper will be complemented by a practical demonstration of the KCDB in the exhibition hall of the conference.


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CP_07_3A_1_WALL
Picture of the productAC-DC Transfer Standard Measurements
R. P. Landim, National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality (INMETRO)
We present ac-dc transfer standard measurements using the NIST pulse-driven ac Josephson voltage standard source. We have investigated the frequency dependence for several output voltages up to 200 mV for frequencies from 2.5 kHz to 100 kHz. We found that as the frequency increases, the ac-dc differences for the two arrays on the same chip do not agree. We investigated different attempts of improvement and the deviation in ac-dc difference was reduced by more than 60 %. We also demonstrate ten-fold higher output voltages and improved operating margins for non-sinusoidal waveforms, by implementing a more general current bias to the arrays (having the same harmonic content as that of the synthesized arbitrary waveform).


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CP_07_1E_3_LAND
Picture of the productAchieving Reliable Parts-Per-Billion Calibration
John Poole, GE Industrial Sensing
One of the most difficult process gas contaminants to measure and control is water vapor. Industry directives like the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) define upper limits for its presence in bulk gases. These limits typically fall within the range of 0-100 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). Technologies capable of meeting the necessary uncertainty requirements have a high cost per point of measurement, limiting their application numbers. Aluminum oxide based hygrometers are much less expensive but where long considered too slow and unstable for this demanding application. Recent advances have dramatically improved their performance but regular calibration is still required for the most accurate results. Any claims will be evaluated against our ability to establish an accepted process for generation and control of moisture concentrations at verifiable levels. Complicating matters is the challenge of a universally accepted transfer standard covering this range. Other critical considerations are the demands of both product specifications and production goals. This paper outlines the engineering design and scientific analysis behind the construction of a moisture generation system capable of achieving the necessary performance. This involves both Type-A and Type-B evaluation of the standard uncertainties for the components making up the generator design.


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CP_07_13P_3_POO
Picture of the productActivities of KRISS Measurement Club in Korea
K. W. Lee, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) is the national metrology institute for establishing and disseminating the measurement standards and technologies in Korea. Over 30 years at KRISS, many important technologies have been studied and developed from conventional standards, such as Cesium atomic clock or Josephson voltage standard, to more advanced technologies, such as SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy) depth profiling analysis for semiconductor industries, and even to the measurement of odorous aldehydes for environmental analysis laboratories.


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CP_07_7D_3_LEE
Picture of the productAn Evaluation of Dual Quartz Resonant Pressure Transducer
John Ball, John Ball Consulting
The Army is considering the use of transfer standards rather than traditional, hierarchical methods to support high accuracy calibration requirements in tactical environments. Such schemes have the potential to improve accuracy, reduce cost, shrink logistical overhead, and eliminate the need to evacuate calibration equipment from the theater of operation. The Army selected its next set of tactical pressure calibration equipment (from atmosphere to 20 MPa) with transfer calibration specifically in mind as the support concept of preference. The following presents an overview of the evolving Army transfer calibration system for pneumatic pressure and an evaluation of the expected performance of the selected quartz resonant transducer-based transport standard in this demanding application. Relevant data from commercial and government laboratories on quartz resonant pressure transducers, along with the results of the author's engineering tests are summarized in the context of the proposed application. Methods have application beyond the military.


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CP_07_8E_2_BALL
Picture of the productAn Overview of Recently Published ASME B89 Standards
Brian Parry P.E., The Boeing Company
In recent years, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers B89 Committee on Dimensional Metrology has published a number of American National Standards and Technical Reports related to metrology. The scope of these documents covers the basic evaluation of measuring devices and systems to measurement uncertainty, including publications on decision rules, risk analysis and traceability. Published documents also include revisions to previously published standards, such as plug and ring gages, to reflect technological advances and the perceived need to have an estimate of some loosely defined measurement uncertainty statement.

This paper gives an overview of these new and reaffirmed standards, with a particular emphasis on ASME B89.4.22-2004 - Methods for Performance Evaluation of Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines, written jointly by users, manufacturers and representatives from academia and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Due to the ambiguity of articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMM) specifications on the market, the comparative evaluation of performance characteristics was at best, extremely difficult, if not impossible. Because of this and the increasing use of this class of measurement equipment, the ASME B89 Standards Committee accepted the task to write an industry standard applicable to these machines. Where possible, the Standard parallels ASME B89.4.1b-2001 for “conventional” coordinate measuring machines. Part of the impetus to write the Standard was based on an evaluation of the applicability of the B89.4.1 standard (then B89.1.12) conducted by NIST.

The Standard addresses the performance evaluation of AACMMs by supplying standardized definitions and test procedures. These procedures enable users to determine if an AACMM is appropriate for their specific requirements. It should also provide a comparative basis to evaluate machines from different suppliers. Considerable time and energy was devoted to discussing and documenting the evaluation and presentation of the data analysis.


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CP_07_1B_1_PARR
Picture of the productApplying Metrology in Support of International Power Quality
Paul Clarkson, National Physical Laboratory
In recent years there has been a plethora of international standards limiting the detrimental effects of electrical products on the quality of the mains power supply. Manufactures are now required to comply with these standards in order to sell into various markets, such as Europe. These standards continue to evolve in response to technical issues and the competing demands of electricity utility companies and product manufactures. For a manufacturer, failure to comply with these standards can mean lost time to market.


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CP_07_2F_3_WRIG
Picture of the productApproximate Entropy for Testing Randomness of Measurement
Jorge Cogno, INTI
This paper explores the numerical calculation of the information entropy embedded in a set of measurement values, and particularly the application of a metrics called approximate entropy (ApEn) and related statistics ApEn(2,r,N). ApEn proves to be useful in revealing the existence of regularity patterns not shown by other techniques such as autocorrelation or power spectrum, by allowing to obtain a single number indicative of the amount of patternness, from orderly to random, present in sequential measurement data. Capabilities of ApEn and autocorrelation of first- and second- order differences (AFOD-ASOD) to detect subtle patternness in real measurement data are put under test, and compared with analytical expressions for IID Gaussian processes.


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CP_07_10C_1_COG
Picture of the productAre gas pumps measuring up? Mexican experience
Heinz Luchsinger, Chief, Flow and Volume Metrology Division, Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM)
Advances in measurement and electronics technology have allowed manufactures to produce improved fuel dispensers that offer the consumer fair and convenient transactions at the gas station. However, authorities are having a difficult time developing reliable conformity assessment procedures that assure the consumer the same sophisticated technology is not working against them. This paper describes the experience of CENAM in assessing the conformity of fuel dispensers sold in Mexico to the new, more stringent regulations issued in the last two years. The issues discussed include a comparison of the measurement capabilities of modern dispensers with the tolerance accepted by the standard and the difficulties involved in verifying the software and electronic components that compute and display the total sale amount.


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CP_07_2D_3_CAST
Picture of the productASQ Certified Calibration Technician (CCT) Exam
Dilip A. Shah, E = mc3 Solutions
ASQ certifications have had a history of recognition for over 35 years and they are recognized and endorsed internationally by major corporations. The ASQ Certified Calibration Technician Exam was first offered in 2003 and shall approach its fifth anniversary in 2008 with over 750 candidates passing the exam. This presentation discusses how the CCT Exam and its body of knowledge are developed and reviewed so that it is current with industry practices and requirements. The process is explained to provide the audience with insight, value and appreciation of the ASQ certification exams.


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CP_07_10A_1_SHA
Picture of the productAssessment Tools For Metrology Training Needs
Gary C. Meyer, Consultant, J&G Technology
Most managers acknowledge the need for good metrology training. Improvement of measurements and calibration comes from having trained personnel who can apply quality techniques to their jobs. The question is "What training is required to improve measurements and instrument calibration?" In some cases, the required training may be a matter of vocabulary and communication. In other cases, cognitive knowledge related to a specific area of metrology such as temperature, dimensional, physical, or electrical measurements may be needed. Another improvement topic may include application of quality procedures and adaptation of industry policies/procedures to serve company missions and goals. Due to the wide mix of topics, a rather complex matrix of training needs often evolves. This paper suggests some useful tools to simplify the process.


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CP_07_10A_2_MEY
Picture of the productCalculating Propagated Uncertainties Using Higher Order
Dennis W. Dubro, Ph. D., Pacific Gas & Electric Company
Most metrologists can easily calculate the variance in a multi-variate uncertainty analysis using the Law of Propagation of Uncertainties in their sleep. However, the G.U.M. (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement) alludes to the possibility that a measurement model might be sufficiently non-linear in the measurement parameters, that the usual method of calculation may not be adequate. This paper investigates the difficulty and properties of such a non-linear calculation by extending a measurement model out to three orders of a Taylor series expansion in two variables and compares the results with the G.U.M.'s mysterious suggestion of what the next most significant terms might look like. We come to the conclusion that the paucity of additional treatment in the G.U.M. is a clear suggestion that a metrologist would probably not want to venture there if (s)he could possibly avoid it.

The intended audience is practical metrologists who routinely perform uncertainty analyses. Almost all uncertainty analyses are based upon linear approximations of the measurement model. This paper investigates the extension of existing theory to a nonlinear model and will help metrologists decide if such a model might be of benefit to their particular work.


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CP_07_4C_2_DUBR
Picture of the productCalculation of Effective Area and Uncertainty for a Dim.
Michael Bair, DH Instruments, Inc.
Dimensional measurements of piston-cylinders for the purpose of defining effective area have improved to a level that allows laboratories to use them as primary references for pressure. Because of their relatively large size and uniform cylindrical geometry, DHI’s 50 mm tungsten carbide piston-cylinders are frequently utilized as primary standards in pressure based on a dimensionally characterized effective area. Because of the very low uncertainties in diameter, roundness and straightness measurements, it is essential to properly model the piston-cylinder annular space based on those dimensional measurements. This paper describes a model for calculating the effective area from dimensional measurements and also provides a method for calculating the uncertainty in the resultant effective area and final uncertainty in pressure.


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CP_07_5B_3_BAIR
Picture of the productCalibrating Laser Vacuum Wavelength with a GPS-based Optic
Jack Stone, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
The Global Positioning System (GPS) can deliver an exceptionally accurate frequency standard to any point in the world. When we use the GPS signal to control an optical frequency comb, the comb+GPS system provides laser light with well-known frequencies (or equivalently, vacuum wavelengths) over much of the optical spectrum between 0.53 ìm and 2 ìm. The comb vacuum wavelengths can serve as primary length standards for calibration of the wavelength of metrology lasers, and the uncertainties of the comb wavelengths are sufficiently low that it is suitable for almost any imaginable task associated with length metrology, The GPS signal is “traceable” in the sense that its uncertainty is continually assessed via measurements at NIST/Boulder, and results of the measurements (in effect, “calibration reports”), are published on the web. Thus it can potentially deliver a traceable standard of unprecedented accuracy to any laboratory, but how can the user be certain that the resulting laser calibrations have comparable accuracy? These calibrations depend not only on the GPS signal but also on much additional equipment (including a disciplined oscillator, optical frequency comb, and optics/electronics for beat frequency measurement), and any such system might contain additional sources of error if it is poorly designed or operated by inexperienced personnel. However, in this paper we argue that internal consistency checks can be effectively used to verify the proper operation of the measurement system. In many respects these internal consistency checks provide better confidence in the results than what is likely to be achieved by more traditional methods of establishing traceability, such as sending an instrument or artifact to NIST for calibration.


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CP_07_2B_3_STON
Picture of the productCalibration of Thermal Converters Using a Quantum AC
Joseph R. Kinard, National Institute of Standards and Technology
We describe the world’s first use of a quantum ac voltage source to calibrate thermal transfer standards as part of the NIST calibration service for these devices. We use a quantum ac standard based on pulsed-programmable Josephson arrays to measure thermal transfer standards at voltages from 2 mV to 100 mV at mid- and upper-audio frequencies with near-quantum accuracy. We describe the measurement process and results, the characterization of the system, determination of uncertainties, and a plan for integrating the quantum ac standard into the routine calibration service for thermal transfers standards. Initial calibrations of a thermal transfer standard indicate that the uncertainties for measurements made directly against the quantum ac standard may be an order of magnitude smaller at the lowest voltages compared to uncertainties achieved by traditional scaling techniques.


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CP_07_1E_1_KINA
Picture of the productCalibration Training in an Industrial Facility
George Jannison, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard
While calibration has always used standards, the processes today are required to assist in the delivery of an ISO 17025 or ANSI Z540 compliant calibration system. Our activity developed a management approved training plan that includes classroom sessions, written tests and proficiency evaluation of calibrators, prior to certification.

The training plan continues to evolve as the quality program and technology add requirements. New measurement areas, instruments and changes in the incoming technician population all demand continuous improvements in the delivery of calibration training. Our local plan addresses numerous levels of calibration accuracy and most measurement areas from our scope. Classes include introduction, local and vendor specific plus occasional technician 'exchanges'.

This paper will discuss these issues as they evolved into the current plan and will point out that the aging work force rather than a challenge can be seen to be a great opportunity.


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CP_07_7A_3_JANN
Picture of the productCalibrators in the Function of Thermocouples Output Sim.
Marco A. Rodríguez Guerrero, Authors: David Avilés C., David Licea P., Centro Nacional de Metrología
In this paper three different methods to calibrate a Multifunction Calibrator (MFC) on thermocouple output simulation are described and analyzed. The method (A) as proposed in the EM/CG11.2 and used by various manufactures of MFC. This needs the realization of the ice point of water in order to have the temperature of reference. In the method (B), the temperature of reference is given by an oil bath whose value is very close to that of the calibrator’s terminals instead of the ice point of water. Finally a proposed method (C) in which the cold junction temperature is measured. This is made by putting a thin film PRT (Platinum resistance thermometer) in close contact with the calibrator’s terminals. A budget of uncertainty sources, based on the GUM (Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement) is also given.


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CP_07_4F_3_RODR
Picture of the productCommon Mistakes and Pitfalls in Estimating the Uncertainty
Yeou-Song (Brian) Lee, Department of Quality Assurance, Anritsu Company
In this paper, the author would like to discuss some of the common mistakes for preparing an uncertainty statement in the microwave and RF measurement field. The two categories I want to focus attentions on are the measurement techniques and mathematical operations. The new draft of the GUM supplements will be addressing the two issues regarding the mismatch and its probability distribution. However, other applications such as the vector network analyzers and the vector signal analyzers have presented several challenges for the users when a statement of measurement uncertainty is made.


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CP_07_11E_3_LEE
Picture of the productComparative measurements of seven standard weights
Adriana VÂLCU, National Institute of Metrology
Interlaboratory comparison consists in intercomparison of measurement results of a laboratory and a reference laboratory which is the country’s highest authority for the measurement concerned.

The aim of an interlaboratory comparison is to verify the competence of accredited or nonaccredited laboratories, including verification of the reported measurement uncertainties, whenever possible.

This paper reports the results of measurements performed on seven standard weights by 15 metrology laboratories throughout Romania. The goal of the Inter-laboratory’s measurements was to provide verification of each participating laboratory’s measurement capability by obtaining a measurement that agrees with the Pilot Laboratory.

The comparison began in 2005 and concluded in 2006, National Institute of Metrology (INM) acting as a pilot (coordinating) laboratory for the program.

As traveling artifacts were used the next standard weights:10 kg, 1 kg, 500 g, 200 g, 100 g, 20 g and 100 mg.

The laboratory’s results are presented for each weight and uncertainty declared. The paper describes the analyzed results using En values (the normalized error used by accreditation bodies) and also the analysis of the results using a reference value (RV-as median ) and degrees of equivalence of each participant with respect to this RV.


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CP_07_10B_3_VAL
Picture of the productComparing Studies of Metrology “Education & Training”
Georgia L. Harris, Weights & Measures Division, NIST
In parallel with the current formulation by NCSLi and others of a strategic roadmap for metrology education and training, a corresponding study in Europe of Metrology knowledge transfer has been initiated in preparation for the new European Metrology Research Programme. The present paper compares and contrasts the approaches and the formulations of these two studies so far and concludes with some suggestions for future cooperation. The European Metrology Research Programme, which starts during the spring 2007, will be a major coordination of the national metrology research programmes with the aim of meeting increased demands for quality-assured measurement in both traditional areas and in new technologies. While research is the main focus, some studies of subsidiary activities such as measurement knowledge transfer have been made in the preparatory European ERA-NET project iMERA, as reported at the NCSLi 2006 conference.


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CP_07_9A_2_HARR
Picture of the productComparison between melting and freezing points of indium
Rong Ding, Fluke Corp. Hart Scientific Division
In the interest of improving convenience and plateau duration, the use of melting points instead of freezing points for temperature fixed points in temperature calibration is considered. The question is whether adequately low uncertainties can be achieved with melting plateaus. Experimental research was carried out to compare the melting and freezing points of indium and zinc by using the inter-comparison method with standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs). Factors that influence the performance of melting plateaus and freezing plateaus of indium and zinc were investigated and discussed here, including the induction method, the furnace maintenance temperature, and the metal sample purities. Different methods for realization of the melting points were studied. Differences in results between the melting points and the freezing points are shown. Uncertainty budget analysis of the melting points is presented. The experimental results show that because of the small differences between the freezing points and melting points using the optimal methods of realization, it is possible to replace the freezing point with the melting point in the calibration of SPRTs in secondary-level laboratories.


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CP_07_8B_2_DING
Picture of the productCreating and Implementing Control Charts for Calibration
Kevin Rust, MTS Systems Corporation
An introduction to development and implementation of control charts and control charting techniques for a variety of measurement disciplines within the MTS Metrology Laboratory.

Utilizing some basic Excel features such as charts and calculations/formulas, various control chart templates have been developed that are easily modified and customized for numerous measurement disciplines.

This process was developed within the MTS Metrology Laboratory for a variety of reasons including:
    1) User friendly.
    2) Easy to customized for each measurement application.
    3) Dynamic and flexible.
    4) Quick and thorough visual reference.
    5) Control - We decide what is necessary for our application.
    6) Detecting trends, potential problems, and monitoring performance over time.
    7) Collecting and analyzing data for analysis and supporting reported measurement uncertainties.
    8) Complements our previously developed uncertainty analysis and budget processes and reports.

These techniques have simplified and improved the overall monitoring and control of measurement processes and have also been used for monitoring performance and training of new calibration technicians.


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CP_07_13P_4_RUS
Picture of the productCreating Courseware for Metrology Training
Kirk Gaburo, Gaburo Associates • WorkPlace Training
The purpose of this presentation is to create an awareness of and appreciation for what goes into the creation of courseware for metrology training. The information presented will be relevant to those who purchase courseware for metrology training, to metrology experts who wish to contribute content to courseware development projects, and to anyone who wants to learn more about the process of courseware development in general.

The presentation begins with an overview of a process used to create courseware for training. The process is decomposed into tasks which are mapped to the diverse skill sets required to perform the tasks. Given the diverse skill sets required, the case is made for a team approach to courseware development.

An ideal, role-based team is considered with a focus on the roles of Subject Matter Expert, Instructional Designer, and Instructional Developer. Tasks, core competencies, and deliverables for each role are profiled. The role of the Instructional Designer is profiled through an overview of the instructional design process and a drilldown into the topic of performance objectives. An example of writing performance objectives using metrology content is given. The traceable relationships between performance objectives, content presentation, and measurement of content mastery is noted.

The presentation concludes with a list of issues that arise when deploying courseware into real-world settings. Issues relating to platform, architecture, integration, interoperability, security, maintenance, and policy are touched upon. Implications for the courseware creation process are considered and a strategy for dealing with deployment issues is offered.


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CP_07_4A_1_GABU
Picture of the productCustomized Computer-Based Training Solutions
Susan Dass, Applied Research Associates, Inc.
The anywhere, anytime solution touted by computer-based training developers doesn’t always fit corporate America. The anywhere, anytime solutions may still need to be customized to the particular business. Recommended practices and accreditation requirements leave room for interpretation and implementation. Many businesses are founded on unique capabilities following proprietary processes to increase profit margins. Small businesses invariably have different business models than large businesses simply because the economies of number, i.e. number of employees, are different. All of these factors cause business to cry out for customized solutions. What they may not realize is that the solution may be just as customizable as the training. This paper will first review the steps in developing a computer-based training program. Then we’ll explore what a customizable computer-based training solution could look like given different levels of funding. We’ll talk about options to reduce cost and how you might identify the greatest return on investment.


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CP_07_4A_3_DASS
Picture of the productDetermination of Temperature Probability Distribution
C. Y. Hung, CMS/ITRI,br>, Precision dimensional measurement is highly sensitive to environmental temperature. The uncertainty in measurement may arise for the change of environmental temperature even if in well controlled laboratories. Therefore, the uncertainty of temperature should be included in the dimensional measurement uncertainty. In most circumstances, it is recommended to evaluate the uncertainty of temperature by a Type B evaluation due to costs or other consideration when we evaluate it by ISO GUM. However, if the hypothesis of the probability distribution of temperature is not appropriate, this will cause inappropriate uncertainty estimation. This paper is mainly provided to help users assume the probability distributions of temperature in their laboratories by observing the scatter diagrams if they cannot collect data of temperature.

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CP_07_5C_2_HUNG
Picture of the productDeveloping a Dissipation Factor for Standard Capacitors
Andrew Koffman, National Institute of Standards and Technology
In response to a growing demand for loss measurements for standard capacitors, staff members in the Quantum Electrical Metrology Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are working to develop a calibration service for dissipation factor. The demand is driven by increased use of commercial automatic capacitance bridges in the calibration of fused-silica dielectric and other standard capacitors, as well as phase measurement needs in power metrology, characterization of chemical and material properties, among other applications.

The calibration method uses fused-silica standard capacitors of values 1 pF, 10 pF, and 100 pF that have been characterized for dissipation factor against a 0.5 pF cross capacitor, as well as against a 10 pF nitrogen capacitor at frequencies from 50 Hz to 20 kHz. The customer standards are then calibrated against the fused-silica standard capacitors using a substitution method. The method closely follows the technique for calibrating the capacitance of the customer standards, whereby a commercial capacitance bridge is used as a transfer standard.

This paper will briefly describe the calibration procedure, the error analysis, and the details of the calibration service.


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CP_07_2F_1_KOFF
Picture of the productDevelopment of a Didactical Training Station for Teaching
Hugo Hernandez Tapia, Regional Center of Optimization and Development of Equipment of Celaya, CRODE
The General Direction of Higher Technological Education (DGEST) through different research and development projects is addressing the challenge to raise in a substantial way the quality of technical education. One of the main challenges is to provide the graduates of its more than 250 Institutes with new and better capabilities to enter the labor market with a more competitive position and with more possibilities to provide added value to the productive plant of the country. In this context the development of metrological education is considered a critical issue. Specific aspects to be addressed are the development of metrology teaching material, courses and equipment; the development of metrological laboratories and, most important, the development of integrated teams of teachers and instructors that, with the use of proper equipment, materials and manuals, can develop the desired capabilities in the students.


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CP_07_10A_3_HER
Picture of the productDevelopment of an Electro-Optic Device for in-situ Measure
Beverly J. Klemme Sandia National Laboratories
We describe the development of a Pockel’s cell based electro-optic device designed to measure the amplitude of high voltage pulses in our new Pulsed High Voltage Measurement System (PHVMS) with a repeatability greater than 0.5% (k=2). The PHVMS is capable of generating voltage pulses ranging from 2kV to 325kV in amplitude, with pulse durations from 2.5 ìsec to 25 ìsec. The Primary Standards Laboratory • AC Project at Sandia National Laboratories is in the process of validating the PHVMS for calibrating resistive and capacitive voltage dividers. Single voltage pulses are difficult to measure with uncertainties <1% (k=2) because of the high bandwidth involved (>10MHz) and their non-repetitive nature which currently rules out standard AC measurement and signal averaging techniques in our system. We are in the process of developing an electro-optic voltage calibrator that will be tested as a possible candidate for insitu voltage measurements inside the mineral oil bath of the PHVMS and in close proximity to the device under test.


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CP_07_10E_1_KLE
Picture of the productDevelopment of Procedure to Determine Measurement Uncertain.
Robert B. DeRemer, P.E., CSA INTERNATIONAL
CSA International is an independent, third party testing laboratory specializing in safety and performance testing of consumer products. The tests on gas appliances are contained in nationally-recognized standards that are developed under ANSI procedures. Each appliance standard contains requirements that all of the gas control devices used on the appliance comply with applicable gas control device standards. Virtually all of the gas control device standards contain a test to measure the gas flow capacity of the control. The information from the capacity test is used by the gas control manufacturer to establish ratings for the control, and also by the appliance manufacturers to allow them to properly size the control to the appliance design.

This paper serves as a good illustration on how to combine the measurement uncertainty results from numerous single discreet measurements to obtain the measurement uncertainty in a result calculated from the discreet measurements. An analysis on the development of sensitivity coefficients is included.


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CP_07_7B_3_DERE
Picture of the productDoing Uncertainty Analysis Using the Design of Experiment
Yeou-Song (Brian) Lee, Anritsu Company
Uncertainty modeling in developing a functional relationship that connects the input or influence quantities to the measurand has become a major trend in the metrology world. Since the birth of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), the concept of uncertainty modeling seems to be inevitable for those involved in measurement science. For those practitioners in the calibration laboratories who rely on the manufacturer’s maintenance manuals or performance test procedures to develop uncertainty budgets, the GUM has provided no assistance except major confusion. It has been recognized that evaluating measurement uncertainty is not a routine task. The construction of an uncertainty model can be complicated, and requires sophisticated modeling and a specialist to perform full analysis. The purpose of this modeling is to translate the measurement into a set of mathematical formulas. These formulas structure the relationship between the measurand and the input quantities, allow the evaluation of the impact of the uncertainty of any input quantity on the uncertainty of the output quantities, and allow the calculation of the output quantities and its standard uncertainty. They may require estimates and associated uncertainties of the input quantities as well as any covariance between the input quantities. The quality of this translation process does not depend solely on the knowledge of the measurement; it depends also on the skills of those involved in terms of mathematics, statistics and numerical analysis.

It is frequently suggested that it is possible to evaluate measurement uncertainty by very simple means. Although the GUM does not address such consideration, it does require the use of the appropriate mathematical and statistical methods. It is the intent of this paper to apply the design of experiments (DOE) in developing the uncertainty budget. The author believes that the concept and methods used in the design of experiments should depict a more rational scenario for the practitioners in estimating the uncertainty budget with confidence. A procedure and examples based on the design of experiments will be presented.


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CP_07_5C_1_LEE
Picture of the productElectrical Power Standard for Frequencies up to 200 kHz
Ilya Budovsky, National Measurement Institute, Australia
The paper describes a standard system for traceable measurements of electrical power of sinusoidal signals at voltages up to 1000 V, currents up to 20 A and frequencies from 40 Hz to 200 kHz. The standard uses thermoelectric effects to relate the alternating power to that of known dc signals. It is comprised of a thermal power comparator, inductive and resistive voltage dividers and a range of wideband current shunts. The performance of each of the components has been evaluated, through traceable measurements, in terms of fundamental standards. The paper presents the design of the system and its components, evaluation techniques and measurement uncertainties.


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CP_07_2F_2_BUDO
Picture of the productElectromagnetic Metrology Challenges in the US DOD
Larry W. Tarr, U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory
The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) and the events that continue to unfold around the world are creating interesting and innovative new developments in practically every area of technology. Many of the new developments are in systems and components operating in the RF, microwave and millimeter-wave (MMW) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The need to provide traceable metrology and calibration support for modern communications, radar, and smart weapons systems operating at frequencies from a few kilohertz to 100 GHz and beyond presents challenges that continue to arise as new systems and technologies are developed. This paper will discuss some examples of the support challenges facing the US Department of Defense (DoD) metrology community, and attempt to identify areas in which deficiencies currently exist or are expected to develop.


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CP_07_2E_1_TARR