Items in Your Cart

Conference Proceedings 2009 (82)

Data pager
Data pager
123
 Item 1 to 40 of 82
of 3 
show all 82
 
Data pager
Data pager
123
 Item 1 to 40 of 82
of 3 
show all 82
Picture of the productA 10 Volt “Turn-Key” Programmable Voltage Standard
Charles J. Burroughs, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Improvements in Josephson junction technology have allowed, for the first time, the output voltage of Programmable Josephson Voltage Standards (PJVSs) to match the 10 Volt benchmark set over twenty years ago by conventional dc Josephson Voltage Standard (CJVS) systems. This paper presents characterization results of the first 10 V PJVS chips fabricated at NIST, designed for a microwave drive frequency of 20 GHz. These next-generation 10 V systems, which use non-hysteretic junctions made with niobium superconducting electrodes and niobium-silicide barriers, offer a number of advantages over CJVS systems, including:
    (a) More comprehensive "Turn Key" automation in which the system can fully characterize all operating margins of the chip without operator participation.
    (b) Inherent voltage step stability and large current margins (1 mA) that eliminate the need for filters on the Josephson outputs, and enable these PJVS systems to be used in applications not previously possible using conventional JVS.
    (c) Rapid settling time (200 ns) enabling the system to produce both DC and stepwise approximated AC voltages (metrologically useful up to a few hundred Hz).
    (d) Reduced system cost and improved reliability due to lower frequency microwave instrumentation (20 GHz instead of 75 GHz).


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_1E_2_8
Picture of the productA Pragmatic Method for Pass/Fail Conformance Reporting
Michael Dobbert, Agilent Technologies
This paper explores the different requirements or guidelines in standards documents, such as ANSI Z540.3-2006, IEC/ISO 17025:2005, ILAC-G8:1996 and EURAMET/cg-15/v.01. Some of these documents are proscriptive, while others provide only minimal guidance subject to interpretation. While many customers simply want to know pass or fail, these differences lead to variations in the Pass/Fail decision point and in the results labels (Pass/Fail vs. Pass/Indeterminate/Fail), and potentially affects downstream uncertainty analysis. This paper presents a non-obvious, yet simple method for expressing statements of Pass/Fail conformance. It employs flexible acceptance limits resulting in straightforward "Pass" and "Fail" conformance labels, with unobtrusive annotation to communicate additional information required by the standards documents. The result is a concise, uniform method flexible enough to satisfy all of the aforementioned standards, regardless of the chosen acceptance limits.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_5C_1_33
Picture of the productA Strategy for Global Trade • Progress and Impact of UK
Rufikat Ijaiya, Department for Innovation, Universities & Skills (DIUS)
In 2004, UK government published a White Paper on Trade and Investment -, this White Paper explored how the UK could benefit from global trade and presented the strategy for maximum benefit. The UK’s strategy and commitment to global trade is demonstrated in the way UK National Measurement System (NMS) operates internationally • providing support for UK global trade strategy of a rules-based international trading system that ensures a level playing field in all markets for the benefit of suppliers and customers, which will encourage trade, innovation and growth. The UK NMS international metrology strategy has three a

reas of focus to improve the environment of global trade for UK businesses; they are active participation in international metrology organisations, such as the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), International Organisation of Legal Metrology (OIML); commitment to long-term strategy of removing un-necessary technical trade barriers to global trade, through a number of established discrete bilateral mutual acceptances of type approval agreements and finally the encouragement of UK National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) to collaborate internationally, such as the Joint Research Projects (JRPs) within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) framework. The benefits of these UK NMS international metrology strategies are beginning to materialise.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_4D_0_25
Picture of the productA Study on the Effects of Bandwidth of IR Thermometry
Frank Liebmann, Fluke-Hart Scientific
In the world of low temperature, wide-band infrared (IR) thermometry, there are a number of uncertainties to consider when making measurements. Among these uncertainties are the effects of bandwidth variability for IR thermometers. This uncertainty becomes troublesome because emissivity does not necessarily have a constant value over the entire bandwidth of the IR thermometer being used for the measurement. With this knowledge there is an uncertainty in this measurement that can be determined. Determination of this uncertainty can be rather difficult due to the complexity of the mathematics involved.

This paper addresses this bandwidth related problem when making measurements in the long wave IR or the far IR region, especially the 8-14 μm band. This paper discusses the mathematical problem of calculating this uncertainty. It addresses the numerical theory involved in this calculation. It suggests a method of using simplified mathematics to perform a calculation of this uncertainty. It then discusses practical experimentation performed to verify this method. The reader of this paper will learn how to better calculate this uncertainty for IR thermometry.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_6E_1_42
Picture of the productA Systems Engineering Approach To Calibration Procedure
Bruce Bluteau, Naval Air Warfare Center
The United States Navy, as well as, other Department of Defense (DoD) organizations use calibration procedures to define methods for verifying the performance of Test and Monitoring Systems (TAMS). These systems maintain the operational capability of weapons and systems that are an integral part of upholding U.S. national security. The traditional method for calibration procedure development is a hardwired (or hard-coded) approach that results in a product that is difficult to maintain and expensive to modernize. This paper describes a Systems Engineering approach that creates a modular group of measurement processes that can be combined to form a traditional calibration procedure. The advantage to this is the reduction of development time for new calibration procedures and a reduction in time and cost needed to modernize existing calibration procedures.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_2C_2_12
Picture of the productA World without Modern Metrology
Jackson K. Mubangizi, Uganda National Bureau of Standards
For nearly a century and a half the world language of measurements has been developing towards common measurements. The key reason for striving to come up with common measurements is to be able to facilitate global trade. To-date, most industries achieved this common measurements while others are still striving to achieve it. Those that have not achieved the common measurements are surely finding it challenging in regard to global trade.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_5D_0_84
Picture of the productAchieving Unity in Fleet M&TE Management
Anthony Williams, Exelon Power Labs
Exelon PowerLabs has achieved a high quality, least cost Metrology system for its fleet of 10 nuclear power generation sites (17 plants). This paper describes the system currently in place. In a decentralized system, separate activities and work practices undermine efficiency and cost saving that can be achieved in a unified system. Exelon took on the challenge of achieving unity in the complete Measuring and test equipment control program. At the heart of the system is a common intranet based system that facilitates control of the entire M&TE lifecycle. This encompasses a common calibration process for all sites, common tracking and control of M&TE at the sites, a single repository for all historical calibration data, a shared equipment logistics process and visible performance measures tracking program objectives.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_1C_0_4
Picture of the productActivities of KRISS home-doctors
K. W. Lee, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
There are more than 200 thousand manufacturing companies in Korea. A number of them have small-scale production systems and have few opportunities to meet high-quality experts who can resolve technical problems. In 2008, in an effort to realize more effective dissemination of developed technologies, KRISS organized a consultation system called "KRISS home-doctors" to help small-manufacturing companies. The main role of the home doctor is to visit their client companies regularly, to search for technical problems occurring in manufacturing fields, and to assist the companies in solving problems. In 2009, twenty experts respectively having more than 15 years of experience in their specialized field are participating in the KRISS home-doctor system.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_5D_2_35
Picture of the productAn Examination of Measurement Decision Risk
Dr. Howard Castrup, President, Integrated Sciences Group
Probability density functions are developed for false accept risk, false reject risk and other measurement quality metrics (MQMs). An examination of these functions casts doubt on whether the false accept risk definition commonly associated with the 2% risk requirement of Z540.3 is an effective MQM from the equipment user’s perspective. Also examined are various additional MQMs for consideration as well as pdfs representing post-test distributions. It is argued that use of the latter produces a definition of false accept risk that provides an MQM of relevance to users of tested or calibrated equipment and, as such, is better suited to the intent of Z540.3 than the prevailing definition.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_5C_0_34
Picture of the productApplication Experiences In Accredited Pipette Calibration
Ulrich Breuel, Zentrum für Messen und Kalibrieren
Next to volumetric glassware also piston pipettes get an increasing importance in laboratory practice. Piston pipettes are good appropriate to dose of transfer small volumes in the range from 0.1 ìl up to 10 ml. The calibration laboratory DKD-K-06901 of ZMK GmbH Sachsen- Anhalt / ZMK -ANALYTIK- GmbH got its accreditation for piston pipettes in 2005. Since then that time extensive experiences could be collected in the field of pipette calibration. Various pipette types requires different specific application knowledge.

The calibration of single channel and multi channel piston pipettes and all necessary conditions (e.g. requirements to standards and equipment, environmental conditions) are detailed described in the standard ISO 8655 [1]. In this standard the permissible tolerances of systematic and random error are defined too. For piston pipettes with variable volume there are three different volumes to be checked, but the permissible absolute tolerances (in ìl) are the same for each volume. They only depend on the nominal volume of the pipette, i.e. the greatest volume selectable by the user and specified by the manufacturer which means the highest adjustable volume.

Experiences in the DKD during the last years have shown that the permissible errors for several companies, e.g. from the pharmaceutical industry, must be decreased to achieve the customers’ requirements need. These customers need expect from the calibration laboratory an evaluation according to the smaller manufacturer’s specifications. But such an evaluation requires a viewing to the measuring uncertainty at the same time.

The report describes how a new evaluation of measuring uncertainty was carried out by adaptation to the checked volume considering several contributions including those of the instrument and operator. Results of a comparison measurement are shown.

Further research work is intended including other accredited labs in Germany and Switzerland.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_8E_2_63
Picture of the productApplying Measuring and Test Equipment Specifications
Suzanne Castrup, Integrated Sciences Group
Manufacturer specifications are an important element of cost and quality control for testing, calibration and other measurement processes. They are used in the selection of measuring and test equipment (MTE) and the establishment of equivalent equipment substitutions for a given measurement application.

MTE specifications are used to estimate measurement uncertainty, establish tolerance limits for calibration and testing, and evaluate false accept risk and false reject risk. MTE parameters are periodically calibrated to determine if they are performing within manufacturer specified tolerance limits. In fact, the elapsed-time or interval between calibrations is often based on in-tolerance or out-of-tolerance data acquired from periodic calibrations.

This paper provides illustrative examples of how MTE specifications are used to estimate parameter bias uncertainties, compute test tolerance limits, determine in-tolerance probability, and establish calibration intervals.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_2C_1_14
Picture of the productAutomating Data Acquisition on a Mech. Equal Arm Balance
Kevin Chesnutwood,
National Institute of Standards and Technology
This paper focuses on efforts by the Mass and Force Group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to enhance the data taking operations of an approximately 40 year old mechanical two pan equal arm balance used for high-precision mass comparisons in the range from approximately 45 kg to 1134 kg (100 lb to 2500 lb). The repeatability and sensitivity of this manually operated balance (called the Russell balance) still cannot be matched by current digital comparator technology and therefore is still a core piece of our large mass laboratories. In order to improve the data taking procedure and avoid reliance of human measurements done by eye, an automated system was designed and installed to obtain the turning points of the balance taken during calibration that ultimately are used to convert scale units to SI mass units. The paper discusses the advantages of the improved system, the challenges that had to be overcome, and the design, operation and verification of the automated system.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_7B_0_46
Picture of the productBayesian Statistics 101
Dennis W. Dubro, Ph. D., Pacific Gas & Electric Company
In recent years, there have been a lot of papers on Bayesian statistics, but in individual discussions the fact that many people still do not have a very clear idea of exactly what Bayesian statistics is and how it relates to classical or frequentist statistics often arises. Everyone has heard of the concepts of “prior” and “posterior” distributions but there is a lot of confusion regarding their proper context, use, and interpretation. This paper is intended to be a basic introduction to Bayesian statistics beginning with examples that one might find in Wikipedia, moving on to the single probability calculations of Consumer or Producer Risk, and graduating to a more sophisticated example in which the posterior distribution is a full, multi-valued probability distribution.

The intended audience of this paper is fairly general. As the abstract indicates, it attempts to give a broad introduction to Bayesian statistics to the metrologist who has been hearing a lot about Consumer and Producer Risk in recent years as well as Bayesian statistics. It is hoped that this paper will put the general reader in a better position to understand the more complex papers on Bayesian approaches.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_6C_0_39
Picture of the productCalibration Interval Adjustment
Mark Kuster, Pantex Metrology
NCSLI Recommended Practice RP-1, “Establishment and Adjustment of Calibration Intervals” describes three algorithmic (A1, A2 & A3) and three statistical (S1, S2 & S3) calibration interval adjustment methods. Given a measurement reliability target and sufficient relevant historical reliability data on calibrated equipment, statistical methods will determine proper calibration intervals. However, the statistical methods may have difficulty with small data sets and some organizations consider statistical methods difficult to implement. By contrast, algorithmic methods respond to recent calibration results and thus require little or no historical reliability data. For this reason, as well as the fact that they are relatively easy to implement, algorithmic methods appeal to many organizations. Of interest then is how well the various algorithms perform.

An interval adjustment method should produce and maintain the correct interval with minimal cost. Minimal long-term cost generally equates to finding the correct interval expeditiously and then withstanding random events in order to maintain measurement reliability at the target reliability. By analysis and simulation, this paper investigates and documents the performance of the three algorithmic methods, showing that excluding historical information hinders all three algorithms’ cost effectiveness relative to the statistical methods, and in the cases of Methods A1 and A2, to the extent that future RP-1 editions will strongly deprecate their use. The paper presents the mechanisms of Methods A1, A2 & A3 and compares their behavior to show how the individual methods succeed or fail to achieve measurement reliability goals effectively.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_4C_0_22
Picture of the productCalibration Service Supplier Quality
Harry C Spinks, Boston Scientific
Calibration is critical in the manufacturing environment, especially for companies that are regulated (FDA, Automotive, Defense, etc). Many companies have internal calibration departments; however, very few can perform all of the calibrations required for their operations. In these cases, they will use and outside vendor (calibration service supplier) to perform the calibrations, either on-site or sent to the vendor for calibration. The quality of the calibrations performed by these vendors can have significant impact on the manufactured products and on patient safety for medical device and pharmaceutical companies. Some companies have very detailed procedures, agreements (contracts), reviews and audits of their calibration service suppliers. Do you? We once thought that a vendor with ISO 17025 accreditation was all that was needed. We found out that this is not enough. Being a medical device manufacturer (FDA Regulated) we have addition quality system requirements than are required by ISO 17025. We need to ensure that calibration vendors meet these requirements.

This paper will look into the benefits of having a strong supplier quality program for calibration service suppliers and the consequences of not having a strong program. This includes processes for purchasing, supplier quality, calibration and risk analysis. It will also present activities and processes that you can implement to strengthen your Supplier Quality Program and protect your company.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_7C_1_50
Picture of the productCatching the Drift: What your Humidity Measurement Sys.
Kevin Bull, CEO, Veriteq Instruments
Humidity affects virtually all measurements. Product quality and efficacy as well as any critical process where environmental parameters must be measured requires that humidity is accurately monitored and recorded. However, despite many advances in measuring other parameters (like temperature, particulates, or voltage) traditional measurement and recording systems for humidity introduce errors that are frequently misunderstood.

One reason for this is that most product specifications for RH instrumentation have understated measurement uncertainties. Knowing what to look for when purchasing RH monitoring equipment can help Calibration Lab, Quality Assurance and Quality Control professionals ask the right questions during the research phase of a purchase. Additionally, understanding how humidity is measured will help professionals optimize their RH monitoring systems based on the specifics of their applications.

This paper will cover the most common uncertainties and sources of error-including sensor drift-in Relative Humidity measurement. The technology of recording and archiving RH data and methods for reducing uncertainties will also be discussed.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_10B_2_74
Picture of the productComp. of two different methods to measure the surface
Co-authors: Luis O. Becerra Santiago, Luz Ma. Centeno Gonzalez, Diana J. López Flores, Brenda F. Santos Negrete, Florianne C. Borja, Ulises I. Bravo Sanchez
Comparison of Two Different Methods to Measure the Surface
Tension of a Sample of Pentadecane

The importance of a correct measurement of all variables involved in different metrological processes, takes major importance every day, and in order to improve the uncertainty in calibration the surface tension ST arises as the new important of uncertainty. In density measurements are involved different quantities of the properties of the liquids, especially for the reference materials used for the calibration of hydrometers, and their characterization in density (density calibration). Nowadays there are diverse methods for the determination of the ST, and some devices to do these measurements based on these methods.

In the present work two methods were developed to measure the ST (Method of rupture and hydrostatic weighing method), to which modifications and adjustments were realized in order to reduce the uncertainties of the resulting values, are presented; the measurement systems and the results from both methods for a sample of pentadecane at constant temperature (20ºC) will be discussed.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_10E_2_82
Picture of the productComparative Analysis on the Implementation of Est.
Sílvio Francisco dos. SANTOS,
Scientific and Industrial Metrology Directorate
DIMCI
In October 1999, the directors of the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of thirty-eight
Member States of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), an organization set
up by the Metre Convention, and representatives of two international organizations, signed the
International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement
(MRA) [http://www.bipm.org/en/cipm-mra/] for national measurement standards and for
calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs.


In October 2003, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and in 2004, the
National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality (INMETRO),
implemented an institution-wide quality system for the measurement services in response to the
requirements of section 7.3 of the CIPM MRA. The objectives of the MRA are to establish the
degree of equivalence of national measurement standards maintained by NMIs, and to provide for
the mutual acceptance of calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs. These
objectives provide governments and other parties with a secure technical foundation for wider
agreements related to international trade, commerce and regulatory affairs.

The process for implementing the CIPM MRA calls for international comparisons of
measurements, use of acceptable quality systems and practices, and demonstrations of
competence by the NMIs. The process of demonstrating the competence of an NMI also includes
the review of its quality system by the NMIs Regional Metrology Organization (RMO). NIST
and INMETRO are members of SIM, the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (Spanish for
Interamerican Metrology System), [http://www.sim-metrologia.org.br/index.html] which is the
RMO that covers the geographic region of the Americas.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_10D_1_81
Picture of the productContributions to the Pressure Uncertainty Measurements
Marcello Caravaggio, SCANDURA & FEM S.r.l.,
The design and latest developments of a series of pressure balances operating in liquid medium up to 120 MPa started within a cooperation between Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) and SCANDURA & FEM company. These pressure balances are aimed to solve industrial problems; they must be compact, easy to move and to use, equipped with many sensors in order to calculate the main influence quantities affecting pressure measurements. A microprocessor, based on an electrical board, collects the data from the different sensors and, combining these data with the constants of the system, gives the pressure value according to the pre-defined mathematical model. The electronic boards are integrated into the pressure balance's base. The thermal isolation and the distance from the piston/cylinder assembly make the influence of the electronic heating negligible. The numerical evaluation of these contributes on the pressure uncertainty budget and the method of their determination, are here presented. Among the most important contributes: the proximity sensor uncertainty, the relative humidity sensor, the ambient temperature sensor, the barometric sensor, the piston-cylinder temperature sensor, the resolution of the constants stored in the system's memory and the resolution of the pressure calculation; are all evaluated and discussed.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_8B_2_56
Picture of the productCooperation in the Development of National Metrology
Wolfgang Schmid European Association of National Metrology Institutes • EURAMET
Growing participation of emerging economies in global markets brings with it the need for these countries to demonstrate the conformity of the products produced by their industry with standards and requirements of their customers. The establishment of a functioning and internationally recognised national quality infrastructure, with metrology forming an essential part of it, is crucial for these countries.

The European Association of National Metrology Institutes, EURAMET, as a Regional Metrology Organisation (RMO) of Europe, recognises this responsibility, organising advisory support and the exchange of experience among its members and searching for a harmonised metrology infrastructure in Europe.

The members of EURAMET (comprising full members and associates) are the National Metrology Institutes (NMI) and Designated Institutes, who are responsible for maintaining the national measurement standards, facilitating traceability to the SI and knowledge transfer to the users of metrology in their country. Many of the members of EURAMET are from countries where the national quality infrastructure is still under development.

Aiming at a higher efficiency in this development process, a few years ago the NMIs from South- East Europe started a closer cooperation via joint activities and sharing experiences. With the establishment of a EURAMET Focus Group for “Facilitating National Metrology Infrastructure Development” this cooperation was opened to all EURAMET members. The first meeting of the Focus Group was held in November 2008 in Skopje, FYR Macedonia.

The objectives of the Focus Group are:
    1) The promotion and the development of the metrology infrastructure in the countries of its members by increased cooperation.
    2) The facilitation and acceleration of the integration of its member NMIs into EURAMET activities bridging the gap between small and new NMIs to the leading NMIs.
    3) Raising awareness about the development in metrology and quality infrastructure in the countries


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_7D_2_52
Picture of the productDeterminants of Organizational Effectiveness for Metrology
Charles A. Motzko, PhD, C. A. Motzko and Associates
This paper expands on the findings developed from research that investigated leadership style and the selection of determinants of organizational effectiveness for National Measurement Institutes (NMI). The data suggests that there is a strong correlation between the operational attributes of an NMI and private sector metrology entities. The commonalities range from a hilevel sponsorship, which provides funding, down to the policy authority for intrinsic, artifact, and documentary standards.

The research methodology focused on answering the central research question, which asked, “… is there is a significant performance difference based on the NMI’s or corporate leadership’s style and the selection of the determinants of organizational effectiveness?” The findings revealed a statistically significant relationship between leadership style the use of determinants for measuring organizational effectiveness. The relationships between leadership style and selection of determinants varied depending on the goal of effectiveness or efficiency. A surprise finding challenged the traditional characterization of effectiveness and efficiency as mutually exclusive.

Other statistically significant findings revealed information on the selection process, including the unexpected emergence of third and fourth measurement dimension involving relations with the political or corporate sponsor versus varying positions-of-responsibility within the entity. These findings regarding the additional measurement dimensions suggest rich areas for future research.

The rationalization for this subject and methodology is contained in a prophetic comment made by the British scientist Lord William Thomson Kelvin (1824-1907) to the Institution of Civil Engineers, on May 3, 1883. Lord Kelvin argued that knowledge and science is based on measurements, usually expressed as numbers. Lord Kelvin’s argument centers on the ability to succinctly express one’s thoughts, one must be able to quantify the knowledge. Without numbers, knowledge is lacking substance.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_8D_2_59
Picture of the productDetermination Of Elastic Distortion Coefficient Of Pressure
Anil Agarwal, National Research Council Canada
Pressure balances (also called dead-weight testers or piston gauges) are most common devices used for generating medium and high pressures with high accuracy. These devices consist of an accurately machined piston-cylinder assembly and are commonly used as secondary standards at most national laboratories to establish pressure scales from few kPa up to 1 Gpa and above. Depending upon the pressure range, these devices either use a pneumatic or a hydraulic medium for generating pressures. Pressure is measured when the force generated by the pressure applied at the base of the piston is accurately balanced by the gravitational force generated by known masses at the top of the piston. In this paper we will present some results of calculations for the distortion coefficient of high pressure piston-cylinder assemblies up to 250 MPa, using analytical as well experimental techniques.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_8B_1_55
Picture of the productDo your Confidence Checks always pass?
Robert L. Brown, Agilent Technologies
Confidence Checks, required by most calibration/test quality systems, detect faulty test equipment between calibration cycles. Common techniques are …
    •Cross-Checks
    •Review of histories and trends
    •Intermediate Checks
    •Validation with a Check Standard
    •Proficiency Testing or ILC (Inter Lab Comparisons)
It is not necessarily a good thing if these checks never fail. It is not cost effective to require a test that never fails, but it is hard to decide what to test.

This paper is written for the electronic calibration service provider. Many of the concepts are universal and of interest to all users and suppliers of calibration and test services.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_1C_2_6
Picture of the productEffective Equipment Management Using RFID
Carl Closmore, Medtronic, Inc
For a Lab Manager, customer satisfaction hinges on the ability to provide the customer (lab user) with what they need when they need it. The larger the lab operation and the more users involved, the larger the customer satisfaction challenge becomes. Locating equipment coming due for calibration or maintenance, servicing Engineer or Technician equipment needs, and tracking utilization trends are key imperatives for anyone performing a lab manager function.

This paper will provide an overview of the asset management challenges faced by one lab operation and how the installation of RFID technology greatly reduced the burden associated with locating and tracking equipment. I will describe the following RFID implementation considerations:
    1) Pre installation environment and challenges.
    2) Search for solutions for effective equipment management.
    3) Vendor selection.
    4) Expectations of system and design.
    5) Installation and its challenges.
    6) Performance results.

Individuals responsible for equipment management would want to explore the possibility of using RFID technology. Whether your operation is large or small, implementing the concepts associated with an RFID tracking systems will improve your effectiveness. Should you actually install an RFID system you may see the same 90% efficiency improvement that we experienced.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_10C_1_77
Picture of the productEURAMET: European Association of National Metrology Ins.
L R Pendrill, EURAMET
Intensified cooperation amongst the national metrology institutes of Europe in all their fields of activity • from metrological research to calibration services • is a response to increased needs of society for traceable measurement, not only the traditional areas (trade, manufacturing) but also in meeting the ´Grand Challenges’ of modern society, such as Energy & the Environment; Health and Security, often in combination with the enabling technologies.

European metrology had been coordinated successfully since 1987 by EUROMET but with increased integration of national programmes, a change of organisational form became necessary and since 2007 EURAMET e.V. is its successor as the Regional Metrology Organisation (RMO) of Europe.

Increased cooperation means not merely adding together the sum of the national metrology programmes but even integrating resources, at least partially, in a truly regional programme.

Alongside other EURAMET developments such as the European Metrology Research Programme and increasing support to metrological infrastructures reported elsewhere at this NCLSi conference, the present talk will highlight other important EURAMET activities:
    •International recognition of national measurement standards and of the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMC) of its members.
    •Metrology knowledge exchange both nationally and in the region as a whole.

Progress in the new EURAMET organisation enabling Europe to respond to the growing demands for cutting-edge metrology as a tool for innovation, scientific research and support for policy, particularly in emerging technological areas and in meeting the major challenges of society will be reported by the new EURAMET Chairperson.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_7D_1_51
Picture of the productEvaluation of the uncertainty due to instability
Luis M. Peña-Pérez, Centro Nacional de Metrología, CENAM
In order to consider a complete uncertainty evaluation in a measurement process, the present work treats the uncertainty evaluation due to the instability of measurement standards (that could be an instrument or a reference material). The instability is affected by different factors like wear and tear, drift, pollution, ageing, use, among others. These effects could have an impact on the certified value of the reference randomly, so a correction in the certified value is not recommended but include the instability in the uncertainty analysis. In the other hand, the instability could be estimated as a function of time and with this function it is possible to apply a correction to the certified value of the measurement standard. This paper suggests a mathematical model for the instability of any measurement standard considering all the possible components and a way to evaluate its uncertainty. Numerical examples are given to clarify this issue.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_6C_2_40
Picture of the productExperiences of APMP members on 10th anniversary of CIPM
Woogab. Lee, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
In 1999 was signed a CIPM MRA for "national measurement standards" and "calibration and measurement certificates" issued by NMIs. This year, on the 10th anniversary of the CIPM MRA, as one of the RMOs APMP (Asia Pacific Metrology Programme) will review the CIPM MRA with success stories and experiences from APMP member economies.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_2D_1_16
Picture of the productFFT Vibration Spectrum Analysis for Manufacturing
J. Lyle Bagley, Bauer Compressors, Inc.
During your annual physical exam, the doctor performs tests to reveal hidden anomalies that could cause health problems later. When you already have symptoms, he performs diagnostic tests to determine their cause. In both cases, he likely uses a stethoscope to monitor your heart and respiration rather than pressing his ear to your chest. The same should be true for complex industrial systems whether automobiles or high-pressure, multi-stage compressors. Fast Fourier transform vibration spectrum analysis (FFT VSA) can be the stethoscope of the quality engineer to ensure that a manufacturing system is “in control” and to locate the cause of problems in a particular system. This paper describes evolving FFT VSA methodology for manufacturing quality, predictive and diagnostic maintenance developed at Bauer Compressors, Inc. in Norfolk, VA by the company’s accredited Calibration Laboratory. Bauer is a global manufacturing company headquartered in Munich, with facilities in Europe, Asia, the United States, and the Middle East. The FFT VSA principles, while applied to large, complex compressor systems, are applicable to anything that shakes. Like any other significant industrial process, measurement is at the heart of it, demonstrating once again the impact of metrology on global trade.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_6E_2_41
Picture of the productGetting on the Metric System (Things are big in Texas)
Richard Fertell, Proteus Industries Inc.
This paper outlines a winning U.S. national metric conversion campaign by informing U.S. citizens of the benefits of using the metric system with the tried and true method of telling them: what's in it for them!
    1) Instant weight loss - 220 lbs to 99.8 kg
    2) Smaller waist - 42 inch waist to 0.1 meter
    3) Larger biceps - 14 inch to 35.6 cm
The citizens of the U.S. already use the metric monetary system (100 cents in 1 dollar), tighten bolts with metric wrenches and drink soda from 1 liter bottles.

This paper seriously discusses areas needed for better conversion implementation to metric, such as: threads, barrel volume, fractional and decimal lengths, to mention a few. A complete national strategy and implementation plan is included in the paper.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_9A_0_65
Picture of the productHow It’s Measured • You are Now Entering the Dimension
Tracie Griffin, NSWC Corona
How It’s Measured • You Are Now Entering the Dimension of the Navy Gage and Standards Laboratory
The Navy Gage & Standards Laboratory performs over 16,000 calibrations/certifications a year. One of its biggest customers is the Marine Corps Infantry Weapons Gage Calibration Program. The Navy Gage and Standards Lab calibrates more than 50 different types of gages for the Marine Corps, processing more than 12,000 gages per year. The lab directly supports Marine Corps units in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Horn of Africa and ships to more than 400 locations around the world. At any one time, the lab has nearly 1,000 gages in the process of being calibrated and has 8,000 that are certified and staged for shipment to warfighters in the field. The artisan technicians at the Navy Gage and Standards Lab use a unique mix of experience, ingenuity, and state-of-the-art equipment to ensure the accuracy and precision of the calibration methods & procedures they develop. For the Marine Corps, the lab uses innovation, serialization, and automation to produce faster turn-around, improved accuracy, and better lifecycle management for the Infantry Weapons Gage Calibration Program.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_2B_2_10
Picture of the productHydrophone Calibration
Niels V. Bøgholm, Brüel & Kjær
Underwater acoustics has gained increasing importance during the last years; this is due to a many different - and not only military- applications. More activity in the underwater acoustics segment also means stronger need for calibration of underwater transducers. So it is only natural that there is a growing interest for calibration of underwater transducers • new facilities are being established and existing facilities update their capabilities and skills. While the receiving sensitivity of a hydrophone at low frequencies can be determined relatively easily by means of a pistonphone type calibrator, it is a much more involved task to determine its frequency response.

This paper first highlights a number of important differences between acoustics in water and in air; these differences also results in quite some differences in the calibration methods used for microphones and hydrophones. Some basic guidelines for water tank calibration are explained together with a simple practical example. Two different calibration methods are described namely calibration by substitution and reciprocity calibration. While the majority of hydrophones are calibrated by the substitution method the reciprocity calibration method is primarily used to determine the properties of reference hydrophones. Some examples are presented using results and experiences from a commercially available hydrophone calibration system. Finally the some brief remarks are given concerning methods to estimate hydrophone calibration uncertainty.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_10E_0_83
Picture of the productImpact of the Intra-Africa Metrology System (AFRIMETS)
Wynand Louw,
National Metrology Institute of South Africa
During 2007, the Intra-Africa Metrology System (AFRIMETS) was formed with as principal
members the five sub-regional metrology organizations (SRMOs) in Africa. Four countries not
part of a SRMO also became members (Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia and Ghana), extending the
countries represented in AFRIMETS to forty one. In October 2008, AFRIMETS officially
became the regional metrology organization (RMO) representing Africa.


The membership spans the continent with the important economic groupings represented through
the SRMOs. The Southern African Development Community Cooperation in Measurement
Traceability (SADCMET) is the largest and most active SRMO. It plays a major role in
harmonizing measurement to assist trade within the most economically active sub-region on the
continent, and assists in the acceptance of SADC export products. The East African Metrology
Programme (EAMET), representing the East African Community (EAC), is fast expanding its
activities and held several workshops and conferences during 2008 to advance metrology in the
region. Under the metrological leadership of Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi are benefiting
from the exposure, contributing to the increase in trade within and from the region. In the north
MAGMET, representing the Maghreb countries, is pooling the measurement resources of
Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria to support trade with especially the EU.


Much work is needed to advance metrology (and trade) in the central and western parts of Africa.
SOAMET, the secretariat for metrology of the Economic Community of West African States
(UEMOA), became active during 2007/2008 and participates in AFRIMETS, but currently lacks
the metrology infrastructure of SADCMET, EAMET and MAGMET. CEMACMET, the
metrology sub-region representing the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
(CEMAC), currently only exists in name and lacks a formal SRMO structure.


The paper explores the impact that SADCMET, EAMET and MAGMET had on trade within the
sub-regions and beyond the borders of Africa, and its potential future impact. It then investigates
the potential for metrology to assist the expansion of trade from the central and western African
sub-regions by highlighting how the lack of proper metrology infrastructure negatively impacts
the potential for export.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_4D_1_26
Picture of the productImprovements and Experiments in Air-Speed Calibrations
Leif D King, Oak Ridge Metrology Center
Increased air speed range capabilities and reduced uncertainties for anemometer calibrations performed by the ORMC are needed to meet customer requests for smaller tolerances and larger calibration ranges. The ORMC wind tunnel is an open-circuit axial fan based system with a 10" Diameter (25.4 cm) testing section designed to target the 500 FPM (2.54 m/s) range. The tunnel initially produced speeds of 50 to 485 FPM (0.254 to 2.46 m/s) with an uncertainty estimated at ±7.2% of reading (RDG). Different configurations were tested to evaluate the achievable air speed ranges and performance as well as the velocity profile, boundary layer, turbulence, and noise factors. Experiments were conducted for the 500 FPM range and to evaluate the expansion to at least 5,000 FPM (25.4 m/s). Plans for future experiments will be discussed as well as the potential applications such as inter-laboratory comparisons where nozzles are commonly used as transfer standards for Flow calibration comparisons.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_7B_1_47
Picture of the productImprovements Relating to the Calibration of Thermometers
John P. Tavener, Isothermal Technology Ltd.
ITS-90 specifies a series of temperatures which are used to define the scale. Supplementary Information to ITS-90 describes how these substances can be embodied into structures, known as fixed point cells that are useful to thermometrists.

At present, fixed point cells are used with apparatus such as cryostats, baths and furnaces. However, current furnaces for example are expensive. The ideal furnace employs a heat siphon which has thermal conductance 200 times better than copper to create isothermal conditions during phase transitions. It may not be possible for a furnace to use the working fluid of choice for safety reasons. There is often poor thermal conductance between the furnace and the fixed point cell such that a series of furnaces are required to enable the required temperature range to be achieved.

A patent application filed during September 2007 describes a combined metal clad fixed point cell and heat siphon, which when heated provides an isothermal environment for the metal within to change state. The outer wall of the cell becomes the inner wall of the heat siphon with cost as well as performance benefits. The device is called a “Siphonic Cell”. Siphonic Cells can be of Indium, Tin, Zinc, Aluminium, Silver, Gold or Copper.

A fixed point cell is not long enough to eliminate heat conductance along the standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrated in it. Currently, using long furnaces, heat shunts and reflective baffles an attempt is made to reduce these losses.

A second patent describes a device to compensate for the stem conduction problems caused when a thermometer under test is not sufficiently immersed into a fixed point cell. The device is called an “Immersion Compensator”.

Its advantage is that it is independent of the cell/heat siphon and so can be set to give perfect compensation for stem conduction. A combination of the two devices should offer improvements in thermometer calibration.

This paper describes the successful development of the above ideas into a working prototype and the results obtained during 2008 and 2009.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_9B_1_67
Picture of the productImproving Service to Customers: One AB’s Journey
Hershal C. Brewer, CCT, Senior Accreditation Officer, International Accreditation Service (IAS)
Rarely does one think of Accrediting Bodies (ABs) when discussing the service industry or the subject of service to customers. ABs more often are seen as regulators or enforcers. The perception does have some basis in truth as the need to have credibility and confidence in the accreditations of necessity includes some regulatory and enforcement emphasis.

However, there is another side to the AB that their customers rely on but may not always see. That is service to the customer. Customers include the accredited organizations, other external entities such as the Mutual Recognitions Arrangement (MRA) organizations, and internal Staff and Contract personnel.

Service to the customer may take many approaches. These may include but not necessarily be limited to, a reduction in cycle time for assessments and granting accreditation; easier payment methods; new programs to meet needs of industry; tailored programs for specific needs; training; and other services as appropriate.

What lessons can be learned by relating the journey of one AB towards greater customer service? The concepts, issue, and perhaps a few of the approaches taken can provide examples to organizations, accredited or not, that seek to improve service to their own customers.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_9D_2_71
Picture of the productInductance Calibration using the Paperless Calibration
Jürgen Melcher, PTB
Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) the German standards laboratory offers a wide range of inductance calibrations of 1 µH to 100 H in a frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. This service is achieved with low uncertainties using a hand operated Maxwell-Wien (MW) bridge. In order to be able to use the mechanisms of the paperless calibration management system an automated setup was installed, that allows the measurement of several customer standards over night without operator.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_4E_0_29
Picture of the productInternational Comparison of AC-DC Current Transfer
Author: I. Budovsky, National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA)
The paper presents an international comparison of ac-dc current transfer measurements at 10 mA and frequencies up to 1 MHz between four national metrology institutes, NMIA (Australia), PTB (Germany), BEV (Austria) and SP (Sweden). The agreement between the participants is better than 10 μA/A at 500 kHz and 20 μA/A at 1 MHz. The paper presents the measurement results, as well as an overview of the design and characterisation of the reference standards and measurement systems used at the four laboratories to achieve this performance.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_10D_2_79
Picture of the productInternational Military Metrology Cooperation
Lieutenant Colonel Gerhard Mihm, Logistikamt der Bundeswehr, Bundeswehr Logistics Office
NATO military services face new challenges. Costs of modern weapon systems are rising not only for procurement but also for maintenance. The amount of identical equipment is decreasing while the number of different types of equipment is increasing. Costs of services needed are screened very carefully and every method is taken to reduce these costs to an absolute minimum. The word spreads "Industry is doing it better and at a lower price than internal resources". So conventional military services face two different challenges: the experience needed to maintain test and measuring equipment is increasing but the number of military calibrators is reduced drastically at the same time. To care for T&M equipment at home, service can be provided by industry. To care for T&M equipment in a hostile environment, military personnel with special calibration labs have to provide service where needed. Since not every NATO nation can afford to develop and procure these special calibration labs, a special NATO (International) Military Metrology Conference has been set up to develop special standards so services can be shared and provided not only to member parties but also to NATO institutions. The presentation will cover the basic statutes of this special Military Metrology Conference which took place for the 4th time in 2008, and show the development and identified needs and targets of military metrology that are in progress.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_5D_1_36
Picture of the productJob Safety Analysis for the Calibration Lab
Chad Paszternak, Southern California Edison
For many of us our jobs become routine. Much of the work we do is just a part of the daily grind. The shelves are full of calibration after calibration after calibration. But hey, it's no problem because you've performed thousands of calibrations on this widget before. Maybe it's something completely new, but you've done something just like it. Some types of hazards you can come across in the typical calibration lab are chemicals, gases, pressure, electricity, light, temperature, fire/flammables, mechanical, and many others. The question is what to do about the hazards so there are no injuries or lost time. The answer is to perform a Job Safety Analysis (JSA) for each of those routine tasks, or calibrations, that are being performed. For our purposes we are going to look at two types of calibrations that pose a significant safety risk while performing the work. We will look at high pressure and high voltage calibrations. We will break down the steps involved from set up to completion. Once you are done reading this, you should have the basics of JSA down and should be able to perform a JSA on your own.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_4A_1_19
Picture of the productKey Comparisons in Electrochemistry
Kenneth W. Pratt, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Certified reference materials (CRMs) that have been characterized using electrochemical techniques are among the most-used CRMs. These materials provide traceability for some of the most frequently performed chemical measurements, including pH, electrolytic conductivity, and titrimetry. International recognition of these CRMs is an important link in global trade.

The equivalence of measurements performed by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) is evaluated by means of Key Comparisons (KC), performed under the aegis of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM). The Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance • Metrology in Chemistry (CCQM), established by the CIPM in 1993, is responsible for KCs in chemical metrology. The CCQM has organized seven advisory Working Groups (WG), including the Electrochemical Analysis WG (EAWG). These WGs advise the CCQM in their respective areas of expertise.

The EAWG administers those KCs related to electrochemical analysis. A pH KC has been performed for each primary buffer (pH 1.67 through 10.0). KCs in electrolytic conductivity have been performed at 5 mS·m-1 (50 ìS·cm-1) and 0.5 S·m-1 (5 000 ìS·cm-1). Titrimetric KCs have been performed, jointly with the Inorganic Analysis WG (IAWG), for potassium hydrogen phthalate and potassium chloride, with others planned. These electrochemical KCs correspond to measurements required for characterization of CRMs issued by NIST and/or other NMIs. These CRMs disseminate traceability of the given measurement to users of these materials.

This paper summarizes how KC results are obtained and how electrochemical KCs function as an international benchmark. Using examples from NIST participation in these KCs, the talk also illustrates how these KCs have increased understanding of the factors that influence the measurements under evaluation. Such understanding is reflected in the assigned uncertainty of the corresponding CRMs. These CRMs are widely used for calibrations. Any improvement in the assigned uncertainty of the CRM is reflected in the uncertainties of corresponding secondary, real-world measurements. Thus, any improvement resulting from a KC is of interest not only to NMIs, but also to industrial and other users of the corresponding CRMs.


Regular price: $20.00
Quantity    

 View Cart
CP_09_2D_2_15