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Conference Proceedings 2008 (73)

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Picture of the productA 36 MPa Pressure Balance in Liquid Medium
Caravaggio M., SCANDURA & FEM S.r.l
As already done for a 120 MPa full scale hydraulic pressure balance, a new piston cylinder assembly for 36 MPa full scale has been developed within a cooperation between Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) and Scandura & FEM company. For a better characterisation of this assembly a FEM analysis has been also done in cooperation with the University of Cassino.

All the experimental and numerical results are here presented. The most important aspect of this work is the new design of the cylinder’s shape, compared to the 120 MPa unit, and its impact on the metrological characteristic of the new piston-cylinder assembly. From the FEM analysis results, it is possible to put in relationship the piston cylinder gap with the influence of the assembly’s verticality on the estimated pressure uncertainty values.


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CP_08_4E_1CARA
Picture of the productA Bayesian Approach to Information Fusion in Sensor Net.
Karin Tischler, University of Karlsruhe, Germany
Every measurement task can be interpreted as a parameter estimation problem aiming at both the value of the measurand and the uncertainty associated with it. The measurement process provides one or more values or signals that contain information about the measurand. To optimally exploit the knowledge on the measurand, this information should be combined with the available additional information about the technical and external factors influencing the measurement result. Integrating additional sensors or information sources and performing a fusion of all information available can further enhance this inference process. The paper presents a Bayesian approach to information fusion in multi-sensor systems. This is used e.g. in the application of an inter-vehicle sensor network. The fusion of the different environment detections to a joint description is necessary for a collaborative perception and cooperative decisions.


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CP_08_8B_3TISC
Picture of the productA Discussion of Stability and Homogeneity Issues in Tests
Jeff C. Gust, MeasurePT Inc.
This discussion presents the technical issues concerning the homogeneity and stability of artifacts that are used primarily for proficiency testing of calibration laboratories. It also makes consensus recommendations concerning the resolution of these issues. These recommendations are intended for use as guidance for the application of a proficiency testing scheme that meets the requirements of ISO/IEC Guide 43-1:1997 and ILAC G13:2007, and ISO 17043 (in development).


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CP_08_9E_0GUST
Picture of the productA Guard-Band Strategy for Managing False-Accept Risk
Michael Dobbert, Agilent Technologies
When performing a calibration, the risk of incorrectly declaring a device as in-tolerance (false-accept risk) is dependent upon several factors. Those factors include the specified tolerance limit, guard-band, the calibration process uncertainty and the a priori probability that the device is in-tolerance. A good estimate of the a priori probability may be difficult to obtain. Historical or device population information for estimating the a priori probability may not be readily available and may not represent the specific device under test.

A common strategy for managing measurement decision risk is to choose a guard-band that results in the desired false-accept risk given the tolerance limit, the calibration process uncertainty and the a priori probability. This paper presents a guard-band strategy for managing false-accept risk with only limited knowledge of the a priori probability that a device is in-tolerance.


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CP_08_7C_2DOBB
Picture of the productA Mathematical Approach for Evaluating Metrologist
Buddy Stricker, The Boeing Company
Among the most compelling business topics in the metrology industry are the intertwined concepts of employee productivity and performance. For those firms, which provide commercial calibration services, the level of productivity is often the key factor in determining whether the business is a success or a failure, because the employer’s profits normally rise and fall relative to peaks and valleys in employee productivity. In the metrology community, these factors are just as germane when the laboratory performs services for either government entities or larger parent organizations.

Classical business theory clearly demonstrates that the evaluation of individual employee productivity is critical to understanding the profitability of any service organization. Despite this inherent value, the majority of metrology organizations persist in using purely arbitrary tools to evaluate employee performance, instead of attempting to quantify individual productivity in a valid mathematical manner. When observers dissect these tools, they discover how meaningless the evaluations really are. This situation is regrettable because while performance consists of many difficult to measure variables, metrology managers should be capable of quantifying the critical parameter of productivity. This is especially true for companies that provide commercial services because they often base their fees on historical data, which reflect how long a specific task should take. Laboratories providing service to parent organizations see this problem magnified because upper management rarely attempts to quantify productivity of their internal departments. Far too often, they attempt to understand productivity dynamics only when the cataclysmic reality of being out-sourced confronts them. Regardless of the nature of their business, it is imperative that all metrology laboratories develop a mathematical approach for quantifying the productivity of their employees.

In this paper, the author combines his personal experiences in the calibration industry with mathematical techniques to demonstrate a method, which results in meaningful metrics. This approach empowers managers by providing them with the tools required to make constructive systemic changes, to compensate employees in a more appropriate manner, and to understand their businesses at the grass-roots level. By better understanding these variables, metrology organizations of every size and background can experience enhanced productivity and profitability.


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CP_08_8A_2STRI
Picture of the productA Measurement Standard for Evaluating Metrology Positions
Danny Newcombe, State of Maine Metrology Laboratory
Metrologists have traditionally been at a disadvantage in job evaluations because of a dearth of comparable positions within their job market. Additionally Human Resource (HR) professionals are not familiar enough with the field of metrology to effectively compare the job requirements to occupations with which they have more experience. The resulting inequities in pay contribute to difficulties in recruitment and retention of aspiring metrologists.

HR professionals commonly use methods known as Comparable Worth Based Job Evaluation Systems. This approach is similar to a Metrologist comparing an artifact to a standard when assigning a value to an unknown. This report describes the development and application of a method to evaluate a Metrologist’s job using comparisons to occupations that HR is much more familiar with. Developing an evaluation tool that HR would find credible and reliable depended upon finding clear reasonable “standards” from an independent and highly regarded source.

The United States Department of Labor Office of Administrative Law Judges Law Library includes exactly the impartial and respected reference required. The occupational ratings contained in that library include detailed comparisons of the skills and knowledge required to perform many different jobs. Each occupation is rated in three different educational developmental categories. These are comprised of reasoning, mathematical, and language skills development levels. Specific vocational preparation is also quantified. This system, using standardized criteria, evaluates the Metrologist job title along with many other occupations that are much more commonly known.

The methods and strategies described in this paper were critical elements of a job reevaluation request submitted for the Maine State Metrologist. This resulted in a wage reallocation that aligned the pay grade level to an equitable position relative to other technical professionals within Maine State Government. Top management and HR professionals found the comparisons to be clear and unimpeachable.

This method may be generalized across the spectrum of metrology related positions from entry level to advanced. The wide variety of occupations rated within the “reference standard” ensures that most organizations will find one or more familiar job titles to use as a basis of comparison.


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CP_08_8A_0NEWC
Picture of the productA New Primary Vacuum Standard, National Metrology Centre
Wu Jian, National Metrology Centre, A*STAR
A primary vacuum standard based on the method of continuous expansion has been developed at the National Metrology Centre (NMC), Singapore. The standard, which is capable of defining vacuum levels between 1×10-7 Pa and 1×10-2 Pa, consists of two cylindrical ultra-high vacuum chambers, each having a volume of 0.0238 m3. The chambers are separated by a circular disc with a circular orifice nozzle in the center. An analytical method was applied to determine the correction factors for the effective conductance of this circular orifice, and the results were verified against the results obtained using Monte Carlo evaluation. A fully automatic flowmeter operating in the range of 1.88 ×10-11mol/s to 2.678×10-6 mol/s was developed to generate a gas flow with known flow rates into the vacuum chamber. A comparison with the National Physical Laboratory, UK, was carried out to evaluate the performance of the system in the range of 9×10-5 Pa to 9 ×10-3 Pa. The measurement principle, design, and evaluation of measurement uncertainties will be discussed in greater details in the paper.


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CP_08_5E_2JIAN
Picture of the productA Proactive Approach to Maintaining the Scientist and Eng
D. Bruce Galloway, NSWC, Corona Division
Technology is advancing at an ever increasingly rapid pace. This is particularly true in the Department of Defense (DoD). Test and Measurement Systems (TAMS) require a continued influx of scientists and engineers properly trained to advance the TAMS support structures for new and advanced technology applications while maintaining existing support structures for current equipment. The demand for engineers and scientists continues to rise faster than the supply. The US is simply not producing the numbers of engineers and scientists needed. Couple this with the fact that there is a huge wave of baby boomers reaching retirement age that currently provide a great amount of scientific and engineering services. We all are facing a substantial problem. This problem is magnified for DoD which requires that its workforce be US citizens capable of obtaining the appropriate level of security clearances. The need for US citizens working in Science and Engineering (S&E) will continue to be in demand as technology continues to advance exponentially and the need for S&E in our nations defense continues. This paper explores a comprehensive and proactive approach that is currently being practiced and developed by a Navy engineering activity working in the S&E fields to help ensure that the pipeline of US citizens in science and engineering is supported at every step along the way. The approach presented is applicable beyond DoD and applies to any organization that relies on hiring technical employees raised through the US educational system. Through a number of community outreach activities, interventions at the grade school level through High School provide ample opportunity to strengthen the S&E pipeline at these early stages. Active participation with Universities through board participation, partnerships, internships, and career fair participation provide the critical link between the qualified entry level workforce and the needed defense sector jobs. Once the scientist or engineer makes the transition from student to defense sector employee, their continued development, advancement, rewards, and ultimate retention needs to be attended to in a systematic way. Stemming the brain drain from the wave of baby boomer retirements can be brought about by providing contract work as a transition from full time work to full time retirement.


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CP_08_4A_0GALL
Picture of the productA Quality Training Program for the 21st Century
Jay L. Bucher, Bucherview Metrology Services, LLC
Do you still use punch cards for scheduling your work load? Hopefully, not since the 1980s. Do you still track trends and perform analysis using pencil and paper? Probably not. Is the only computerized item in your calibration department an electronic typewriter? No way! So why is your training program still quagmired in the 20th Century? For most organizations, it is simply due to a lack of knowledge about what the training needs are for today’s high tech enviroment; and how to document the education, skills, and training of their calibration technicians, supervisors and managers. It makes no difference if your staff has been in the calibration field for one month or one decade; they need to be continuously trained on new techniques, new technology, and state-of-the-art test equipment. In today’s quality environment, it is just as important to document their training as it is to receive it.


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CP_08_5A_1BUCH
Picture of the productAccessing and Assessing the USMS
Clare M. Allocca, Chief, United States Measurement System Office, National Institute of Standards and Technology
In order to facilitate the involvement of all United States Measurement System (USMS) partners, the USMS Office has been developing and implementing infrastructure to enable Measurement Solution providers and users to access measurement knowledge. Central to this purpose is the recently unveiled Measurement Knowledge Hub at usms.nist.gov, with unique tools/characteristics that provide access to measurement information and position the entire USMS for success. The Hub will serve as a meeting place for measurement solution providers and users, and contains a continually evolving Measurement Needs Database as the foundation for later analyses. Key Hub features include individual discussion corners for specific interests, with opportunities to discuss sets of measurement needs; a Technology Roadmaps database; tools for tailoring analyses of measurement needs; and links to important events and resources. The use of these features for a better understanding of the USMS will be described


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CP_08_1C_0ALLO
Picture of the productActivities of APMP and its member NMIs
W. G. Lee, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
The Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) is primarily responsible for developing international recognition of the measurement capabilities of the region's national and territorial measurement laboratories. APMP has been operating in the Asia-Pacific since its inception as a Commonwealth Science Council initiative in 1977. The APMP membership has a diverse range of skills and capabilities and these are being developed to support the needs of individual economies. As of January 2008, the Full member consists of thirty-four organizations from twenty-two economies, and the six organizations from six economies are the Associate members. The major activities of APMP are introduced. The APMP activities include the General Assembly and the satellite meetings held from 28th October to 2nd November 2007 with more than 350 participants. During the GA a joint half day APMP-ILAC/IAF symposium were held on the subjects of linkages between accreditation and metrology. In May 2008 Sri Lanka hosts a CIPM MRA workshop and a Metrology-in-Chemistry workshop of APMP. The Developing Economies Committee also organizes a symposium to raise awareness of metrology infrastructure for developing economies. The highlighted activities of its member NMIs (National Metrology Institute) are also introduced.


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CP_08_7D_1LEE
Picture of the productAir Force Calibration Interval Analysis of Test (TMDE)
Scott Brockway, AFMETCAL
This paper will present the way the Air Force calculates its calibration intervals based on data collected through various MDC systems. Calibration intervals require periodic adjustment to ensure the Air Force reliability goal for measurement standards is maintained. The 85 percent end-of-period goal provides the Air Force with accurate TMDE to support all weapons systems. Intervals are adjusted utilizing a combination of statistical analysis based on the maintenance data submitted and the technical expertise of the TMDE’s responsible technical content manager (TCM). The recommended interval changes are reviewed before approval to ensure there aren’t any factors present, which could invalidate data responsible for causing the changes.

The Air Force currently uses a trio of MDC combinations (Calibration Condition Received, Action Taken, Calibration Condition Returned) enabling Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory’s (PMEL) identification of needed local information while at the same time identifying all pass/fail scenarios for use during calibration interval analysis. The Air Force technique makes use of the most current processes, configurations, specifications and standards by utilizing a current group of data tied to the interval itself and the negative exponential distribution identified in the NCSLI RP-1.


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CP_08_3C_1BROC
Picture of the productAPLAC Interlaboratory Comparison Program for Short Gauge
Takashi Horaguchi, International Accreditation Japan (IAJapn)
APLAC operates regional interlaboratory comparison (ILC) programs organized by the APLAC member bodies. In these years, participation to APLAC regional ILC programs has been open to other regional bodies such as EA (European Cooperation for Accreditation) and IAAC (InterAmerican Accreditation Cooperation), and other unaffiliated accreditation bodies. Due to this extension, consistency of competency for calibration laboratories and their metrological traceability to SI among regions can be examined and confirmed as well as the ones among accredited calibration laboratories within the region by APLAC proficiency testing program.


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CP_08_1B_1HORA
Picture of the productApplication of multisensor measurements and sensor data
Ulrich Neuschaefer-Rube, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
The increasing demands on the measurement of workpieces in industrial quality control require a continuous improvement of coordinate metrology. There is a need to decrease the measurement uncertainty for complex workpieces as well as to increase the measurement speed and to extend the measurable tasks. One answer to this challenge is to apply multisensor measurements which benefit from the advantages of different measurement principles. The data from different sensors is merged to multisensor data to achieve more extended and/or more accurate data. Different features of a workpiece (e.g. holes and free form surfaces) can be measured with the most suitable sensor and measurements with small uncertainty can be used to correct data e.g. of another sensor exhibiting systematical errors.

In coordinate metrology, tactile probes, optical sensors and, for the last few years, industrial computed tomography (CT) systems have been used. All of these measurement systems feature different characteristics and the spectrum of measurable tasks is limited by the measurement principle. Tactile probes facilitate coordinate measurements with small uncertainty, but the number of measured points is mostly limited. Optical sensors are fast, measure in a non-contact way, but the geometry and surface characteristics of the workpiece affect the results. CT systems on the other hand, offer a complete non-destructive measurement of inner and outer geometries of the workpiece, but the uncertainty is sometimes not sufficient for parts featuring very low tolerances.

To overcome these drawbacks, the measurement data may be fused to multisensor data. But to merge the data an alignment strategy is needed. This strategy can be e.g. feature based or topology based. In this paper, we will discuss these strategies and the requirements for their application.

As application examples, multisensor measurements of two parts, of a cast cylinder head segment and a calotte cube, with optical sensing, tactile probing and CT is presented. For this part, we perform an analysis of the measurement errors caused by alignment errors and discuss the influence on the measurement uncertainty.


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CP_08_8B_4NEUS
Picture of the productAssessing ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Clause 5.2 Personnel
Hershal C. Brewer, International Accreditation Service (IAS)
The requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 Clause 5.2 and its sub-clauses must be fulfilled by the laboratory that is accredited or seeking accreditation; and the fulfillment of the requirements is reviewed during the assessment by the accrediting body (AB).

ABs have a variety of ways of looking at how laboratories comply with ensuring they have adequate staff, and that they are trained and qualified, that they have a training plan in place, that they are measuring the effectiveness of training, and so on. This presentation will focus on the ways different ABs are currently assessing section 5.2. For example, some ABs rely on the expertise of the laboratory’s technical manager to determine the extent to which planning and assessment of effectiveness meets 5.2; some ABs require all or a percentage of the laboratory staff to be Certified Calibration Technicians; some technical assessors for ABs determine what training that the laboratory has obtained documented is acceptable (assessing quality of their training sources during the assessment). A comparison of these methods will be provided. Advantages, disadvantages, and appropriateness, of these various approaches will be considered.


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CP_08_8A_1BREW
Picture of the productBenefits of participation in, Interlaboratory Comparisons
Hugo Ent, NMi Van Swinden Laboratory
Laboratories continually strive to ensure the quality of instruments, procedures, and capabilities. No matter how carefully they conduct these internal checks, systematic deviations often go unnoticed.

It is therefore important that they regularly compare their measurement results with those of other laboratories (benchmarking).

Participation in interlaboratory comparisons is a vital investment in reliability, operational certitude, and staff confidence.

NMi Van Swinden Laboratory (NMi VSL), the Dutch national institute for metrology, has more than 30 years of experience in interlaboratory comparisons.

NMi is accredited to organize interlaboratory comparisons. Highlighted will be 12,5 years of yearly comparisons between NIST (USA) and NMi (The Netherlands) to support the Declaration of Equivalence between NIST and NMi in the gas analysis field.

Furthermore, results will be presented of a major gas analysis interlaboratory scheme that NMi is organizing for the worldwide production locations of oil company Shell. We started this exercise in 2003 and the very good news is, that the scheme recently became completely open. As such any laboratory is welcome to join the scheme. Based upon the success of the now called Correlation Scheme, NMi started a marketing theme group to explore possibilities for a wider participation in interlaboratory comparisons. Although ISO/IEC 17025 requires participation, laboratories are not very willing to participate freely!

Measurement precision is a hidden quality at all laboratories. It usually attracts attention if measurements fail to match those of other laboratories, indicating that there might be some kind of problem. Prior to that, no news is good news.

So, how can we raise awareness!? Ideas to achieve this will be presented and will be open for discussion.


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CP_08_9E_2ENT
Picture of the productCalibration of Rogowski Coils at Power Frequencies
Branislav Djokic, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada
It has been almost a century since coils uniformly wound on air-cores - Rogowski coils - have been described. During that period they found a number of applications in power systems for current sensing, such as protective relaying, measurements of high currents, impulse currents, transient currents, and other current sensing purposes. Over the last two decades there have been significant developments related to current measurements using Rogowski-coil based systems. They have been in part related to innovations in design of the coils themselves with introduction of special materials, machining techniques, and various two- or three-dimensional printed circuit board structures. The introduction of electronic devices for the load reduction, linearization and other error reducing techniques, device coding, parameter retention, digitization of output signals and communication to local data acquisition systems represents another area of developments.


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CP_08_5D_0DJOK
Picture of the productCharacterization of a 100 MPa Controlled Clearance Pres. Bal
Anil Agarwal, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council Canada
We have recently acquired a 100 MPa operated controlled-clearance pressure balance to be used as a primary pressure standard. In a controlled-clearance pressure balance, a suitable pressure independent of the system pressure can be applied to the outside of the cylinder to control the elastic distortion of the piston-cylinder assembly under high system pressure. To be able to use this device as a pressure standard, it is necessary to first characterize it independently, without comparing it with another standard. In this paper, we will present some of the results of the characterization of this balance using the Heydemann-Welch method.


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CP_08_4E_2AGAR
Picture of the productCMM audit program in South Africa
Floris van der Walt, National Metrology Institute of South Africa
Co-ordinate Measuring Machines, (CMM’s), are widely used in the South African industry for purposes ranging from quality control on manufactured components to the design of tooling jigs. Their measurement volumes range from less than one cubic metre, to more than twelve cubic metres. Since traditionally, there has been a lack of standardisation of verification methods for CMM’s, as well as training programs for CMM users/operators, this can potentially lead to measurement inaccuracies and CMM’s being incapable of performing measurements to within their specified accuracy.

Since the extent of the potential problem is unknown, it was decided by the CMM Specialist Technical Committee (STC), formed by The South African National Accreditation System (SANAS), which is recognised by the South African Government as the single National Accreditation Body that gives formal recognition that Laboratories, Certification Bodies, Inspection Bodies, Proficiency Testing Scheme Providers and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) test facilities are competent to carry out specific tasks, that an audit programme would be an objective way of assessing the depth and nature of CMM measurement problems in industry. It was also decided that the audit programme would be required to audit the CMM’s as if they were performing a “typical” measurement in industry and should avoid simply auditing the machine accuracies. The CMM audit program, controlled by the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA), was launched and involves the measurement of certain features and geometries of a locally manufactured part.

From results obtained through this audit programme, it has become clear that an extended audit programme is necessary to provide a simple, quick and cost effective method to independently validate the performance of a CMM. An investigation was conducted to find a suitable, thermally and geometrically stable, light weight, 3D artifact (tetrahedron), which could be used to benchmark the capability of CMM’s, determine the most accurate volume location of a CMM, and reduce the downtime of the CMM during the performance evaluation. The Spatial Reference System (SRS) system is under investigation for this purpose.

This paper presents results obtained to date and discusses the lessons learnt and follows up actions required, to address problems identified.


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CP_08_5B_1VAN
Picture of the productCome On In The Waters Fine, But Watch Out For The Alligators
Michael Linn, Johnson Controls, Inc.
The waters of the accreditation world are full of uncertainty (pun intended), however this paper hopes to point out some of the pitfalls we encountered in our long arduous adventure in gaining accreditation and international recognition, with the hopes that the reader may benefit from our experience and insights.

We at Johnson Controls Metrology began our pursuit of accreditation back in early 1999. With the new QS-9000 3rd Edition our customers were requiring accreditation to continue using our calibration services.

We spent a lot of resources learning about and preparing for Guide 25 only to have it replaced by ISO-17025ISO/IEC 17025. We really did not have the urgency we probably should have at this point, and before we knew it we had run out of time. With the QS deadline for accreditation looming we called A2LA for an assessment date and were told “Oh, we can get to you in about 18 months.” Seeing as how we would be out of business in 18 months, that was not an option. After several phone calls and discussions L-A-B was chosen as our accreditation body (AB). This was primarily because they could get us in under the AIAG mandated deadline. I really don’t think the automotive industry really understood the impact of what they were asking at the time. There simply were not enough accredited laboratories at that time and it really put a strain on the AB’s, the cal labs and the customers. The tier 1 and 2 automotive suppliers really didn’t (and a lot still don’t to this day) understand why they were asking for accredited labs. They were doing it because their auditor said they had to.


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CP_08_3B_1LINN
Picture of the productComparison between Gravimetric and Volume Transfer Calib.
S. Van Hyder, North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Standards Laboratory
This paper compares the equivalency of calibration and proficiency testing results between the two most common calibration procedures for large volume. National proficiency test have been coordinated among NIST and the State Weights and Measures Laboratories at 5 gal, 15 gal, and 100 gal. This paper covers: a summary of national capabilities in volume calibrations between 5 gal and 100 gal; equivalence of measurement results from gravimetric and volume transfer calibrations, including procedure review and troubleshooting checklists; uncertainty components and differences between the two methods; and lessons learned from participating and coordinating proficiency testing.


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CP_08_9B_2HYDE
Picture of the productConsistency and Clarity in Calibration Procedures
J. Brent Snoddy
This papers primary purpose it to identify the issues uncovered from accredited laboratories from an assessor's perspective. As most commerical labs have vast resources to obtain calibration procedures from, there seems to be issues with consistency between different labs. Send a micrometer out for calibration to two different laboratories and there is a good chance that the results will be different. The consumer asks the simple question...aren't both of these labs accredited to do the same thing? Then why the different results? Further discussion will include selection of methods from ISO-17025 and ANSI Z540-1 with respect to the requirements of accreditation bodies.


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CP_08_3B_2SNOD
Picture of the productDesign and Performance of the New NIST Hybrid Humidity Gen
Christopher Meyer, National Institute of Standards and Technology
A new humidity generator has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Once fully operational, the NIST Hybrid Humidity Generator (HHG) will replace the Two-Pressure (2-P) Humidity Generator Mark II as the NIST primary humidity generation standard for frost/dew points from -70 °C to +25 °C using calibration gas-flow rates up to 150 standard liters per minute. The HHG will extend the NIST humidity generation range up to 85 °C, and is expected to outperform the 2-P Generator in terms of accuracy.

The HHG combines the two-pressure and divided-flow humidity generation techniques (hence the name “hybrid”). The centerpiece of the HHG is a heat-exchanger/saturator that is immersed in a temperature-controlled bath stable to within 1 mK. A precisely regulated pre-saturation process minimizes sensible and latent heat loading on the final saturator. For dew/frost point temperatures above -15 °C, the two-pressure principle is employed. For frost points at or below -15 °C, the water-vapor/air mixture is produced by mixing metered streams of moist air produced by the two-pressure principle with purified, dry air; here, the HHG saturates the wet air stream at a temperature close to the water triple point, reducing the uncertainty of the water vapor pressure. To our knowledge, this is the first primary generator that incorporates the divided-flow technique.

We describe here the design of the HHG as well as the estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint and mole fraction of moist air generated by it. The uncertainty estimate is based on a series of performance tests performed on the HHG. Finally, we include comparisons of the humidity generated by the HHG to that generated by the other NIST humidity-generation standards.


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CP_08_3E_0MEYE
Picture of the productDeveloping a Good Succession Plan for Laboratories
Dilip A. Shah, E = mc3 Solutions
Hiring good technicians for a laboratory team isn't everything. The moment that a laboratory decides to hire, it should have a sound training plan. In addition, it is important for the laboratory management to develop a succession plan. Succession planning, training and mentoring assists in employee retention. A good succession plan assists the laboratory’s long term viability by developing leadership at various stages. This paper outlines a design for developing a succession plan for the test and calibration laboratories. References are also made to satisfying ISO 17025 personnel requirements.


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CP_08_4A_2SHAH
Picture of the productDevelopment of Primary Frequency Standards at CENAM
J.M.Mauricio López-Romero, Centro Nacional de Metrología, CENAM
The Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, has developed an optical pumped cesium beam frequency standard, CsOP-1, and is close to complete a cold atoms fountain primary clock, CsF-1. Evaluation of the major systematic frequency shifts in the CsOP-1 has been completed. In order to improve its accuracy the linewidth of the central Ramsey fringe has been reduced from 1 kHz down to around 300 Hz. The clock is currently under major changes on its Ramsey Cavity and the fractional frequency uncertainty is expected to be in the lower part of the 10-14. The CsF-1 clock is under development. DBR diode lasers are used in the optical system of the magneto optical trap (MOT). The MOT is robust against mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and temperature changes in laboratory, since DBR diode lasers do not have an extended cavity aim at reducing the linewidth. Characterization of the MOT as a function of several operation parameters such as intensity of beams, beam diameter and gradient of the magnetic field, has been made. Measurement of the number of trapped Cs atoms in our Cs MOT as been reported. Magnetic shielding of the flight region has been designed and built as well as of the microwave cavity. Sapphire oscillators have been designed and built to be used as local oscillators for both of the primary frequency standards. Fractional frequency uncertainty on the CsF-1 clock is expected to be in the lower part of the 10-15.


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CP_08_2D_0LOPE
Picture of the productEthics In Laboratories, Business and Life
Steve Sidney HN Dip EE, MSAIEE, National Laboratory Association
Given the need that exists for a high standard of ethical behavior in all aspects that surround the management and operation of the laboratory, there are disturbing signs that what historically was an industry beyond reproach is now one where more and more questions are being asked in terms of its conduct. The author will explore whether there is more or less of an obligation by laboratories to act in an ethical fashion than any other service provider and also whether there is a fundamental difference between laboratory work and any other form of business transaction. In addition, reference will be made to the ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation standard in order to establish whether there is sufficient emphasis placed on ethical behavior by those organizations that are accredited to this standard, and whether more should or could be done in this regard. Finally, consideration will be given to a Code of Conduct implemented by a stakeholder body such as the National Laboratory Association, and how it might be executed in order to make a meaningful contribution.


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CP_08_8C_1SIDN
Picture of the productEvaluation of Out-of-Tolerance Risk in Measuring and Test
Rick Walker, Fluke Corporation, Hart Scientific Division
In the interest of providing reliable and accurate measuring and test equipment to customers, a manufacturer or calibration service provider should understand and control out-of-tolerance risk—the probability an instrument is actually out of tolerance after passing calibration. While the equipment is expected to be in tolerance when it leaves the calibration laboratory, it is just as important that it remain in tolerance during use. A manufacturer also does not want to see too many products fail calibration or be found out of tolerance later at recalibration. Pass yields must be high. Risks and yields are dependent on product specifications, guard bands, calibration uncertainties, and product characteristics, such as long-term stability, ambient temperature sensitivity, and linearity. This paper provides formulae for calculating various relevant risks and yields. Examples are given. Calculations are verified by computer simulation.


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CP_08_4C_1WALK
Picture of the productExtending the Calibration Interval for Self Adjusting Test
Wayne Goeke, Keithley Instruments, Inc.
Self-adjusting (or “artifact calibrating”) instruments have become commonplace among today’s test equipment. On one hand, the ability to adjust the entire instrument using only a few traceable artifact standards simplifies the adjustment process. On the other hand, performing a full verification of these instruments still requires many traceable values to ensure the instrument’s internal self-adjustment process has been performed properly. As a result, the cost of a fully traceable calibration that includes verification of every function and range of these instruments can be considerable, despite the simplified and more economical adjustment process.

The paper discusses the theory underlying and provides experimental evidence for a method of extending the calibration interval without increasing the risk of incurring an undetected out-oftolerance condition. Inter-comparing multiple self-adjusting instruments after self-adjustment has been performed increases confidence that the self-adjustment process for each instrument has worked correctly. This increased confidence allows extending the calibration interval while maintaining the assurance that all the instruments are within tolerance. The extended calibration interval may yield a significant reduction in the cost of maintaining a pool of self-adjusting instruments.


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CP_08_4C_0GOEK
Picture of the productFrom Technician to Metrologist
Michael S. Kurzeja, Exelon PowerLabs L.L.C.
From our very first moments of existence, we are in a constant state of learning. The knowledge and skills acquired during our lifetime will dramatically shape nearly every facet of our lives and be the determining factor in many of our successes and failures. This is perhaps no more evident than in businesses and industry throughout the world.

Success in business is often the result of providing quality work and great customer service at a good price. It means keeping up with technology and staying ahead of the competition. To do that, you need skilled staff that are full of ideas, know the job and understand business priorities. That is the result of quality training.

Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at technical colleges and polytechnics.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the training program at Exelon PowerLabs L.L.C., understand the various challenges faced, and highlight some of the innovative solutions developed as a result.


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CP_08_5A_2KURZ
Picture of the productFully Automatic System for Determining the Volume of Solids
Benno Gatzemeier, Sartorius AG, Germany
In cooperation with the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV) and the Institute for Manufacturing Technology (IFT) of the Technical University of Vienna, Sartorius has developed an innovative, fully automatic volume comparator. This system, designated VD1005, is suitable for the highly accurate determination of the volume and density of solid bodies and, in particular, E1 weights from 1 g to 1 kg.

The system is based on the hydrostatic comparison of a volume reference with a test object in liquid in accordance with the A2 test method of OIML R111. For the fully automatic determination of density, the VD1005 volume comparator has a PC-controlled weight exchanger mechanism with magazine spaces in liquid for test weights and reference weights [Figure 1] and a weight exchanger mechanism with magazine spaces in air for substitution weights.

The fact that, by using a variety of substitution weights, the density of weights in the range from 1 g to 1 kg can be directly deduced from only a single primary density reference, such as a silicon sphere, makes the system unique.


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CP_08_9B_0GATZ
Picture of the productGauge Blocks – A Zombie Technology
Ted Doiron, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: it was relatively inexpensive to deliver very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging system was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gages that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems.


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CP_08_1B_0DOIR
Picture of the productHow Accreditation Can Improve a Dimensional Laboratory
R. Douglas Leonard Jr., Laboratory Accreditation Bureau
Accreditation relies on a third party statement based on a decision after a review of a laboratories formally demonstrated competence to carry out specific laboratory tasks. A Dimensional Laboratory should operate a management system, be technically competent, and generate technically competent results to be accredited. The process of becoming accredited provides a roadmap and opportunity for a laboratory to bring the two best elements together to improve. 1. Motivated People 2. Empowered People. The paper and presentation submitted outlines the roadmap and opportunity.


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CP_08_3B_3LEON
Picture of the productHow Does Temperature Non-uniformity of an Annealing Furna
Mingjian Zhao, Hart Scientific Division, Fluke Corporation
To achieve the highest level performance, a standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) should be annealed after transportation, mechanical shock, or operation above 500°C. An SPRT is usually annealed in an annealing furnace that has a non-contaminating equilibrium block with the temperature tightly controlled. The recommendation from national metrology institutes (NMIs) and published literature is that the temperature uniformity should be within ±1°C. In recent years, more and more temperature calibration laboratories have begun using SPRTs as their reference standards to improve calibration uncertainties. However, most laboratories do not have a proper annealing furnace to anneal their SPRTs. Some laboratories use alternative equipment such as dry-well calibrators. The temperature uniformities of most alternative equipment do not meet the criterion set by NMIs, which is difficult to achieve for most secondary laboratories. Therefore, it is important to understand how the temperature non-uniformity of an annealing furnace affects SPRT stability.


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CP_08_6E_0ZHAO
Picture of the productImproving Humidity Measurements For Field Calibration
Mike Johnson, Vaisala Inc.
Conducting humidity measurements in the field introduces a variety of obstacles. Aside from ensuring temperature equilibrium there is even greater concern induced by chemical interference of the measurement. Chemicals can cause biases to measurement results which, when unknown to the user, can affect the validity of the data collected during the measurement. Humidity sensors are subject to any number of chemicals that might be present during the measurement. Eliminating any interference from chemicals would improve confidence in measurement result. By using technologically advanced sensors and specialized software, the users can now revert their instruments back to original conditions after every measurement. Utilizing current features in technology will reduce maintenance and calibration costs. Placing greater control in the hands of the users of field calibration instruments reduce potential inaccuracies in calibration. Ensuring hand-held reference instruments are maintained properly is crucial for field calibration. Proper care of hand-held references instruments will increase the reliability of field calibrations. The overall benefit is the improved performance of the units being calibrated in the field, which will result in enhancement in the quality of production.


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CP_08_3E_1JOHN
Picture of the productIndustrial Computed Tomography, an Emerging Coordinate
Markus Bartscher, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
Germany plays a leading role in industrial computed tomography (CT) application and research in the field of dimensional measurements, i.e. in performing coordinate measurements for assessing information on the geometry of technical parts. This paper describes the current activities in this field and the present and future power of this emerging coordinate measuring technology. Furthermore, aspects of the traceability of this measurement technique and of the use of dedicated material standards are discussed.

Computed tomography using X-rays is an established non-destructive testing technique. For more than 20 years, CT has been used to analyze technical parts, such as cast aluminum cylinder heads for defects (e.g. pores, shrink holes, discontinuities). In recent years, the application has increasingly focused on the geometric measurement of industrial parts. In fact, nowadays dedicated CT systems are commercially available, with the primary purpose of being used as coordinate measurement machines (CMMs). The advantage of this emerging technique is the complete and nondestructive determination of the inner and outer geometry with an outstandingly high measurement point density. The latest development is CT-based CMMs which are dedicated to the measurement of micro parts and multisensor CMMs featuring CT operation in combination with optical sensors and tactile probing. However, an important aspect of all coordinate measurements is the traceability of the geometric information obtained. To achieve traceability, several one-, two-, or three-dimensional material standards have been developed in recent years by PTB (the German National Metrology Institute), BAM (the German National Material Testing Institute) and partners within research and industrial projects. Material standards with a high information content are the sphere calotte plate made of zerodur, a glass ceramic with low thermal expansion, or the sphere calotte cube made of titanium, which can provide 1D, 2D and 3D information for CT system testing and correction, respectively. In general, the aim is to develop standards and test procedures comparable to classical CMM metrology and guidelines (e.g. ISO 10360) for performance testing and verification. Hence, in this paper, micro-CT measurement results which demonstrate the successful use of material standards for the performance testing of state of the art CT systems are presented and discussed in detail.


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CP_08_7B_0BART
Picture of the productIndustrial Consulting Activities of KRISS in Korea
W. G. Lee, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) organized an Industrial Consulting Team in January 2006 to promote technical consulting activities for industries in Korea. The mission of the Industrial Consulting Team is to search the technical problems occurring in the industrial field and to provide consultation. The team searches the technical problems through the on-site inspection, collecting information from the regional societies such as Techno-Park, or KRISS's call center at the customer's convenience. The consultations are provided with the on-site instruction for measurement problems, counselling on laboratory design, utilization of KRISS's facilities, or education and training. In 2007, the team searched over 80 technical problems mainly through the on-site inspection activities and provided 25 technical consultations to Korean industries. Further detail activities of KRISS will be presented at the meeting.


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CP_08_7D_2LEE
Picture of the productInfrared Uncertainty Budget Determination in an Industrial
Frank Liebmann, Fluke Corporation Hart Scientific Division
In infrared (IR) temperature measurement there is quite a bit of concern about how uncertainties affect the accuracy of temperature measurements. This is especially the case when non-blackbodies are being measured. Among the larger uncertainties that can effect an infrared temperature measurement are emissivity, spectral response, blackbody or gray body temperature uncertainty, optical scatter, size of source effect, and transfer standard uncertainty. Emissivity coupled with spectral response when measuring a non-blackbody can be especially troublesome since emissivity can vary with wavelength. Other factors that are minor contributors to uncertainty are alignment, calibration geometry, atmospheric losses and background temperature. Even though these factors are generally not as large, they should be considered as well. For an adequate radiometric uncertainty budget, all of these uncertainties must be evaluated.

This paper discussions the calculation of uncertainty budgets for infrared thermometry in an industrial application. It discusses the measurement equation used for uncertainty budget calculation and covers the merits of using this equation as opposed to other equations. It goes into the major uncertainties in these infrared uncertainty budgets and speaks to how they are applied to the measurement equation.


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CP_08_7E_1LIEB
Picture of the productIt’s Calibrated…Now What? Metrology’s Impact on the Process
Now that the customer has received the equipment back from the Calibration Service Provider (CSP) there are potentially pages and pages of data, which leaves many questions:
    •How do you apply this information to your process?
    •Did the unit meet the specification requirements set forth by the customer’s purchase order?
    •If not, was the purchase order as specific as needed to convey the customer’s requirements?
    •If so, were there any Out Of Tolerance (OOT) conditions that would be of any concern?
    •How did the uncertainty of the calibration affect the measurements of the customer’s process?

The documentation provided by the CSP should help answer these kinds of questions. It is the customer’s responsibility to ensure the calibration received meets their process requirements. The cal lab may or may not know how the customer is using the instrument . . . most likely they don’t.

The examples used within this paper will include a digital multimeter and a set of ring gages in order to apply to a broader audience. These instruments may have some measurements that do not have a Test Uncertainty Ratio (TUR) of 4:1, depending on the equipment (i.e., laboratory standards) and/or process used by the CSP. If the TUR provided by the CSP is only 2:1, this decreased TUR can have an impact on the process tolerances and, ultimately, the end product.

This paper is applicable for all sectors of industry and business at any level within the traceability chain. However, the targeted audience (for the examples in this paper) is customers who use the instrument(s) in the manufacturing or service process.

This paper follows a theme that is continuous among three related papers, which will be presented sequentially. The first paper covers Business’ Impact on Metrology, presented by Howard Zion, while the third paper will discuss Metrology Practice Impact on Business, presented by Phil Mistretta.


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CP_08_6C_2SIMS
Picture of the productJoe D Simmons Memorial Scholarship
Georgia L. Harris, National Institute of Standards and Technology
The Joe D. Simmons Memorial Scholarship fosters the furtherance of metrology through education by striving to:support the academic pursuit of a metrology career by worthy students; promote and improve measurement science education and educational opportunity; encourage talented individuals to enter the field of metrology; and stimulate professionalism in metrology by means of an annual award to a student exhibiting scholastic excellence in the study of measurement science and quality. This presentation will provide the history and current status of this scholarship.


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CP_08_10A_1HAR
Picture of the productLarge Surface Plate Calibration Comparison of Calibration
Orlando Espinosa, Sandia National Laboratories
This paper presents equipment and methods that can be used to calibrate the flatness of large surface plates to Federal Specification GGG-P-463c. The flatness calibration requirements in the Federal Specification are discussed. Moody's method for collecting data and calculating flatness for surface plates is presented. Three measurement methods, electronic levels, autocollimator, and laser interferometer, are used to collect data. The instrumentation and measurement procedure for each of the three are presented and the flatness results are compared and discussed.


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CP_08_1B_2TRAN