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Conference Proceedings 2011 (96)

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Picture of the productA Bilateral Comparison on Humidity Standards
Peter Huang, National Institute of Standards and Technology
This is a regional metrology organization (SIM) bilateral comparison of the realizations of the scale of dew/frost point temperature at the participating National Metrology Institutes: NIST (USA) and INMETRO (Brazil). A total of four humidity levels in terms of dew/frost-point temperature are used for the comparison: 20 °C, 0 °C, -10 °C and -30 °C. At each measured value, the mean and standard deviation of multiple readings of the transfer standard, which is a chilled-mirror type of dew-point hygrometer, were recorded. The results of statistical analysis support the conclusion that the measurement data can be assumed to have the form of normal distribution. Combined standard uncertainty ranged from 0.02 °C to 0.08 °C approximately.


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CP_11_24B_6_HUA
Picture of the productA Fully Automated Calibration Process
Rosane Moreira Debatin, INMETRO, National Institute of Metrology
This work will present the evolution of a power and energy calibration laboratory, since its implementation up to now and its perspective to the future. The work will detail the laboratoryˆs first service calibration, the implementation of a fully automated calibration process (measurement, statistical analysis and preparation of calibration certificate), how the laboratory is preparing the young technicians and how it is motivating them to improve the system already implemented and to develop new tools to help the service.


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CP_11_24A_2_DEB
Picture of the productA Method for Verifying Traceability in Effective Area
Michael Bair, Fluke Calibration
Fluke Calibration has defined traceability in effective area of a piston-cylinder through the Piston Cylinder Pressure Calibration Chain since 1983. The calibration chain effective area traceability is primarily based on dimensional measurements for a low pressure piston-cylinder with a diameter of 50 mm, and an integration method to calculate the effective area based on the dimensions of the piston and the cylinder. The effective area for smaller piston-cylinders that constitute the calibration chain and define pressure traceability to 500 MPa (72500 psi) are determined through crossfloat intercomparisons called Base Ratio crossfloats. This method used to define traceability for higher pressures is dependent upon the elastic deformation coefficient, i.e. the change in effective area as pressure increases, and requires some extrapolation of the change in effective area. Because of this, each time the calibration chain is re-established there is some method of measurement assurance at higher pressure that is performed. In 2001 and 2004 the measurement assurance was achieved by comparing calibration chain piston-cylinders to a piston-cylinder that had been determined by LNE (France) in the late 1990s up to 200 MPa (30,000 psi). In addition to this in 2004 a second comparison was performed with NIST (USA) also to 200 MPa.

The Fluke Calibration Piston Cylinder Pressure Calibration Chain was re-established in 2010. In lieu of sending another piston-cylinder to an NMI pressure laboratory to verify the calibration chain an alternative method was established and completed based on a method described by Dadson, Lewis and Peggs of NPL (UK). This paper discusses this method and provides the results and an uncertainty budget.


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CP_11_24E_8_BAR
Picture of the productA Simple Bayesian Approach to Calibration Intervals
Dr. Steven R. Dwyer, NSWC, Corona Division
This paper introduces a practical method for using subjective data to improve calibration interval estimates. The procedure exploits the natural properties of conjugate prior distributions to reduce the most complicated aspects of typical Bayesian theory to a simple calculation. The approach has proven to be easily adaptable to existing data systems and interval calculation software, and it is even amenable to quick hand calculations. The method is simple enough that everyone in the audience should be able to calculate Bayesian calibration interval estimates by the end of the presentation.


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CP_11_24C_4_DWY
Picture of the productA Users Guide for Applying Chilled Mirror Hygrometers
Ken Soleyn, GE Measurement & Control Solutions
Relative humidity instruments are widely used for environmental control, product testing and process control. The most widely used relative humidity instruments use are polymer sensors where the capacitance or impedance is measured as function of relative humidity while applying temperature compensation algorithms. These sensors are subject to drift and even the most precise sensors have an error stack up of 2-3% RH. Chilled mirror hygrometers fundamentally measure the dew point and temperature and through the use of psychrometric equations calculate the relative humidity with high precision and minimal long-term drift.


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CP_11_24B_3_SOL
Picture of the productAchieving and Improving Level and Attenuation Uncertainties
Paul C. A. Roberts, Fluke Calibration
Can an RF signal source produce low uncertainty precision level and attenuation directly at its output when traditionally signal generators, power meters, calibrated step attenuators, and complex procedures are needed? This paper describes how a purpose-designed RF Reference Source achieves precision level and attenuation performance without additional equipment, how it is traceably calibrated, and the impact of recent improvements in these key specifications on its ability to address workload requirements.


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CP_11_22D_1_ROB
Picture of the productAn Improved 200kN Dead Weight Force Amplification System
S K Jain, National Physical Laboratory
For realization of forces hydraulic amplification systems (HMS) are preferred over deadweight machines due to cost considerations. However, the effective area ratio (A/a) in HMS force machines does not remain constant with the applied pressure. In the present work, an attempt has been made to modify the design of a 200 kN HMS system, wherein the crevice between the P/C assembly is maintained constant, by jacketing both the cylinders and pressurizing the jackets using an independent hydraulic pressure system. The realized force by this system represents an improvement over that obtained by the conventional deadweight force amplification system.


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CP_11_24B_4_JAI
Picture of the productAs-Found: Out-of-Tolerance … Now what do I do?
Philip Mistretta, Transcat Inc.
As-Found: Out-of-Tolerance is a simple statement, but an incredibly powerful statement. This simple statement of non-compliance will means more work to be done, a lot more work, very important work that can have far reaching effects. In essence you have non-conforming material. Your Quality system has a procedure for handling non-conforming material, however, this is non-conforming instrumentation used in your process, not material produced by your process, and that is the real concern. Did the instrument affect your product? How much product? How severe is the impact? Is a recall of the product necessary?


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CP_11_23C_4_MIS
Picture of the productAutomation and other Improvements to a Standard Leak Rate
Leif D King, Oak Ridge Metrology Center
This paper will outline some improvements that have been made to a Pressure × Volume Standard Leak calibration system/stand. These include program and some hardware modifications designed to reduce the uncertainty, reduce the calibration time, increase the range of Leak Rates that can be calibrated, evaluate Temperature effects (and the need for a more standardized reporting method of leak rate and Temperature compensation), and/or implement additional data analysis including a variation of the rate-of-rise methodology and characterization of out-gassing and attempts to factor this affect out.


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CP_11_24A_1_KIN
Picture of the productBlackbody-Based Radiometry and Radiation Thermometry
Sapritsky V.I., All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI)
Development of National radiometric, photometric and radiation thermometry standards worldwide are based upon the blackbodies (BBs) developed at VNIIOFI. The paper presents review of a wide list of precision VNIIOFI-made blackbodies for the entire UV-visible-IR spectrum covering the temperature range from 80 K to 3500 K.

Low temperature blackbodies with temperatures from cryogenic to 450 K were developed for space borne instruments calibration. These BBs are presented by models of both types: variable-temperature and based on fixed-points of Ga, In and binary metal-metal eutectic alloys. High emissivity is achieved by using different black coatings. BBs are characterized with high temperature uniformity and stability. For example for BB100-V1 model, these parameters account for 0.05 K to 0.1 K, and 0.1% for 1.5 ìm to 15 ìm wavelength region under cryo-vacuum conditions of medium background environment emulating the orbital working environment. Copper and aluminum alloys are used as the radiation cavity materials for the low-temperature and cryogenic BBs.

Recent advances in high-temperature technology and a novel design made it possible to develop the Planckian sources with temperatures as high as 3500 K, high uniformity, and stable radiation characteristics. These large-area blackbodies allow the creation of a new generation of radiometric and radiance temperature standards with low uncertainty. Hightemperature large aperture blackbodies of BB3500 series allow realization of project for development of high-temperature fixed points based on metal-carbon eutectic and peritectic alloys.


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CP_11_24E_1_SAP
Picture of the productBusiness Considerations of Equipment Refresh in a Calibratio
Richard Ogg, Agilent Technologies, Inc.
Calibration laboratories operate in a world of constant change, and this is never more evident than in the products that are requested to calibrate. This creates a constant need for better measurement standards, and calibration laboratories are all too familiar with the dilemma of whether or not to update the existing test equipment that they use. This paper acknowledges the upgrade costs but then focuses on identifying major advantages achievable from such an upgrade effort. Those advantages are further explored to identify underlying factors that can realize a cost savings. The objective is for lab managers to be better equipped to evaluate their own situation and to make solid business decisions related to equipment refresh.


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CP_11_24A_4_OGG
Picture of the productCalibrating DC Current Shunts: Techniques and Uncertainties
Jay Klevens, Ohm-Labs, Inc.
The base SI unit of measurement for electricity is the Ampere. No readily available artifact exists to represent or disseminate the Ampere, so in practice the Ampere is determined by measuring the voltage across a current shunt, using Ohm's Law (E=IR). In the power and electrical test industries, it is crucial to accurately measure electrical current. Based on these results, we offer an improved procedure for measurement and uncertainty analysis for the accurate measurement of current.


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CP_11_23E_1_KLE
Picture of the productCalibration of High-Frequency Wattmeters Used for Standby
Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, National Measurement Institute
Most commercial power supplies draw highly distorted currents while in standby mode. The IEC 62301:2005 standard lays out accuracy requirements for wideband wattmeters used for the measurement of standby power during the testing power supply performance. The standard suggests that the wattmeter used for this purpose should be capable of measuring power produced by sinusoidal voltage and distorted current with crest factor up to 10. The paper describes a precision measurement setup developed at the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA) for calibrating wattmeters under such conditions. The setup is based on the NMIA high-frequency thermal power comparator. The current waveforms used in the calibration and the measurement uncertainties are also discussed.


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CP_11_25C_1_GEO
Picture of the productCalibration of Stopwatch by Using High Speed Video Recording
Y.K.Yan and H.M. Chan, The Government of the Hong Kong
A video totalize method for calibration of stopwatch has been developed at the Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL). The method starts with the taking of two short video clips of the display of the stopwatch under test, together with the reading of an in-house designed synchronous counter, with the clips separated by 6 to 7 hours. The 10-digit synchronous counter is driven by a 1 kHz clock which is phase locked to the caesium frequency standard of SCL. The elapsed times measured by the stopwatch and the synchronous counter are obtained by viewing the recorded video to search frame-by-frame for the moment at which the reading of the stopwatch changes. Using this method, the measurement uncertainty will no longer be constrained by the display resolution of the stopwatch, but rather be fine-tuned to align with the frame rate of the video recording. Digital camera that can record video at 420 frames per second with usable image quality is commercially available. At such high frame rate, the display of normal universal counter would no longer rival. SCL has designed and built a synchronous counter that allow the reference time be read out from the recorded video at a resolution of 1 millisecond. The measurement uncertainty obtainable by this calibration method is better than 2 x 10-7.


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CP_11_25C_4_TSU
Picture of the productCalibration Software Uncertainty Implementation Philosophies
Jorge Martins, National Instruments
Ask any laboratory technical manager how they would like to see the uncertainty analysis documented, and implemented in software, and you will probably get completely different answers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how these opinions are interpreted, and implemented by different calibration software providers, and how each has a different impact in the laboratory. The paper does not discuss specific commercial or privately available calibration software but, in more general terms, how each implementation philosophy may impact your laboratory modus operandi, method validation, records and documentation. This paper discusses the pros and cons of the implementation solutions and provides guidance to help you decide what is best for you laboratory.


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CP_11_23C_1_MAR
Picture of the productCollaborative Knowledge Creation (CKC) Among NMIs
Salvador Echeverría-Villagómez, Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM),
This paper proposes a model for Collaborative Knowledge Creation (CKC) that establishes the collaborative group among complementary organizations from the very origin of the knowledge creation process, from the mutual conception of the ideas to address an issue, and thus it ensures these ideas have a combined genetic code (DNA) of the connected organizations. Some premises of the CKC concept are: Knowledge; Innovation; Social capital; Technology. The paper will expand on the concept of CKC and will present 3 case studies, one for each of the 3 NMIs represented by the authors.


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CP_11_22A_4_VIL
Picture of the productCOOMET: Successful Cooperation on Bridging the Gap
Pavel Neyezhmakov, NSC (Institute of Metrology)
COOMET (shortened from COOperation in METrology) was established on 12 June 1991 when representatives of metrology organizations from Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, USSR, and Czechoslovakia signed a Memorandum of Understanding. Having Central Asian and Caucasian countries as its members COOMET is faced with a serious task to help them develop their national metrological infrastructures and harmonize them with international requirements. The participation in COOMET activities gives an opportunity for bridging the metrological gap between developing countries, which are still in the transform process, and developed countries with top technologies and a metrological infrastructure, and promotes the cooperation of national economies and elimination of technical barriers to trade.


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CP_11_24D_1_NEY
Picture of the productDebunking the Two Great Myths About Calibration
Jay L. Bucher, Bucherview Metrology Services
We've all heard and used the term: "Our calibrations are traceable to NIST." Most of us have also heard the following from our managers and supervisors, but mostly from ISO auditors and FDA inspectors: "If you cannot adjust the test instrument, you cannot calibrate it." The real travesty about these statements is that for decades we have believed both of these myths. It is time to set the record straight. The learning objectives of this paper/presentation are: The definitions and meaning of calibration and traceability as they relate to the metrology community; What requires calibration and what does not; How to properly document traceability in your calibration records.


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CP_11_22C_3_BUC
Picture of the productDesign Studies and Testing of a Low Capacity Torque Trans.
Sanjiv Gupta, 1Defence Research & Development Organization
Torque is a very important physical parameter and plays a very vital role in various applications in aviation, automobile, power and agriculture industries. Torque is generally measured by mechanical type torque meters / torque wrenches, having a high degree of uncertainty. These mechanical type torque meters / torque wrenches need to be calibrated using strain gauge based torque transducers. Hence there is an acute thrust to develop precise and reliable strain gauge based torque transducers. Some efforts have been made to develop more precise and reliable torque transducers which may reproduce results with stability.


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CP_11_25E_1_GUP
Picture of the productDetailed Investigations about Uncertainty Contributions
Co-Authors: Nadine Schiering, Barbara Werner, Heinz Fehlauer, Henning Wolf, Rainer Feldmann, Karl Heinz Lochner, and Christoph Spaelti.The calibration of piston pipettes according to the gravimetric procedure described in ISO 8655 is one area of the metrological work of the accredited calibration laboratory DKD-K-06901. In the frame of the work in the technical DAkkS/DKD sub-committee Density / Volume the problem was discussed how to describe all influences to the measurement uncertainty comprehensively. It was agreed that the influences should be investigated in the frame of an international pilot study. The study was executed as a comparison measurement. 12 accredited calibration laboratories and 1 National Metrology Institute participated. The DKD-K-06901 was the pilot laboratory according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17043:2010.

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CP_11_24E_6_BRE
Picture of the productDetermination of Uncertainty and Performance of NIS Humidity
Nabila I. El-sayed, National Institute for Standards NIS
The objective of this research project is to present the methodology for estimation of measurement uncertainties in humidity calibration at the National Institute for Standards (NIS). This measurement is needed for various industry fields and for quality control requirements. For this reason NIS established a number of calibration facilities. The methodology is applied for different types of hygrometers within the range from 5 %rh to 95 %rh using NIS primary, secondary or working standards. The conclusion of this paper states the illustrated difference between cases when covariance's are into account or are not.


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CP_11_23D_2_NAB
Picture of the productDevelopment of the high grade industrial platinum resistance
Kazuaki Yamazawa,, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)
In this presentation, we review the development of high-grade industrial PRTs, which are aimed to be an intermediate solution between the standard PRTs and the conventional industrial PRTs during these 20 years. The most important developments are the alumina insulating high-temperature PRTs, and the stainless sheathed industrial PRTs that have improved stability. At NMIJ, we develop furnaces with improved temperature control stability as one application of these newly developed PRTs. We will present the achievements, for example, the difference of the temperature control stability of a furnace by replacing sensors, and furthermore, present the various achievements in the research activities that were revealed by applying these improved sensors.


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CP_11_22B_3_YAM
Picture of the productDH Instruments Molbox 1 Flow Calibration System Enhancement
Kirk D. Marshall, Exelon PowerLabs LLC
Power Labs designed an enhancement to the DHI Pneumatic Flow Calibration System. Originally, when using the DHI System our calibration setups would consist of the use of one Molbloc at a time. If the calibration was beyond the range of the current Molbloc, the Molbloc would have to be removed and then install the Molbloc that would accommodate the desired test points.

The Power Labs enhancement makes it possible to use six different Molbloc ranges (4 laminar and two sonic) and have only one source inlet and one test output. Additionally a 120 gallon tank was placed upstream of the DHI Flow Calibration System, which increased flow and temperature stability. This enhancement drastically increased the efficiency, repeatability and reliability of pneumatic flow calibrations at Power Labs.

To further increase the reliability of our calibrations we researched the tractability of our process for converting from volume to mass flow through the use of NIST REFPROP. This was a pain staking endeavor for the calibration of rotameters, due to the complexity of reading these devices and understanding the differences between scale and standard conditions, which is why we feel that these devices are a poor choice for obtaining quantifying data in the field.

Due to the variability of results, we have come to the conclusion that we do not have the confidence to perform calibrations on one gas and through the use of conversions, report the results in another gas. Therefore the only test gas we use for calibration is the same as the standard conditions gas stated on the unit under test.

Power Labs believes that a good calibration program is obtained through having the humility to be open to the possibilities of improvement and having the courage to implement those improvements based upon quantifiable test results. Having these attributes enables us to continually improve our processes so we can be the best we can be.


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CP_11_24E_8_MAR
Picture of the productDirect JVS Comparison between NIST and SNL to Support NCSLI
Y. Tang, National Institute of Standards and Technology
The National Conference of Standard Laboratories International (NCSLI) is scheduled to start the 9th Josephson Voltage Standard (JVS) Interlaboratory Comparison (ILC) in March 2011. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the pivot lab for this comparison of JVS systems currently in operation at several U.S. companies and national laboratories. In order to ensure the uniformity and traceability of the representation of the volt based on Josephson constant 1990 among all the participating labs, the NIST DC Volt Lab and SNL performed a direct Josephson Voltage Standard (JVS) comparison from December 6, 2010 to December 10, 2010 at the SNL, Albuquerque, NM.


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CP_11_23C_7_TAN
Picture of the productDMM Linearity Calibration Using a Programmable Josephson
Akio Iwasa, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Usually, calibration of a digital multimeter (DMM) is a process in which gain and offset values are adjusted. A DC voltage standard, (~10 V), of which values traceable to national voltage standard is used for gain adjustment. Offset adjustment of voltage is achieved by providing a copper short across the input terminals. Even after this calibration, uncertainties to be estimated still remain. These are uncertainty for traceability to national voltage standard, uncertainty caused by environmental temperature drift, uncertainty from internal reference drift, etc.


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CP_11_22E_2_IWA
Picture of the productEffective Communication Between Calibration Labs and Custome
Heather A. Wade, Calibration Officer, NSF International
This paper addresses common frustrations between external calibration labs and their customers and offers solutions for effective communication. A customer may send equipment to a calibration vendor for calibration with the expectation of quickly receiving it calibrated. The only instructions sent with the equipment may be "please calibrate this". Calibrations are often delayed because of missing or incomplete information. Additionally, customers may not receive equipment calibrated for how they intend to use it. We've found effective tools to streamline outsourced calibration & equipment services.


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CP_11_23A_3_WAD
Picture of the productEnhanced Equipment Calibration Tradeoff Analysis
Dennis Jackson, Ph.D., NSWC Corona Division
The analysis of calibration scenarios has traditionally been done based on a single test point or measurement. As accuracy ratios can vary a lot in the same calibration procedure, there is a need to allow this type of analysis with different accuracy ratios for each independent parameter. This paper generalizes the accuracy ratio assumption allowing application of this methodology without needing to force a single "representative" test accuracy ratio. In addition, this paper considers the effect of calibration interval choice on the end item which is also modeled as a set of independent test points with varying accuracy. This methodology would, therefore, allow discussion of calibration intervals and accuracy ratios in terms of risk to the end item.


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CP_11_25C_2_JAC
Picture of the productEstablishing Traceability for Quantities Derived
Jian Liu, Agilent Technologies
Some quantities can each be simply traceable to one single quantity with the same unit but lower uncertainty. Started with introducing the concepts of SI, base and derived quantities, and traceability, this paper presents the general approach of establishing traceability for a quantity which is derived from multiple traceable quantities. A measurement technical procedure which is fully compliant with standards such as ISO 17025 will be required, including measurement method, measurement setup and connections, measurement equation, uncertainty analysis, etc. There're normally two measurement techniques - with spectrum analyzer and with phase detector. The traceability of both measurement methods will be presented.


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CP_11_25D_3_LIU
Picture of the productEstablishment of Legal Metrology Conformity Assessment Model
Chun-Min Su, Center for Measurement Standards/ITRI
Risk management is the foundation for establishing the conformity assessment model in this study. The process defined in the ISO 31000 (AS 4360), which includes principally elements of context/environment establishment, risk identification, risk analysis, risk evaluation and risk treatment, is adopted. The evaluation of LMCA was divided into two stages, the first being "should the measuring instrument be listed as legal one," and the second "the check method of the legal measuring instrument." Through data collection and expert-forums, a set of evaluation items for a measuring instrument prior to its entering into LMCA process was identified.


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CP_11_22C_1_MIN
Picture of the productEstablishment of Traceability in Japan for RF Power
Michitoshi Noguchi, Agilent Technologies Japan, Ltd.
We have developed a 9 kHz to 10 MHz RF power calibration system traceable to the Japanese measurement standards. Currently, the Japanese national RF power standard at frequencies below 10 MHz is in an investigation phase.

In this paper, RF powers at 9 kHz and 10 MHz are used as standards, traceable to the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). (9 kHz RF power is calculated from AC Voltage and AC Resistance) For interpolating RF power between these two frequencies, a thermal voltage converter (TVC), which was specially modified for this system is employed. This method uses a traditional RF power calibration method and calibrates the TVC as a power measurement device. The calibration results show good agreements with performed in an A2LA accredited Lab.


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CP_11_25B_1_NOG
Picture of the productExpanding Torque Transducer Calibration up to 100,000 lbf
Kevin Rust, MTS Systems Corporation
At first glance, calibration of torque transducers may be perceived as rather fundamental and straight-forward. However, in practice, the calibration process can be rather complex and subject to undesirable variables. In addition to the fundamental calibration technique, the design and mounting configuration of the transducer under test may also be a source of undesirable variability. Expanding our in-house torque calibration capability up to 100,000 lbf*in (11 kN*m)with traditional torque arms and deadweights was simply not practical or desirable. Therefore, research and development of a new torque calibration system consisting of a rotary hydraulic actuator and reference transducers was initiated.


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CP_11_25E_2_RUS
Picture of the productExperimental Study and Computer Modeling of the Triple Point
Rong Ding, Fluke Calibration
The triple point of argon is a defined fixed point in ITS-90 for calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs). A new triple point of argon system with multiple re-entrant wells was developed. This system was tested to evaluate the duration and quality of the argon triple point temperature plateau. The testing results showed that the plateau can be as long as 100 hours with a temperature change less than 0.05 mK. The re-entrant wells uniformity testing showed that the temperature is consistent among the all re-entrant wells. Uncertainty analysis shows that the combined expanded uncertainty of the argon system is 0.25 mK (k = 2). In order to study the heat transfer process and the influence on the thermal equilibrium of the argon system during the realization of the triple-point of argon plateau, finite element analysis (FEA) modeling was carried out to simulate the thermal conductivity, convection, and radiation inside the argon system. The FEA simulation results are described and discussed in this paper. According to the simulations results, suggestions are provided in order to quickly reach thermal equilibrium and obtain a long, stable plateau in the triple point of argon system.


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CP_11_25D_1_DIN
Picture of the productExtending Recalibration Interval Estimates
Alex Lepek, Newton Metrology Ltd
The document ILAC 24 /OIML D 10 cites, as a recognized interval estimation method, an algorithm based on prediction (method 5). The prediction estimates when the deviation of the measurement standard plus its uncertainty will meet a specification. The above document refers to the algorithm was implemented in the programs Predictor and then in the MetroVal and is used by many calibration labs to improve uncertainty and define calibration intervals. This extension is now implemented in the program MetroVal. In this paper we describe the algorithm and how the extension from only elapsed time to a general parameter such as the number of uses is applied practically. The burden on the user is now to keep track of the number of uses of his measurement standards.


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CP_11_24C_5_LEP
Picture of the productGAF: Determination and Evaluation of Calibration Intervals
Capt. Peter Jaeger German Armed Forces Calibration Service
Different approaches for the determination of calibration intervals for test and measuring equipment can be observed.

Rigid standards are applied on the one hand (e.g. strict use of manufacturer's recommendations) and different approaches for individual determination / calculation of an applicable interval on the other.

For the test and measuring equipment of the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr), a synthesis of both options is used. The "Bundeswehr Test and Measuring Equipment Directory", which lists all measuring equipment of the Bundeswehr, serves as a first - and finally as the liable basis. The directory is available as an online application in the Bundeswehr intranet.


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CP_11_26A_6_JAE
Picture of the productGlobal Metrology Challenges • Issues and approaches
Kamal Hossain, National Physical Laboratory
Challenges for metrology are numerous and changing quickly due to rapid development of technologies necessary to meet major societal needs for energy, clean environment, sustainable development and healthcare. New and increasingly sophisticated technologies are creating demand for new metrological development at an unprecedented rate. At the same time, the economic conditions are not particularly favourable for increased investment in the metrology infrastructure; many countries are looking for opportunities for greater co-operation and synergistic developments amongst metrology institutes across national boundaries, and indeed across geographical regions. The five Regional Metrology Organisations (RMOs) have a major part to play in this context: AFRIMETS (Africa), APMP (Asia-Pacific), COOMET (Eurasia), EURAMET (Europe) and SIM (Americas) expect to build on their well-established relationships to understand and address these new metrology challenges.


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CP_11_26A_5_HOS
Picture of the productGraphene: Plane and Simple Electrical Metrology?
R. E. Elmquist, National Institute of Standards and Technology
A hexagonal single-layer lattice of carbon atoms called graphene has been touted as a revolutionary material for electronics, including lightweight flat-screen displays and faster, more energy-conserving computers. Graphene's quantized electronic states can be modified by adding selected polymer coatings on the surface, and sometimes exhibit the influences of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) even at room temperature, about ten times higher than the temperature at which quantum behavior disappears in the best conventional semiconductor-based devices. We explain the basic phenomena of two-dimensional electronic transport in graphene and explore some of this material's properties that could contribute to improvements in QHE resistance standards and other quantum metrology.


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CP_11_25D_2_ELM
Picture of the productHow to Satisfy the Requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005
Henry L. Alexander, Perry Johnson Laboratory Accreditation, Inc.
The ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard (hereafter referred to as the standard) requires calibration laboratories to account for the uncertainty of measurement when reporting that results of calibrations or test which they have performed are in compliance or noncompliance with a specification. Two specific elements of the standard are widely debated within the metrology community relative to this issue. The presentation will be supplemented by the use of flow charts to detail the reporting process and case studies of actual certificates representing acceptable and unacceptable methods of reporting results with and without a statement of compliance with specification as viewed from the perspective of the Accrediting Body.


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CP_11_24A_7_ALE
Picture of the productI Saw What You Did! A closer look at NCSL International Mem.
Beverly Garcia, JM Test Systems, Inc.
The primary focus on this paper is the value of NCSLI membership. It will identify who the members are and how they came to NCSLI. It will also describe the work place benefits received from their membership. It will prove how our individual values as industry professionals increase proportionately with our involvement in the guild as well as ways to become involved in the various NCSL International functions and committees.

Specific examples of situations where members have been able to rely on the resources NCSLI has provided will be detailed as well as how collaborative efforts have enhanced the measurement industry. Other areas of discussion in this paper will include:

    •NCSL International’s role in the future of measurement science through scholarships
    •How we as members can enhance our networking whether through technical information sharing or sales potential
    •The importance of increasing membership as related to the over-all industry.


The intent of this paper is to both inform and entertain. It will hopefully be an aid in creating excitement and renewed interest in NCSLI. The paper will not be written nor presented as technical information, rather as a practical suggestion and encouragement to the reader/listener.


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CP_11_26A_2_GAR
Picture of the productImplementation of a Nanovoltmeter as an Alternate Detector
Nick Zallar, Keithley Instruments, Inc.
This paper describes the implementation of a nanovoltmeter as an alternate detector in the Measurements International (MI) 6000B Automatic High Resistance Ratio Bridge. When using MI recommended settings for resistor measurements, operation of the 6000B over a range of 10 kohm through 1 Gohm using the nanovoltmeter yields similar results as those obtained using the recommended DVM detector. However, measurement times can be significantly reduced at measurements 10 Mohm and below without increasing noise in the system. Taking advantage of the nanovoltmeter's filtering capabilities and low-noise operation at relatively low NPLC's allows the recommended MI settings to be reduced to realize the speed improvements.

Measurement efficiency is further enhanced by developing User Functions called by the MI 6000B software to perform periodic AutoCal or zeroing functions onboard the nanovoltmeter detector. Triggering and storing temperature data with an auxiliary thermometer is also accomplished with the use of custom User Functions. This added functionality, coupled with an available system scanner, permits fully hands-off operation of the system for multiple characterizations of different resistors during off-peak hours.


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CP_11_25B-3-ZAL
Picture of the productImplementing Strategies for Risk Mitigation
Jonathan Harben, The Bionetics Corporation
Many strategies for risk mitigation have been employed in calibration laboratories. A modern look at these concepts is presented in terms of compliance to ANSI/NCSL and ISO standards. Specifically, the practical application of various techniques to manage false accept risk in a high production calibration lab is reviewed. Understanding the factors affecting the probability of incorrect Pass/Fail decisions reveals aspects which can be exploited and leveraged, reducing the effort required for compliance. Test Uncertainty Ratio (TUR) and End Of Period Reliability (EOPR) are directly related to risk, but one or both of these parameters may be impractical or impossible to quantify and manage in daily practice for every measurement process. TUR and EOPR are explained in terms of Z540.3 and these parameters are combined to form basic strategies for compliance. These concepts are investigated as well as their mathematical boundary conditions to gain a comprehensive understanding of practical, efficient risk mitigation. Bench level techniques alone may be impracticable and/or insufficient to assess the quality of a calibration program en masse, as it relates to measurement decision risk. Program level techniques can estimate or limit the false accept risk for future decisions, prior to obtaining any specific measurement result. Working practices and principals are presented that allow a modern calibration laboratory to meet the demand of customers and manage risk for multifunction instrumentation while maintaining compliance to national and international standards.


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CP_11_25C_3_HAR