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Conference Proceedings 2010 (111)

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Picture of the product5S, Lean Thinking and Project Management for Metrology Lab.
Nat Russo, Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems
Many businesses are concerned about the growing cost of overhead services and calibration costs are always undergoing scrutiny. With cost of capital equipment, expense items and labor, metrology services are questioned as to their worth to the company. 5S, Lean Thinking and Project Management tools can help the metrology lab reduce cost, improve their efficiency and show the company that not only are their services valuable, but are performed with minimal cost.

Using the 5S methodology created by Hiroyuki Hirano, we will show how to use various tools to demonstrate how Sort, Set in Order, Sweep, Standardize and Sustain will organize, order, clean, establish processes and maintain improvements.

Project Management will demonstrate the value of using schedules, work elements, budgets and metrics to monitor progress and report results to management.

Using these tools effectively will improve the operational efficiencies of a laboratory making a metrology laboratory an asset to the company instead of a perceived drain to the company.


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CP_10_9C_1_RUSS
Picture of the productA 100A Automated Multi-Shunt Calibration System
Leif D King, Oak Ridge Metrology Center
This paper is about the results of an experimental 100 Amp automated multiple shunt calibration system. The goal of this system is to calibrate 3 to 5 (or more) shunts simultaneously up to 100 Amps. As these shunts are not used in oil nor have cooling systems, the system includes the development of a full temperature vs. resistance 2nd order correction curve. This system is primarily intended for calibration of meter shunts such as those used with welders, but also allows for calibration of higher precision shunts such as Leeds & Northrup and Rubicon Standard shunts. The target uncertainty for this system is <25 parts-per-million with the main goal being a significant reduction in the calibration time and improved throughput all with less strain on the Standards as well as the DUTs themselves over the existing system. Two versions have been explored with one using a Resistance Bridge and a Range Extender for direct calibration against a Standard Resistor with the second attempting to use the Range Extender by itself with two sub-versions using a lower level Standard Resistor and a multimeter as well as directly measuring the current output using a multimeter.


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CP_10_1E_2_KING
Picture of the productA 21st Century Model for Providing Measurement Traceability
Wynand Louw, National Metrology Institute of South Africa
Delegates interested in the development of RMOs and managers and metrologists interested in metrology in developing countries, and anyone interested in training in metrology should benefit. Can African NMIs and LMIs thus successfully provide measurement traceability, harmonize Legal metrology legislation and ensure fit-for-purpose calibration, testing and inspection? Probably only if African metrology structures remain abreast of technological developments in the rest of the world, and design specific metrology solutions for Africa. The paper explores one or two 21st century metrological developments in Africa and then focuses on innovative models at the sub-regional metrology level for providing traceability.


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CP_10_4D_0_LOUW
Picture of the productA Complete Uncertainty Budget For Dynamically Prepared
K. Phillip Schierjott, H. Wösthoff Messtechnik GmbH
The dynamic preparation of standard gas mixtures described in this work is based on a gas mixing pump comprising two or more pneumatically separated high precision piston pumps. These piston pumps are driven by a common motor via individual gear trains. The portions of the applied gases forwarded by the applied piston pumps are defined by the area of the cylinder with the diameter d, the height of stroke h of the piston and the stroke rate N. The quantity values of composition of the gas mixture generated by the forwarded gas portions are preferably expressed in amount fractions and in volume fractions, respectively. An uncertainty has to be assigned to each quantity value. To establish the uncertainty budget a measurement model is developed considering all known sources of uncertainty involved in the described method. The measurement model comprises two quantities of composition: the amount fraction and the volume fraction.


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CP_10_5A_2_SCHI
Picture of the productA new 50GHz Co-axial thermistor bolometer power standard
Andrew S. Brush, TEGAM, Inc.
DC Substitution Bolometers have long been used as the most accurate means of measuring continuous RF power. Available thermistor bolometers do not address industrial needs for accurate standards working at frequencies above 26.5 GHz. A new thermistor bolometer has been developed that functions at frequencies from 45 MHz to over 50 GHz, and uses current manufacturing techniques suitable for volume production. The new design should be useful both as a transfer standard and as a calorimeter artifact for primary standard use. This paper focuses on the drawbacks of historical thermistor bolometer designs and how novel design has overcome those challenges.


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CP_10_2E_0_BRUS
Picture of the productA NIST Disciplined Oscillator
Michael A. Lombardi, National Institute of Standards and Technology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) now offers a service that provides customers with an oscillator locked to UTC(NIST), the United States national standard for frequency and time. A NIST disciplined oscillator (NISTDO) works by utilizing both the Internet and "common-view" observations of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and can serve as the primary frequency and time standard for a calibration or metrology laboratory. NISTDOs are directly referenced to the Coordinated Universal Time scale kept at NIST, known as UTC(NIST). This makes it easy for laboratories to establish traceability to the International System (SI) directly through NIST. Customers are provided with standard frequency outputs of 5 MHz and/or 10 MHz, as well as 1 pulse per second timing outputs. These outputs provide time accurate to within about ±20 ns (peak-to-peak variation) with respect to UTC(NIST) and provide frequency with an uncertainty near 5 × 10-14 when averaged over a 24-hour interval. This paper discusses the theory of operation of the NISTDO, and demonstrates the accuracy and stability of the device over both short and long time intervals.


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CP_10_9B_0_LOMB
Picture of the productA Proposed Standardization of Optical Comparator Calib.
Henry L. Alexander, Perry Johnson Laboratory Accreditation, Inc.
Few comparators are used in a way that exercises their full range of measurement capabilities. This has led, in many cases, to limited calibration which serves to establish the comparators fitness for use for only those measurement functions to which it has been dedicated. The result of this practice is that many laboratories which perform calibration of optical comparators do not agree on what constitutes a complete calibration of the device, how this calibration should be performed, and how the uncertainty of measurement associated with the various aspects of calibration should be determined and reported.


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CP_10_1B_2_ALEX
Picture of the productA SADC Water Proficiency Testing Scheme To Ensure Quality
Donald Masuku, National Metrology Institute of South Africa
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) cooperation in Measurement Traceability (SADCMET), a sub-regional member of the Intra-Africa Metrology System (AFRIMETS), established the SADC Association of Water Testing Laboratories (SADCWATERLAB) as a union of the water laboratories to carry out a water proficiency testing scheme and to facilitate collaboration among the participating laboratories. To date over 42 water testing laboratories in southern and eastern Africa participate in the scheme which aims to ensure that the water used in the region is within acceptable chemical and microbiology limits and thus safe for human consumption. The improvement of water supply systems is crucial in the combat against diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea and other waterborne diseases, to combat worldwide poverty and reduce the potential for conflicts.

The Water PT scheme helps to ensure that laboratories monitoring drinking water in the region are competent for the task and thus the monitored water is safe for human consumption. It also concerns international trade in the region, which suffers from incorrect analyses and the non-acceptance of results due to the absence of accreditation of the laboratories. Laboratories seeking accreditation according to ISO/IEC 17025 among other things are obliged to participate in proficiency testing (PT) schemes to demonstrate their competence.

With the help of the National Metrology Institute of Germany (PTB) a PT scheme for chemical water analysis was installed for the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and East African Community (EAC) regions directed by SADCWATERLAB Association, a union of laboratories with common interests. This PT scheme offers the opportunity for all interested laboratories to participate in a regional, affordable PT scheme to improve and demonstrate its quality to customers, authorities and accreditation bodies.


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CP_10_4D_1_MASU
Picture of the productAC Shunt Calibrations at NRC
Peter S. Filipski, INMS, National Research Council Canada
NRC offers calibration of ac shunts from milliamperes up to 100 A, in the 10 Hz to 100 kHz frequency band with expanded uncertainties between 10 ΩA/A for currents in the milliampere range to 50 ΩA/A at 100 A and 100 kHz. The paper describes the design of NRC ac standard shunts, as well as NRC experience in calibrations of commercial shunts. The ac-dc difference of some commercial low current shunts is load sensitive at higher frequency ranges. The paper discusses reasons for this sensitivity and suggests mitigating solutions.


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CP_10_10E_1_FIL
Picture of the productAccounting for the Impact of Thermal Instability in Fluids
Jeremy Latsko, Air Force Metrology and Calibration (AFMETCAL)
Accounting for the Impact of Thermal Instability in the Liquid Comprising the Connecting Volume of a Piston Displacement type Volumetric Flow Rate Standard
The Air Force uses conventional pumped fluid piston displacement volumetric flow rate standards which employ an equation provided by the manufacturer for determining average volumetric flow rate through the meter under test during standard volume delivery. The Air Force’s calibrators are operated assuming that steady state thermal conditions are achieved throughout the fluid residing in the connecting volume between the metering piston and the meter under test during standard volume delivery. Accordingly, this assumption implies that the net gain/loss of thermal energy • and therefore any decrease/increase in volumetric flow as a result of fluid contraction/expansion • is negligible to the system’s overall uncertainty. Using a specially instrumented flow calibrator, the effects of not accounting for thermal instabilities have been analyzed and quantified. Based on these data, it is believed that true thermal stability is not practically achieved. Further, not accounting for thermal instabilities can result in an increase in overall flow rate uncertainty, most notably at lower flow rates. The consequence is the degraded uncertainty, changes to established procedures which can add time and cost to calibrations, or a reduction in the large turndowns over which these calibrators are often operated.

We propose the use of the complete volume flow rate equation • accounting for the fluid in the connecting volume • in order to achieve stated uncertainties derived under the assumption of thermal stability. To implement this change, new instrumentation must be added which includes both a means for measuring fluid temperature throughout the connecting volume and for measuring the absolute position of the metering piston in the cylinder at the conclusion of a standard volume delivery.

The technical paper on this topic will detail the theories employed, calibrator modifications, studies conducted, and resultant conclusions. It will also ultimately provide the reader with actionable information to improve piston displacement standard flow rate measurements over large turndowns.


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CP_10_8B_2_LATS
Picture of the productAdvancing RF Radiation Meter Calibrations into 21st Century
Barry E. Mancz, Air Force Metrology
A common concern on the public’s collective mind is whether wireless communication devices, such as cell phones, cordless phones, police radio communication, and wireless internet connections, pose a health risk. 21st century American wireless communication devices are ubiquitous, and these devices use microwave and radio frequency (RF) radiation to function. This is such an anxiety producing topic because, thus far, research either supporting (or negating) the effects of microwave and Radio Frequency (RF) radiation at low levels is inconclusive. On a larger scale is the concern of large amounts of RF radiation in communication and RADAR systems, which is known to be hazardous to humans. For the purposes of this paper, I’ll be considering radio frequencies between 10 MHz and 40 GHz because that is where most RF radiation hazard meter and probes are specified.


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CP_10_MANCZ
Picture of the productAn Advanced Material Measure For Standard Gas Mixtures
K. Günter Schierjott; K. Phillip Schierjott, H. Wösthoff Messtechnik GmbH
In quantitative chemical measurements there is still an important requirement for existing methods and for new methods to be developed that fulfill the CCQM definitions of primary methods of measurement. The provision of measurement standards directly traceable to the SI is the essential condition for quality assurance in the field of gas analysis. The presented material measure demonstrates the realization of the definition of gas mixture composition expressed in amount fraction or in volume fraction as well. All measurements for the determination of the quantities of composition are made in SI units without reference to a quantity of the same kind. The standard gas mixtures supplied in a permanent manner are dynamically prepared using a set of piston pumps which are mounted on a common frame and driven by a common electrical motor. The gas components of the final gas mixture are forwarded in defined portions by their respective piston pumps, merged and then properly homogenized.


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CP_10_5A_0_SCHI
Picture of the productAn Application of Risk Analysis to HVAC in The Life Science
Javier R. Morell, Ph.D., Johnson Controls, Inc.
For the most part Life Sciences applications of Facility design and operation today are based on defending the deterministic regulatory rules and guidelines historically established with industry and FDA. As designers, builders, owners and operators have focused our efforts to defend a regulatory audit. In this pursuit we have built defensible facilities from a regulatory perspective but neglected the Business Risk of production loss categorized by failures in Indirect or No Impact systems and neglected the cascading effect of interrelated Utilities and Equipment and how they work in concert to sustain the process. This paper outlines an approach to defining Business Risk associated with HVAC equipment and utilities using a scientific, repeatable methodology to define the impact of the configuration, selection and availability of utilities, equipment and operations on business revenues. This approach has implications for facility design, facility modification and business directed maintenance.


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CP_10_7_2_MORE
Picture of the productAn Industrial Metrologist Certification Program
Steve Sidney, HN Dip EE, National Laboratory Association
A large percentage of Metrology that is carried out in industrial laboratories is performed in ILAC Accredited facilities. One of the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, under which the laboratory is accredited, requires that personnel demonstrate that their skills are adequate for the specific calibrations under which the accreditation is performed

Since here in South Africa there is no formal tertiary education for calibration / metrology technicians, the Accreditation Body (AB) • South African National Accreditation System, SANAS, had in earlier years introduced a personnel certification scheme which was known as the Certificate of Competence or CoC. This was used as a benchmark and served as a requirement for those personnel who took on the role of Technical Signature status.

In more recent times and with pressure from various sources, SANAS elected to discontinue this activity and as a result there has now been a period where a number of accredited facilities do not have a Technical Signatory who has this 'certification'.

Concerns raised by assessors resulted in SANAS approaching the National Laboratory Association, NLA, to evaluate the possibility of introducing an updated version of the CoC. A unique and innovative feature of the subsequently introduced NLA Metrology Certification programme is the balance between theoretical knowledge and demonstrated competence in terms of the evaluation of candidates.

This paper provides information not only about how the process has evolved, but will also describe the early experiences that the NLA has had in this regard. It will hopefully serve as a model for other countries faced with similar challenges, as well as the way forward in the 21st century for an industry which often does not get the recognition that it deserves.


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CP_10_3A_0_SIDN
Picture of the productAn Interlaboratory Comparison of Multijunction Thermal
Thomas E. Lipe, National Institute of Standards and Technology
From 2006 through 2007, NIST piloted an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) of thin-film multijunction thermal converters (MJTCs) of the NIST/Sandia design. Unfortunately, the traveling standards were found to drift with respect to one another, and the ILC was stopped when it became apparent that no information would be gained from continuing. From 2007 through 2009, a second pair of MJTCs was measured to determine their suitability as traveling standards, both at NIST and in a revised ILC. Over the course of more than two years, these MJTCs drifted by less than 2 µV/V over the parameter space (0.5 V and 2 V from 10 Hz to 1 MHz) of the ILC. From this performance, we are confident that this second round of ILC is meaningful.


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CP_10_1E_1_LIPE
Picture of the productAn International Comparison of Quantum AC Voltage Standards
Peter S. Filipski, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council Canada
An AC Josephson Voltage Standard (ACJVS), a quantum ac source based on pulse-driven Josephson junction arrays, was developed at NIST to bring quantum accuracy to ac voltage metrology. At present, ACJVS is used at NIST in calibration of low-voltage thermal standards of ac-dc transfer difference, to satisfy the increasingly stringent requirements for reduced uncertainties in the millivolt ranges. An analogous ACJVS system, also based on NIST Josephson junction arrays, was established at NRC, with the goal of incorporating it in the NRC structure of ac voltage standards at millivolt levels. The operation of the ACJVS is not yet fully automated and requires significant manual intervention of a skilful operator. The most accurate calibrations call for correction of systematic errors, particularly due to the long leads between the quantum accurate ac voltage source and the calibrated instrument. These corrections have to be determined experimentally and vary with the equipment used. To compare the correspondence of ACJVS calibration approaches at the lowest uncertainty levels, NIST and NRC are presently conducting an international comparison of two ACJVS systems using an amplifier-aided thermal standard as a traveling standard.


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CP_10_1E_0_FILI
Picture of the productAppropriate Uncertainty Estimates for Instrument Testing
Edward P. Morse, Center for Precision Metrology / UNC Charlotte
When workpieces are measured, an estimate of uncertainty is developed for each measurand, quantifying the influences of the environment, measuring conditions, and the measuring instrument. The resulting estimate of uncertainty is a critical input to the decision rule which determines whether the result of measurement is acceptable or not acceptable.

When an indicating measuring instrument is being tested for conformance to specification, the error in the instrument's measurements is evaluated. Instrument variations may contribute to errors of indication in the test, but this is not the uncertainty of interest when we decide if the instrument conforms to the specification. To apply a decision rule for the instrument test, we must evaluate the uncertainty in determining the errors of indication using the test. This paper will discuss a formal model of uncertainty for instrument testing, and give examples of how different procedures and conditions may result in different uncertainties for the evaluation of indicating measuring instruments.


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CP_10_6B_1_MORS
Picture of the productAssessing And Demonstrating The Impact Of Knowledge Transfer
. Elshorst, National Physical Laboratory
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is provided with public and private funding to develop and apply the UK’s National Measurement System (NMS).The level of funding dedicated to assisting with the translation of knowledge from public sector investment in research to industry has increased over the past decade in the UK. This investment has resulted in a rapid growth in actively managed knowledge transfer, leading to increasing demands for this investment to provide evidence of impact.

NPL has developed a contextual framework for understanding the range of knowledge transfer activities it provides in response to its complex drivers as both a Public Sector Research Establishment (PSRE) and a Research & Technology Organisation (RTO).

This paper outlines and reviews a range of methods for measuring the impact of knowledge transfer. It provides insights into the Value Scorecard methodology developed at NPL in response to the complexity of formulating and validating future knowledge and technology transfer activities in the field of measurement.


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CP_10_6A_2_ELSH
Picture of the productBalance Calibration A method for assigning a direct-read
Mike Stears, Idaho National Laboratory
Like many calibration laboratories, our laboratory provides calibrations for a wide range of instrumentation. For the most part, we calibrate the instrumentation to the manufacturer’s published specifications. As one of our services, we provide calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company; the calibrations are performed at the customer’s location. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift; but, what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? What is the uncertainty in the measurement? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used.


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CP_10_7B_2_STEA
Picture of the productCalibrate with Safer or Less Expensive Fluids
Richard Fertell, Proteus Industries Inc.
This paper will address using a safer and less expensive fluid in fluid calibration systems than Standards Fluids. Standards Fluids are typically toxic and extremely costly to fill reservoirs of fluid calibration systems as well as time-consuming to change. Liquid Flow measuring instruments typically require being calibrated in like conditions as to use for best uncertainty - the fluid properties of viscosity or density are important to replicate. This paper describes using super-heated water and a mixture of water and a water-soluble sweetener to achieve desired viscosities to mimic fluids ranging from refrigerants to heavy crude oils (0.3 cp to 9000+ cp).


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CP_10_8B_0_FERT
Picture of the productCalibrating high voltage impedance bridges with low voltage
Gregory A. Kyriazis, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia
A calibration system for automated high-voltage current-comparator-based capacitance and dissipation factor bridges is presented. The method saves a lot of time and is much more flexible as it does not use or require high voltages and high voltage standards. For the calibration, two sinusoidal currents from tens of microamperes to a few mA at power frequencies are synthesized with two synchronized signal generators and two resistors, and injected into the bridge inputs. The capacitance ratio and dissipation factor simulated by these currents are calculated from an ac voltage ratio estimated from the digitized data, together with the impedance ratio of the resistors. The ratio and phase displacement of the two sinusoidal voltages are adjusted to simulate any capacitance ratio from 0.1:1 to 100:1 and any dissipation factor from zero to +/- 1 (or even more). The system uses commercial stable signal generators and high-resolution digital multimeters. The calibration system does not use or require synchronization circuits between the digitizers and the generators as the ratio and phase displacement of the input currents are estimated from the digitized data using an optimized algorithm for nonsynchronous digital sampling..


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CP_10_4E_1_KRYI
Picture of the productCalibration Interval Adjustment Methods: Quantitativly
Mark Kuster, Pantex Metrology
NCSLI Recommended Practice RP-1, "Establishment and Adjustment of Calibration Intervals," provides decision trees for selecting a calibration interval adjustment method based on inventory size, the information sources available, quality emphasis, and budgeting priorities, as well as detailed descriptions of the pros and cons of each method. To date, the recommendations have been qualitative, based on expert knowledge and experience.

We reported progress toward that goal at the 2009 NCSLI and the 2010 MSC symposiums, having established a simple simulation framework for Methods A1, A2, A3, S1 and their variations. We reported results under exponential reliability model behavior based on an excess relative cost metric. The results have already led to additional deprecation of Methods A1 & A2 in the new RP-1 edition. Further efforts have created an action plan for achieving the goal, including optimization of adjustment method parameters and an improved simulation framework, encompassing resubmission time variability, initial interval distributions, and additional adjustment methods and reliability models. This paper reports further updates and results.


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CP_10_2C_2_KUST
Picture of the productCalibration Intervals by Bayesian Approach
Ding Huang, Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR)
This Bayesian statistics based tool is developed for computing calibration interval analysis. It uses multiple-source information, e.g., calibration statistical data of out-of-tolerance counts, (estimated) time-to-OOT, and prior engineering knowledge. It is applied to resolve various extreme conditions and provides a step toward total reliability management.

This paper uses a test case to demonstrate interval computation for small sample size and discusses Bayesian versus significance testing for data combination.


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CP_10_2C_0_HUAN
Picture of the productCalibration of CMM Probe Qualification Sphere
Krishnakumar Gopal, Transcat Calibration Services
The competition amongst manufacturers in today’s world is primarily due to the extensive changes that have been applied to the quality assurance standards. Companies adhere to quality practices and are striving to deliver top-notch products by maintaining superior quality standards. Co-ordinate measuring machines are widely used in a variety of metrology applications and play a vital role in helping companies achieve exceptional quality products. The different mechanical parts of the CMM function together to measure the manufactured parts precisely and accurately. Stylus or probe is the first part of CMM that contacts the work piece under inspection. The different tips of a stylus need to be qualified before they can be used in a part inspection program. The probe qualification typically comprises of finding the effective radius of the probe tip, lengths and orientations of the stylus and errors associated with the probing system (co-efficient of elastic bending of the probe). Probe qualification spheres are used to qualify the stylus used in part inspection programs. The form and Spherecity variation of the probe qualification sphere is critical for the CMM probe qualification process.


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CP_10_5B_0_GOPA
Picture of the productCalibration Process Innovation Using Guard Banded Testing
Richard Ogg, Agilent Technologies
Calibration Process Innovation Using Non-Required Guard Banded Testing
Calibration services vary as to how to set the acceptance limits compared to the required tolerance (i.e., specification). Using a guard band to reduce the acceptance limit will increase the confidence in the calibration.

This paper recaps the method and results of a project that used such a strategy. It explores some of the benefits gained through a calibration process for a targeted tolerance that has very little measurement margin. The new process identified both systemic issues and margin failures that were affecting the overall quality of the calibration process. Addressing these issues provided process improvements that would reduce future apparent out-of-tolerance situations. It also allowed suspected instrument failures to be correctly identified as a faulty calibration process. The intent of this paper is to help calibration laboratory managers to make informed decisions related to managing their internal processes.


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CP_10_8C_1_OGG
Picture of the productCalibration Services And Supply Of Reference Materials
Akihiro Mito, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)
NMIJ/AIST provides calibration services and supplies reference materials to support the industries and to ensure the safety and security of the people. The calibrations and disseminations of national measurement standards are controlled by the Measurements Law in Japan. It is indispensable to review the system in accordance with the social needs and/or the environmental change. New schemes for services and measurements dissemination activities are introduced. In order to calibrate a variety of organic reference materials, the 1H NMR method is improved. To solve geographical issues regarding supply standards, a remote controlled calibration system is developed. To calibrate in situ measuring instruments, a calibration-free calibrator is under development.


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CP_10_7D_1_MITO
Picture of the productChallenges at SIM to create a coordination program on Time
J. Mauricio Lopez R., Time and Frequency Division, Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM)
The Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) is one of five major regional metrology organizations (RMOs) recognized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). SIM is composed of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) located in the 34 member nations of the Organization of American States (OAS). Its goal is to create a unified measurement network that extends to the entire SIM region, ensuring the uniformity of measurements and strengthening traceability throughout North, Central, and South America back to the International System (SI) of units. To help reach this goal, SIM sponsors working groups in ten different metrological fields, including time and frequency.

Developing a unified time and frequency measurement network in the SIM region has been a challenging task, but much progress has been made in recent years and many obstacles have been overcome. This paper summarizes work done by the SIM Time and Frequency metrology working group from 2004 to 2010. It discusses the challenges faced by the working group, the progress made by individual laboratories, and the important role played by metrology education. It also provides an overview of two major achievements of the working group, the SIM Time Network (SIMTN) and the SIM Time (SIMT) scale.


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CP_10_1A_0_LOPE
Picture of the productCharacterization of the Power Coefficient of AC and DC Cur.
David Deaver, Fluke Corporation
It is common practice for current shunts to be calibrated at a single current level and then used over a wide range of currents. The power coefficient of the shunt can contribue significant error to the measurement process. Often the power coefficent is ignored either through lack of awareness or because it is specified to be acceptably small. For many shunts, however, the power coefficient is far from insignificant and an accurate characterization can provide a set of power coefficient correnctions that can significantly reduce measuement uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of quite a few methods that can be used to measure or correct for power coefficient including a new method which the authors believe has not yet been published.


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CP_10_10E_0_DEA
Picture of the productConformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules
Scott M. Mimbs, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented “decision rules” establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS.

Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions.

Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made • no more, no less.

This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement decisions rules.


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CP_10_8C_2_MIMB
Picture of the productConverting Technical Content to Training Material
Georgia L. Harris and Dana Leaman National Institute of Standards and Technology
This paper provides the basis for an interactive mini tutorial and covers how to convert technical content to training materials. It includes: defining the audience, writing Learning Objectives, designing content and activities to achieve objectives, engaging participants in learning activities using adult learning methods, and assessing the learning event to determine whether objectives have been met. Examples are provided from NCSL International resources. The instructional approach in this paper covers the Analysis, Design, and Development phases of the ADDIE instructional system development (ISD) model; due to time constrains, it will only briefly touch on the Implementation and Evaluation phases. The paper integrates concepts from Bloom's Taxonomy and criteria from the ANSI/IACET standard for offering continuing education units as an Authorized Provider.


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CP_10_9A_0_HARR
Picture of the productCOOMET documents on key comparison data evaluation.
A Chunovkina, The D.I.Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology
In 1999 directors of national metrology institutes (NMIs) assigned Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The objectives of MRA are to establish the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards and to confirm calibration and measurement capabilities declaired by NMIs. The mutual recognition of calibration and measurement certificates issued by national metrology institutes (NMIs) is based on the results of the key and supplementary comparisons of national measurement standards. The aim of the regional key comparison (RMO KC) is to extend the metrological equivalence over the measurement standards of NMIs, which did not take part in CIPM KC. COOMET TC 1.1 “General Metrology” worked out guidelines on data evaluation of key and supplementary comparisons . The documents and their application will be discussed in the talk.

    1.Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) 1999 Mutual recognition of national standards and of calibration and measurement certificates issued by national metrology institutes BIPM Publication (Sevres:BIPM)
    2.Guidelines for data evaluation of COOMET key comparison (COOMET Recommendation R / GM / 14 : 2006)
    3.Guidelines for data evaluation of COOMET key comparison (COOMET Recommendation R/GM/19:2008)


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CP_10_8D_1_CHUN
Picture of the productCooperation in The Regional Metrology Organization COOMET
Pavel Neyezhmakov, Head of COOMET Secretariat
COOMET • Euro-Asian Cooperation of National Metrological Institutions • is a Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) from Central and Eastern Europe, Caucasian Region and Central Asia.

For implementation of joint research projects a TC for “Joint Research in Metrology” was established in 2009.

One of the priority tasks of COOMET members from Central Asia and Caucasian Region is to create a metrology infrastructure recognized at the international level. COOMET successfully cooperates for developing infrastructures of these countries in order to speed up their integration into the global metrological system.

Intensification of information exchange within COOMET requires wide application of information technology. Activities on website modernization were performed in 2009-2010.


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CP_10_8D_0_NEYE
Picture of the productCooperative Metrology Networks for the Development of Korean
K. W. Lee, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
As a NMI in Korea, KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) has established measurement standards and disseminated them to Korean industries through calibration services and CRM supply. In an effort to ensure more effective communication between KRISS and industry, KRISS has organized various cooperative networks with the goals of sharing knowledge, exchanging ideas, and discussing solutions to common problems.


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CP_10_LEE
Picture of the productCorrection and Measurement Uncertainty of volumetric
Dr.Pochaman Tagheen, Department of Science Service, Ministry of Science and Technology, Thailand
Error and measurement uncertainty in calibration of volumetric apparatus are from many sources for instance the weighting machine, environment, liquid temperature, position of meniscus. The less cleanliness, it will reduce the surface tension between the glass and liquid. The less surface tension is the more contact angle. The more contact angle is the more error of amount volume of the apparatus. From our study the proficiency testing for flask and pipette calibration we found that about 70% of 70 laboratories, their evaluation of performance have been unsatisfactory. The unsatisfactory laboratories' results are below the reference value. The discussion and the evidence of laboratory picture of the meniscus shown that they have got the bigger contact angle so they affect the error of amount volume that are occurred from the cleanliness of the apparatus. This paper will show the quantity of the measurement uncertainty from the contact angle and calculate the total measurement uncertainty for volumetric apparatus calibration.


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CP_10_1C_3_TAGH
Picture of the productCurrent Measurement Capability of NML with BIPM-KCDB
Lung-Hen Chow, Chin-Yi Huang, and Gwo-Sheng Peng Center for Measurement Standards/ITRI
The website information of BIPM-KCDB officially discloses the international equivalence of each NMI worldwide, on which activities mainly include: a) the Key and Supplementary Comparisons (KC&SC), and b) registrations of CMCs of the measurement system in each registered NMI. This paper surveys the quantified result of National Measurement Laboratory (NML, Chinese Taipei) participating KC&SC activities. Through checking diversified measurement parameters of category and item, measurand, range, deviation, uncertainty and En-value, we investigate the degree of equivalence of CMC of NML with those of international peer NMIs. NML's calibration services associated with their quality system are then demonstrated and assured to be reliable enough, also traceable to SI international units with conformable uncertainty claims. The investigated comparison results demonstrate that NML conforms most to the required degrees of equivalence. While there are still approximately two fifths to half of measurement items in NML that need to make further improvement in order to achieve the top level of metrological capabilities among NMI peers.


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CP_10_5D_1_CHOW
Picture of the productDeveloping and Automating Calibration Procedures for RF
Laura Ramirez, National Instruments
Modular or software-defined instruments have become common in design, validation, and production test systems. Capabilities spanning high-accuracy DC to RF, the need to service these products globally can become a challenge for calibration organizations. Modular instruments operating at RF or microwave frequencies specifically present a unique set of requirements to the world of metrology. Architecturally, engineers build many of these RF modular instruments from multiple individual devices. This paper discusses the challenges faced in developing automated module and system calibration procedures for two such RF modular instruments: a 6.6 GHz vector signal analyzer (VSA) and 6.6 GHz VSG.


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CP_10_RAMIREZ
Picture of the productDevelopment of Mobile Calibration Laboratories
Capt. Peter Jäger, German Armed Forces Calibration Service
If the customer does not come to the calibration laboratory, the calibration laboratory must come to the customer. The German Armed Forces, too, have to deal with this fact. Whether in operations or in units with critical equipment, mobile calibration laboratories will be the solution to meet calibration requirements on site.

The implementation of such mobile laboratories should be cost-effective • special vehicles have been and continue to be too expensive. Therefore the Bundeswehr developed mobile laboratories on the basis of commercial thermo trailers and has had them built. The fleet of mobile Bundeswehr calibration laboratories includes fully equipped calibration laboratories that are also consistent with EN ISO 17025 requirements.

The laboratories of the Bundeswehr are equipped with climate control chambers, workplaces for pressure, force, mass, torque, flow and temperature, but also for all electrical parameters such as current, voltage and resistance. This enables calibration of almost the entire range of equipment • from multimeter to spectrum analyzer, from torque key to hydraulic ground carts for aircraft.

Due respect had to be paid to the suitability for daily use and to the development of the pool of measuring devices. The laboratories should be suitable for flexible adaptation to new requirements to be able to react to metrological developments.

The presentation will show the requirements, dev


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CP_10_JAGER
Picture of the productDimensional Characterization of a 50 mm Piston-Cylinder
Anil Agarwal, Institute for National Measurement Standards
Pressure balances (also called dead-weight testers or piston gauges) are most common devices used for generating medium and high pressures with high accuracy. These devices consist of an accurately machined piston-cylinder assembly and are commonly used as primary or secondary standards at most national laboratories to establish pressure scales from few kPa up to 1 Gpa and above. The effective area of the piston-cylinder assembly used as a secondary standard is typically determined by cross-floating method against another standard. For a primary standard, however, the effective area needs to be determined from the dimensional parameters of the piston and cylinder. In this paper we will present some results of the dimensional characterization of a 50 mm diameter piston-cylinder unit, including measurements for diameters, roundness and straightness. We will present the comparison of effective areas obtained from dimensional measurements as well as from cross-floating with a primary mercury manometer and present the uncertainty analysis associated with each method.


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CP_10_10D_0_AGA
Picture of the productEstablishing Calibration Laboratory In a Developing Country
John Wilson SMSAIEE, FSAIMC Accreditation & Metrology Services (Pty) Ltd.
National Metrology Institutes (NMIs), Military and some commercial laboratories are often established in developing countries with foreign funding and almost certainly with well-meant advice from the donor or parent company. When this advice or specifications are given, there is often little understanding of the local conditions or more importantly, the expected work load. The result is that the laboratories land up with totally the wrong equipment to do the task required of them, leading to frustration by all parties concerned.>br>
Added to these problems are the cultural issues that are also generally overlooked. The expectation by the donor or parent companies is way out of reason while the receiving laboratory does not have enough experience to discuss the planned outcome, or is often too polite to voice their opinion.

This paper will address these challenges and hope to give some guidelines to better approaches by both the donor organizations as well as the prospective laboratories to ensuring that the laboratory is able to provide the service that its market requires and thus use the donor funding effectively. Modern technology has made this task much simpler and helps to bridge the gap between “first principle” metrology and actually doing real life, fit for purpose, calibrations.


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CP_10_4D_2_WILS
Picture of the productEstablishing Pass/Fail Criteria On Plain Plug And Ring Gage
Michael Rittenhouse, U.S. Air Force Metrology and Calibration Program (AFMETCAL)
Plug and ring gages are widely used throughout the Air Force; from shop floor weapon system maintenance to use in the Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratories (PMEL). The precision of the plug and ring gages used throughout the Air Force varies from gages with tolerances less than 10 microinches to gages with tolerance that exceed 500 microinches.

The Air Force calibrates thousands of plug gages and ring gages each year. Air Force measurement results often differ from the manufacturer’s measurement results due to measuring equipment, measurement processes, and gage geometry. Differences often create challenges between the Air Force and manufacturer when determining the acceptability of the gages.

When describing plug and ring gages, for most cases, pass/fail criteria probably revolves around gage material, gage geometry, and gage diameter. Defining the geometry and diameter tolerance requirements can vary based on how the gage is used. Measurement results for both characteristics, geometry and diameter, will vary based on measurement processes and measurement equipment.

Some would argue that being able to substantiate a measurement result is only important when a gage fails and the manufacturer starts asking questions about the measurement process and equipment. In actuality, it is just as important to be able to substantiate a measurement result for gages that pass as well as gages that fail.

This technical paper will discuss gage requirements, gage measurement processes, and measurement equipment. This technical paper will end with a brief outline detailing the Air Force measurement processes and measurement equipment used to measure Class XXX plug and ring gages.


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CP_10_4B_2_RITT