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Conference Proceedings 2012 (80)

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Picture of the productA New Method for Measuring RF and Microwave Receiver Linear.
Michael Dobbert, Agilent Technologies
An important characteristic of RF and microwave measuring receivers, such as Network Analyzers, Spectrum Analyzers, Oscilloscopes, Noise Figure Analyzers, and Wireless Communication Testers, is the ability to accurately measure signal amplitude over a range of levels. This characteristic is commonly referred to as "Receiver Linearity". Traditional methods for measuring receiver linearity employ power sensors or step attenuators as the linearity reference. This paper describes a new method where the linearity reference is a signal with a known amplitude produced by carefully combining two CW signals. The result is a measurement with lower measurement uncertainty when compared against the traditional methods, yet the measurement is time efficient and is readily applicable over a wide frequency range. This paper also reports the results of a Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility study performed on an implementation of this measurement for a family of Vector Network Analyzers.


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CP_12_3E_DOBBER
Picture of the productA Novel Architecture Reduces Uncertainties of the Precision
Mark Ashcroft, Fluke Precision Measurement Ltd.
Scale fidelity or log conformance calibration of high performance spectrum analysers and an increasing demand for linearity verification of power sensors are both strong motivators for reduced uncertainties in attenuation. The achievable performance of a precision RF and microwave switched attenuator is typically compromised by its mismatch, and the source, the load and transmission line mismatch conditions around it. A novel signal leveling and switching architecture has significantly reduced mismatch and its potential impact. This paper presents the new architecture, integrated within a purpose designed RF Reference source and attenuator [1] along with results achieved and quantified benefits at import and export of calibration.


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CP_12_3E_ASHCRO
Picture of the productA Study on the Power Sensor Drift over Time
Yeou-Song (Brian) Lee, Anritsu Company
This paper describes the determination of drift over time based on the long-term data and from the statistical process control (SPC) in the power sensor test stations. Characteristics of thermal and thermistor sensors are discussed. Linear regression analysis is used for the determination of long-term drift. Working standards traceable to the NIST also contributed to the total amount of drift in the measurement system. It is important to estimate the level of its significance using a group of traceable standards. An empirical study based on the multiple measurements by the NIST was conducted for the stability test.


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CP_12_3E_LEE
Picture of the productAdvanced Center for Manufacturing Excellence "Learning Lab"
Steven Stahley, Cummins Inc.
Understanding the fundamentals of measurement is a critical skill in several areas of manufacturing. Whether you are working in a testing Lab, product development or manufacturing operations, understanding the critical aspects of measurements is very important. Unfortunately most companies do not have a structure that can support sustained education or training in Metrology, either do to a lack of dedicated resources or facilities.

To help deliver this critical training, Cummins has partnered with some local community colleges to develop the “Learning Lab”. The Learning Lab is a fully equipped and staffed Dimensional Metrology Lab dedicated to providing “hands on” learning in the field of Dimensional Metrology.

The lab facility is housed in the Advanced Manufacturing Center of Excellence (AMCE), located in Columbus Indiana. The AMCE is a facility dedicated to furthering education in subjects related to manufacturing. As Metrology is seen as a critical component of manufacturing the AMCE has added the Learning Lab to its facility to help students understand how measurement is used to support in manufacturing and product quality.

In addition to the Learning Lab, local community colleges are modifying/creating a curriculum that will compliment the lab facility and better support how students learn Metrology skills. This paper will describe the Learning Lab and how it fits into the mission of the AMCE. I will also describe changes in local community college’s curriculums that have been made to reinforce the learning of Metrology skills.


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CP_12_3A_STAHLY
Picture of the productAn Accurate High-Frequency Voltage Flatness Measurement Meth
Jian Liu, Agilent Technologies
Signal generators working from several Hz to tens of MHz are widely used in high-frequency applications, and the output voltage flatness is one of the key performances as it impacts the signal amplitude accuracy at different frequencies. Its verification, however, is not as easy as it seems to be, especially for tight specifications down to 1 %.

This paper shows the results of using a highly accurate TVC to characterize a power sensor, effectively transferring its accuracy to the power sensor. The power sensor is then used to measure the voltage flatness from 100 kHz to 80 MHz. The method combines the TVCs' accuracy with the wide dynamic range, excellent linearity and high damaging power of the sensor. The TVCs now become transfer standards instead of working standards and are used much less, so fewer sets are enough and they are much less likely to be damaged, thus the calibration cost is reduced.


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CP_12_3E_LIU
Picture of the productAn Examination of the Uncertainty in Pressure of Ind.
Michael Bair, Fluke Calibration
The industrial deadweight tester (IDWT) is traditionally a dead weight pressure gauge [1] that is designed, built and calibrated to be used without having to make corrections or calculate pressure. In practice, different levels of corrections are used from no corrections, i.e. depending on the pressure value engraved on the weights, to using the full pressure equation [1] to calculate a reference pressure. Parallel to this IDWTs are used in different environments. Some IDWTs are portable enough to be used in an open environment, many are used on production floors and many are used in laboratories as references with a good environment. It is not always clear what the uncertainty specifications are in the variety of levels of corrections and environment. This paper carefully examines the corrections made and applies them to three different environmental situations and provides the tools to be able to perform a valid uncertainty analysis in pressure.


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CP_12_1B_BAIR
Picture of the productAnd Your Point? Designing and Making Dynamic Presentation
Randy A. Motz, Qualtech Resource Group, Inc.
Effective communication of ideas and principles is the foundation of every aspect of training, quality control, and product promotion. But no matter how important the training concept, innovative the idea or cutting-edge the product, effective communication can be undermined by poor presentation.

Attendees will be shown examples of common, ineffective presentation styles, and then will be provided with practical, proven advice and methods to make every presentation dynamic and memorable.


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CP_12_2A_MOTZ
Picture of the productArmy Primary Standards Laboratory Uncertainty Analysis
Wesley B. England, U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL)
This paper is a detailed uncertainty analysis for a 50 gallon per minute positive displacement piston prover operated by the Liquid Flow Laboratory of the Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL). This uncertainty analysis encompasses all known contributors included in the APSL estimation of liquid flow piston prover uncertainty and includes consideration of connecting volume and viscosity. This uncertainty analysis is intended as an aid to those who work in the field of liquid flow metrology.


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CP_12_3B_ENGLAN
Picture of the productAutomatic Calibration of DC Low Level Current Sources
Dennis W.K. Lee, Brenda H.S. Lam, Y.C. Chau, Aaron Y.K. Yan and Johnny C.Y. Poon, The Government of the Hong Kong
At SCL, an automated system is developed to calibrate low level DC current sources and meters, including electrometers and femto-ammeters, from 100 pico-amperes (pA) down to 100 femto-amperes (fA). The system comprises in-house developed control software, a ramping voltage generation circuitry and a set of precision air capacitors. Learning Objectives: To detail the method used at SCL for calibration of the low level DC current sources and meter, using an automatic system with standard air capacitors and constant ramping voltage generator.


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CP_12_4R_CHAU
Picture of the productAutomatic Calibration of Working Grade Multifunction Calib.
Dennis W.K. Lee, Brenda H.S. Lam, Y.C. Chau, Aaron Y.K. Yan and Johnny C.Y. Poon, The Government of the Hong Kong
Subsequent to a paper submitted by Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) in 2005 reporting an automatic calibration system for DC voltage and DC current functions of precision multifunction calibrators, SCL has recently further developed the other measurement functions, namely AC voltage, AC current and DC resistance functions for precision calibrators Wavetek 4X0X series and Fluke 57XX series. The calibration system comprises control software and a user-friendly graphical user interface for automatic measurements and determination of uncertainties. The system takes approximately 10 hours for full calibration on AC and DC functions which include DC voltage, DC current, AC voltage, AC current and DC resistance functions of the calibrator. The best measurement uncertainties are better than 1/4 of the calibrator's 1-year accuracy specifications. Learning Objectives: To detail the SCL method for automatic calibration of working grade multifunction calibrators


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CP_12_4R_POON
Picture of the productBasic Training For New Calibration Technicians in Biopharma
Jay L. Bucher, Bucherview Metrology Services, LLC
Most biopharma and medical device companies historically gave calibration responsibilities to the lowest ranking member of their quality assurance department or somebody working in facility services. That is how it used to be done, but this is the 21st Century and times have changed. A quality calibration program must include a training program which is a mandatory requirement under ISO standards and FDA regulations, no matter if all your test equipment is sent out for calibration and/or repair to a third party vendor, or accomplished in-house with experienced calibration technicians. This paper provides the basic training needed to get started in the right direction for any calibration/metrology department that is required to meet the standards and regulations found within the guidelines of ISO and the FDA requirements.


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CP_12_3A_BUCHER
Picture of the productBenefits of PT Activities for Calibration Laboratories
Hsiu-Lin Lin, CMS/ITRI
Under ISO/IEC 17025, to maintain the high competence of calibration laboratories, the capability of performing quality control procedures effectively is one of basic requirements for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations undertaken. The calibration laboratories are generally required to participate in interlaboratory comparison or proficiency testing (PT) activities to fulfill the quality control procedure for establishing the effectiveness and comparability of the tests or calibrations. Normally PT providers deliver only the outcomes of PT, but not the cause of the abnormality for the participating laboratories. Therefore, most of the secondary calibration laboratories have difficulties to identify their problems, if they report abnormal results in the PT activities. In this article, most common participants’ problems in the PT activities held in Taiwan were summarized and analyzed. Through the PT activities, hosted by Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), the problems are categorized as measurement method difference, error correction from traceability, reporting of the measurement results, and uncertainty claims. The possible causes for these problems were discussed in this article, as well. Based on the outcomes of the PT activities, CMS will help the secondary calibration laboratories to identify the cause of the problems they have encountered in the PT activities afterwards. Once the laboratories can identify and realize their causes of the problems, subsequently, each laboratory adopted proper correction actions according to requirements of the accreditation body, Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF). The implementation of PDCA cycle in the correction plans and actions improves the internal quality control of the calibration result. At the end, the effectiveness and comparability of tests or calibrations for the laboratories are improved and established.


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CP_12_1C_LIN
Picture of the productBuilding Global Calibration Services through Partnerships
Paul Packebush, National Instruments
A Test and Measurement equipment manufacturers’ responsibility to provide calibration service for their products does not end, or lie solely at their manufacturing sites. In a global economy, product services must also be global. Building brick and mortar service locations around the world can be an expensive proposition. Partnering with quality companies, on the other hand, is an effective solution, if managed properly, to the growing problem of global service.
Partnering with companies can be a cost effective and expeditious way to extend ones effective range or build capability in geographies otherwise left underserved. While this can be an effective and viable solution there are many considerations and challenges. Finding companies that are a trusted extension of your organization, and can work on your behalf is a challenging task. Careful consideration is required to identify companies that meet your quality standards, have adequate capabilities, have compatible company cultures and business practices, and meet local customer requirements. This paper discusses the strategies and practices used by National Instruments to expand its global calibration services via partnering with external companies. Examples of research, the partner selection and maintenance processes are presented, along with lessons learned.


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CP_12_3D_SKINNE
Picture of the productCalibration and review of Piston Gauges
Kirk D. Marshall, Exelon PowerLabs LLC
The calibration of field-used Piston Gauges (Dead Weight Testers) has been a challenge to produce a certification with data that is meaningful and useful to the end users. Field gauges typically include the pressures stamped on the respective masses.

PowerLabs has undergone several evolutions over the past several years developing reliable and meaningful calibration of field Piston Gauges.

Originally we calibrated field Piston Gauges by developing a respective area for the Piston. This was accomplished by performing cross floats (using the masses that were manufactured with the Piston Gauge) against a primary Piston Gauge System throughout the manufacturers’ specified range.

The owner was provided with interpolated pressure values based upon the Piston area (one area) and the calibrated masses associated with the field Piston Gauge.

Over the course of time we discovered that this did not always provide a realistic picture of the over-all performance of the entire field Piston Gauge system.

In this presentation I will provide our current method of calibrating field Piston Gauges, and an explanation of why we provide live pressure values only and no longer interpolate any pressure values.

I will also explain our method of evaluating vendor certifications of Primary Piston Gauge Systems. I will also explain why it is necessary (as an owner) to perform an in depth review of the vendor certification to truly understand the over-all performance and how it compares to the previous calibration.


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CP_12_1B_MARSHA
Picture of the productCalibration Interval Adjustment Methods Programmatic Cost
Mark Kuster, Pantex Metrology
NCSLI Recommended Practice RP-1, “Establishment and Adjustment of Calibration Intervals”, provides decision trees for selecting a calibration interval adjustment method based on inventory size, the information sources available, quality emphasis, and budgeting priorities, as well as detailed descriptions of the pros and cons of each method. To date, RP-1 offers qualitative recommendations based on expert knowledge and experience. The NCSLI 173.1 Calibration Intervals Subcommittee’s working group began a project to develop quantitative performance data on interval adjustment methods to further substantiate or tune the existing recommendations. Ultimately, the research will identify and map the optimal interval adjustment method into each region of the operational space determined by equipment inventory size, reliability target, and other parameters, enabling the future RP-1 reader to confidently select the most appropriate method for the situation at hand.

This paper reports the latest progress toward that goal, including the effects of functional failures, variable resubmission times, non-homogeneous reliability behavior, and programmatic interval restrictions. We report results based on an excess relative cost metric, which estimates the cost premium an interval adjustment method, or lack thereof, incurs in a measurement and testing program.

Learning Objectives

1. Judge interval analysis methods by the excess test and measurement costs recovered.
2. Understand the relative performance of various interval analysis methods.
3. Identify effective and ineffective interval adjustment methods.
4. Examine the impacts of realistic calibration scenarios on interval analysis.


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CP_12_3A_KUSTER
Picture of the productCalibration of Acoustic Liquid Dispensers • Progress Toward
George Rodrigues, Artel
Technical needs drive innovation, and the need for miniaturization in drug screening laboratories has stimulated the development of acoustic dispensing devices capable of ejecting liquid droplets with volumes in the range of 1 to 5 nL (nanoliter). The liquid handling accuracy of acoustic dispensers are typically specified as relative standard deviation and relative inaccuracy with values of about 5% and 10% respectively. Acoustic dispensers are large, expensive and not portable. The typical owners of these devices are pharmaceutical drug discovery labs, which conduct expensive screening campaigns and desire confidence that each acoustic dispenser within their laboratory network is performing with satisfactory accuracy and precision. This presents an interesting metrology challenge, development of a portable and traceable volume measuring method with adequate coverage to test acoustic dispensers at the single nanoliter level.

This paper provides sufficient background to introduce acoustic dispensing technology and the measurement challenge of calibrating nanoliter droplets. A volume measurement method based on dual dye ratio-metric absorbance is described at a level that presumes no previous expertise in this area. Data is shown which illuminates the key challenges in the measurement method.

A prototype version of the measurement method has been developed and data collected using the prototype are presented and found to agree reasonably well with expectations, based on prior uncertainty analysis.

Based on this work, fully traceable portable measurements in the single nanoliter range are possible but challenging.


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CP_12_3B_RODRIG
Picture of the productCalibration of Gaussmeters at Axial DC Magnetic Field Direct
Johnny C.Y. Poon, The Government of the Hong Kong
An electromagnet is usually used for generation of test magnetic fields at 50 mT or higher in calibrating gaussmeters. However, because of its structural limitation, an electromagnet is restricted for measurement of transverse magnetic field only. SCL has developed an automatic system to calibrate gaussmeters for DC magnetic field in axial direction based on a modified electromagnet system. To achieve this, the electromagnet used in SCL is modified such that, at one of the magnet poles, there is an opening at the yoke’s centre. The opening is of size and shape suitable for positioning the measuring probe of the unit under test (UUT), such that the generated magnetic field can be measured by the UUT in axial direction. Also, a filler rod, of the same material as the magnet yoke, is fabricated by precision engineering for size and shape well fitted with the said opening. So, when the filler rod is plugged into the magnet yoke opening, the modified electromagnet is still suitable for UUT calibration in transverse direction with no excessive adverse effects.

Detailed study has been made for the effect of the hole on the yoke. Results indicated that with pole gap at 30 mm, the generated field at 1.0 T, in axial direction, uniformity within 500 x 10-6 in a spherical space of 4 mm radius can be achieved. That is, if the reference and UUT probes are kept within a close proximity, not larger than 4 mm, readings of the reference and UUT meters can be compared directly, with uncertainty due to field non-uniformity within 500 x 10-6.

A software was also developed for automatic calibrations of gaussmeters which have IEEE 488 or RS232 interface. The software controls the generation of the target magnetic field on the electromagnet, taking readings on the reference and UUT meters and determination of the correction value for the UUT. Measurement Uncertainty of 0.1 % (k =2) from 50 mT to 1.0 T can be achieved by this system.


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CP_12_3B_CHAU
Picture of the productCalibration Point Selection • Who makes the call?
Joseph W. Petersen, Abbott Laboratories
A comprehensive calibration hinges upon selecting calibration test points which adequately cover the calibrated range of an instrument. ISO 17025 addresses many factors which contribute to the quality of a calibration; however, one aspect that it does not directly address is the selection of calibration points. The selection of calibration points can be viewed as a form of sampling with due risk resulting from insufficient points.

The manufacturer of an instrument has unique knowledge regarding design. The calibration provider has insight into method constraints and perhaps into common modes of failure for a given measurement technology. The owner has unique knowledge regarding critical usage points. Yet each of these three groups lacks some knowledge or expertise that may be important for assuring that calibration points are suitable. This paper surveys guidance documents related to the subject and offers reflection on the need for further attention to this important contribution to measurement quality.


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CP_12_3C_PETERS
Picture of the productCalibration Program for Wind Sensors in Wind Energy Applicat
Rachael V. Coquilla, Bryza Wind Lab
Wind sensors, such as cup anemometers, propeller anemometers, propeller/vane combination, and sonic anemometers, are instruments used to measure winds in the atmosphere. For wind energy applications, quality wind measurements are critical for evaluating wind turbine power performance, performing wind energy site assessments, and monitoring wind plant operations. In a wind turbine evaluation, wind speed readings are matched to a corresponding turbine power output in order to produce a power performance curve for the wind turbine. For site assessment, the distribution of measured wind speed is used to determine the predicted annual energy production, a critical parameter used in securing power purchase agreements. Since wind power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, a slight error in the wind measurement could translate to a much greater deviation in the predicted wind turbine power output or annual energy production. This paper discusses the anemometer calibration program defined in IEC 61400-12-1 and combined with recommendations from other standards.


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CP_12_3E_COQUIL
Picture of the productCCT Certification Process
Shawn Mason, Boston Scientific
This paper will present objectives and information on four steps in the Test Development process: Test Specification, Item Review, Item Writing, and Exam Review workshops. This paper will also present CCT preparation steps to pass the CCT Exam, and what is needed to maintain your certification.

Topics covered:
    •The four steps in the Test Development process
    •The objectives of the Test Specification, Item Writing, Item Review,
    and Exam Review workshops attended
    •Steps in how to prepare and pass the CCT Exam
    • Recertification Process


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CP_12_3A_MASON
Picture of the productCollaborative Knowledge Sharing to Learn on Uncertainty
Tsai-Yin Lin, Jui-Hsiang Cheng, and Chih-Wei Hsu, Center for Measurement Standards/ITRI
In a metrology society, it seems easy for colleagues to communicate with metrological lang-uage. But when we need to deliver the concept to a testing laboratory, to intended users, and to put it into practice, it always turns out to be easier said than done. The main issue always raised from people to metrologists is…What is the difference between metrology and measure-ment or testing? How about uncertainty and error and standard deviation? In Taiwan, More than 3,500 electrochemical breath alcohol testers are in the market and used by police officers for evidential testing. The measurement accuracy of testers is highly correlated to the design of breath sampling device. If the sampling line is not isolated from atmosphere, environmental temperature and atmospheric pressure would significantly affect the measurement results. It means users have to take care of the variation of environmental condition. Also the managing authority has to design a feasible testing/verification system with defined effective measure-ment uncertainty to test the effect of concerned parameters.

Uncertainty evaluation is not only the way to ensure the reliability of measurement results, but also the powerful support for setting up the threshold value or maximum permissible er-rors (MPEs) of measurement. When the uncertainty we evaluated for the designed system is higher than the expected MPE, it means the MPE is set at a non-feasible level and the better, straightforward strategy is to expand its value. When MPE was set with the international rule and not recommended to be expanded without thoughtful discussion, what must to be done is to evaluate the major uncertainty contributor from measurement uncertainty budgets and sub-sequently develop a frontier technique to improve performance and reduce the measurement uncertainty. To realize the spirit of metrology and measurement uncertainty into real world, the presentation will show how CMS collaborates with managing authorities and users of breath alcohol testers to make a technique communicating platform for exchanging practical experiences and metrological knowledge.


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CP_12_3D_HSU
Picture of the productComparison of IR Calibration Sources: Flat Plate and Cavity
Tom Kolat, Fluke Calibration
Flat plate and cavity sources have geometry designs that qualify both for calibration standards. Differences may arise, however, due to the emissivity of the source, size of the source and the field of view. Additional measurement parameters for infrared radiation thermometers such as measuring distance also warrant important consideration. This paper discusses the setup, process and results of a recent comparison between both source types. It shows through diagrams and gathered data how both sources were measured by a small sample of infrared radiation thermometers, and it discusses the results. While the paper does not defer to the use of one source type over the other, it does discuss test setups and the results from the comparison.


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CP_12_2E_KOLAT
Picture of the productCost Reduction with Shelf-life, an Instrument Manufacturer’s
Paul Packebush, National Instruments
Calibration of Test and Measurement (T&M) equipment is a large maintenance expense for many companies. When instruments are actively in use, throughout their calibration intervals, it is easier to justify maintenance through calibration. However, in many organizations, instruments remain unused, or in storage, for a portion of their calibration cycle. Justification for servicing these instruments is often harder to obtain. After all, how could the measurement capabilities change if the instrument is sitting powered down?

End users often try to quantify the impact of instrument storage on measurement capabilities. If an instrument can be stored without impact to accuracy, cost savings are realized through reduced maintenance. As a designer and manufacturer of T&M equipment, National Instruments faces similar challenges in maintaining stock. If instruments can be safely stored longer, cost savings are realized in inventory recalibration maintenance, and customers benefit by receiving instruments with full calibration intervals.

The paper evaluates techniques used by National Instruments to determine appropriate shelf life for a selection of its Modular Instrument product lines. Data analysis and development of appropriate process are presented.


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CP_12_3C_PACKEB
Picture of the productCross-Strait Proficiency Testing Program on LED Street Light
Mr. Nigel Jou, Mr. Roger Sheng, Ms. Wanji Yang, Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF)
To accommodate the market needs of LED lighting products in Taiwan and China as well as to achieve the goal of vertical integration of the production chain, the two Accreditation Bodies, TAF and CNAs, organized the very first proficiency testing (PT) program on street lighting in the area of distribution curve of luminous intensity and photometry quality. Two reference labs were the Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories of the Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan) and the National Lighting Test Centre (China). The planning began in early 2010, and the PT program had been completed in July 2011. There were ten participating LED testing labs (five from each party) in this program.

Main technical issues arising from this PT program are the Effects from Test Equipments, the Setup and Positioning of PT Item under Test and the Polarization of the Mirror of Goniphotometer System. The first technical issue includes the accuracy of power meter, the voltage stability, frequency accuracy and total harmonic distortion of power supply, the reference point and mechanism design of goniophotometer and the traceability of standard light source. The second affects the deviation from the center of luminous intensity to the rotation center of the goniophotometer. The third refers to the polarization characteristics of mirror that might result in measurement errors.

Satisfactory results were obtained a mongst all participating laboratories: the electrical parameter with less than 0.5% deviation, the maximum deviation of luminous flux of PT item is 83 Im, and the deviation of distribution of luminous intensity is 3%~5%. In conclusion, in the form of same test methods and steps, the ten participating laboratories demonstrated above-satisfactory level of sonsistency and competence. Considering the decay nature of LED lights and the delivery difficulties, the well-planned design and step-by-step instructions of the program kept effects that might affect the results under control. This is a successful trial for PT program on LED products, and can serve as a reference for other PT programs on LED products in future.


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CP_12_3C_YANG
Picture of the productDetermination Of Acceptance Criteria Of Energy Consumption
Vladimir Rodrigues de Lima,
National Institute of Metrology
This work presents a real case in the context of Brazilian regulation and has been motivated by a critical analysis conducted in the test results of one of the conformity assessment programs of Inmetro within the Brazilian Labeling Program (PBE). It has been verified through this analysis that the uncertainty levels of the accredited laboratories were not adequate to the tolerance limits specified in the conformity assessment requirements of the product, thus creating a doubt in the measurements results. This situation is extremely adverse in conformity assessment programs in the field of energy conservation, by the fact that product is classified into a certain range of efficiency and this information be provided to the consumer through the Energy Efficiency Label posted on product.


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CP_12_4E_LIMA
Picture of the productDeveloping an Educational Outreach Kit based on Dimensional
Hy D. Tran, PhD, PE, Sandia National Laboratories
Existing NCSLI educational outreach kits, available from the NCSLI Library, are useful tools for demonstrating science and measurement principles to students. However, because these kits are based on a single data acquisition system per kit, they are limited in reaching larger audiences. With the support of the NCSLI Dimensional Metrology committee, the author has developed a basic metrology educational outreach kit using dimensional metrology examples. This kit contains 10 digital calipers. If students work in groups, 20 to 30 students can perform experiments.


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CP_12_1A_TRAN
Picture of the productDevelopment of a New System for the Compressibility Meas.
Julio C. Díaz Jiménez, Centro Nacional de Metrología
The importance to get a correct measurement of all variables involved in different metrological processes, takes major importance every day. In order to improve the uncertainty of some processes in metrology of density, the compressibility of the liquids arises as the new important one in the uncertainty budget. In density measurements different variables like the properties of the liquids are involved (density, viscosity, compressibility coefficient, and surface tension), especially for the reference materials used for the calibration of hydrometers [8], and their characterization in density (density calibration) or in measurements of density in process were the flow is handled a high pressure. The compressibility appears in those methods at high accuracy were a solid body is immersed into a liquid so there are pressure differences due to height differences. This method is usually known as hydrostatic weighing.
In the present work the assemble of one new system based in the measurement of the density of liquids by one vibrant tube density meter with different pressures and the results with different liquids are presented.


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CP_12_1E_ JIMEN
Picture of the productDevelopment of High-Stability Metal-foil Standard Resistors
Nobu-hisa Kaneko,, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)
Compact metal foil standard resistors with four terminals have been developed. Main DC characteristics of the developed 100 Ω resistors are: drift rate: <0.1 (μΩ/Ω)/year, temperature coefficient: <0.1 (μΩ/Ω)/°C at 23 °C, changes of resistance due to humidity change: negligible or lower than 0.01 (μΩ/Ω) in 35 % - 80 % range, and changes of resistance versus pressure variation: negligible or lower than 0.025 (μΩ/Ω) in 700 hPa - 1200 hPa range. And some preliminary experiments show that the power coefficient is negligible in the case of applied current of 1.5 mA - 5 mA. AC performance have been characterized as well: frequency dependence: negligible below 2 kHz, and the time constant: 3.7 ns. These marvelous characteristics have been achieved by careful optimizations of composition, annealing condition and surface treatment of element materials, and also by the strain-free supporting technique of ;resistor elements. Development of 100 Ω resistors has been finished and now 1 Ω -10 kΩ resistors are under development. Preliminary results of 10 Ω resistors show a similar drift rate as the 100 Ω resistors.


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CP_12_4E_KANEKO
Picture of the productDevelopment of Ultra High Stable Standard Resistor
Masaya Kumagai, Alpha Electronics Corporation
A new stress-free metal foil element has been developed for new-generation resistance standards with less than 0.2 ppm/year drift and without the typical aging process required for most conventional resistance standards. This paper covers the basic construction, performance through various test protocols, and schedule for future development of new resistance standards.


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CP_12-4E_KUMAGA
Picture of the productDevelopments in the International Standardization of Testing
James G. Salsbury, Mitutoyo America Corporation
The first international standard to address the calibration and testing of certain types of noncontacting measuring instruments was published in 2011. This important new standard addresses the need for common testing methods and specifications for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) equipped with any type of imaging probing system, such as video or vision systems. The standard, ISO 10360-7:2011, was developed by a working group within the ISO technical committee 213. This paper provides an overview of this new standard along with some insight into the options available in the standard. In particular, it will be shown how the tests in this standard can be used for the most modern three-dimensional measuring systems while still providing testing methods to meet the needs of older systems. Recommendations will also be made regarding the use of the tests in this standard for the calibration of both old and new vision based CMMs.


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CP_12_2E_SALSBU
Picture of the productDisseminating Credibility: The LA County role
Donald Franks, County of Los Angeles Metrology Laboratory
The County of Los Angeles Department of Agricultural Commissioner/Weights & Measures exercises regulatory and enforcement authority and responsibility over certain commercial transactions throughout the County. Businesses notified of devices out of tolerance may challenge the legitimacy of that authority by questioning the credibility of measurements made by field inspectors using field standards. Within the Department, the Metrology Laboratory has input from National, State, and private metrology laboratories in the form of calibration reports: the outcome of traceable measurements made on Laboratory mass and volume standards. Extending the chain of traceable measurements, the Laboratory will issue a Report of Calibration after comparing field standards to Laboratory standards. Our "Ivory Tower" uncertainty comes from the NIST report on Laboratory primary standards; the "Shop Floor" uncertainty is effectively the tolerances recommended in NIST Handbook 44 and adopted by the State of California. Consumers and legitimate businesses prefer a fair marketplace, and experience has shown the price of fairness to be attention to process. We report our efforts to establish, maintain, and improve the level of credibility of our measurements and procedures.


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CP_12_3D_FRANKS
Picture of the productDo Your Communications Measure Up?
Dean S. Williams, Duke Energy
While we sometimes agonize over the accuracy of a value five places to the right of the decimal point (after all that is what metrologists do), we sometimes don't put as much thought into how we communicate important information and ideas related to the business of metrology.

Whether it's presenting the findings of our research, requesting funding for a new project or new equipment, or obtaining buy-in from stakeholders for a change in how we conduct business, the measure of effectiveness of our communications should be paramount. It doesn't matter how good an idea or how solid the data, if it can't be effectively communicated its potential influence is diminished if not entirely negated.

Let's be honest, many of us in this industry are brilliant in our own way, but fear we lack the skills and personality to be great communicators (not many Ronald Reagan's among us). Our technical backgrounds also make us suspicious of those flashy promoter types that always have something to sell, and we certainly don’t want to be seen as one of those.

The truth is effective communication doesn't have to be slick or flashy, but it does have to have some key elements if it is going to be effective. While an outgoing personality can certainly help when it comes to making a presentation, that alone is not enough to ensure the right message was communicated effectively.


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CP_12_2A_WILLIA
Picture of the productElementary Healthcare Metrology
Roberto Benitez Chavez, CORPORACION BH, S.C.
Since the first issue of the ISO-15189: Medical Laboratories. Particular requirements for quality and competence, the calibration needs for the medical laboratories has been increased. The International Standards Organization (ISO) published in 2003 the ISO-15189. This standard stated that medical laboratories should provide medical information based in the analytical interpretation of the laboratory results. In 2007 the second edition of ISO-15189 cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 15189:2003) which has been technically revised in order to align it closely to the second edition of ISO/IEC-17025: General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories. The technical requirements of ISO-15189 describe regarding to the Laboratory equipment (5.3) that the Laboratory management shall establish a program that regularly monitors and demonstrates proper calibration and function of the instruments


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CP_12_4A_CHAVEZ
Picture of the productEstablishment of Traceability and Quality System in Industry
Hsiu-Lin Lin, CMS/ITRI
The objectives of a quality system in industry are simple and straight as to reduce cost, increase service levels of products, and improve product quality continuously. However, the quality system is complex and includes numerous sub-systems of the manufacturing processes involving both people and equipments. In order to achieve the objectives of the quality system, it is required to perform a high level of measurement accuracy and reliability in all the sub-systems of the manufacturing processes. The high level of measurement accuracy and reliability depends critically on the establishment of traceability chain and knowledge of uncertainty through series of calibrations. This article describes the changing role that Center for Measurement Standards of Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) is playing in the development of unbroken traceability chain and uncertainty evaluation demanded by industries to improve their quality systems. The establishment of the unbroken traceability chain is started with a launch of a new calibration system according to the industry measurement requirements, which were obtained from on-site consult or a general survey in the early stage of product and process developments. The measurement requirements include measurement methods, ranges, uncertainty levels and reference materials. The knowledge and technology obtained through the new calibration system establishments will be shared to industries through a series of workshops, training programs, and proficiency testing activities. Eventually, the knowledge of the calibrations and uncertainty will be delivered to industry to elevate their quality system performance and increase the measurement accuracy and their measurement capability.


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CP_12_3D_LIN
Picture of the productEvaluation of Measurement Uncertainties Using the MCM
Dennis W.K. Lee, Brenda H.S. Lam, Aaron Y.K. Yan, Johnny C.Y. Poon and
Y.C. Chau, The Government of the Hong Kong
This paper describes the SCL developed software tool for evaluation of measurement uncertainties using the Monte Carlo Method (MCM). The tool has two major components: the MCM Main Program (written in MATLAB) and the Measurement Model Generator (written in Visual Basic). Built-in features are implemented in accordance with the validation criterion stipulated in ´Evaluation of measurement data • Supplement 1 to the “Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement” • Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method, JCGM
101:2008’ (GS1)[1], to check if the GUM uncertainty framework (GUF) is applicable.
Learning Objectives: To describe the SCL developed software tool for evaluation of
measurement uncertainties using the Monte Carlo Method.


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CP_12_1E_CHAU
Picture of the productEvaluation of Process Metrology in a High Volume Factor
Nicholas Mason and Ivars Ikstrums, Fluke Park Laboratories
Fluke Electronics is arguably best known as a manufacturer of hand-held digital multi-meters. These devices are manufactured on high volume factory production lines. Fluke’s high volume factories contain dozens of stations calibrating thousands of new instruments per year. Station downtime causes shipping delays and removing station references for routine calibration cause the station to be down.

In the Everett Primary Electrical Laboratory (EPEL) we employ process metrology to monitor uncertainty and stability in the parts-per-million range. The EPEL directly supports the Fluke Calibration factory. The Fluke Calibration factory is a low volume area building handfuls of high-accuracy calibrators. The laboratory supports the factory by calibrating the test stations in-situ on the factory floor also using process metrology. Can process metrology be used in the high volume area to calibrate those stations in-situ? Is there any payback? Does it make sense?

This paper describes a test-case conducted to determine the impact of process metrology in the high volume manufacturing areas. Differences between the high-volume and low-volume factories are discussed along with solutions implemented in the high-volume factory. The metrological impacts are investigated as well as quality and cost savings are provided.


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CP_12_2C_MASON
Picture of the productExperimental Study of the Triple Point of Argon System
Rong Ding, Fluke Calibration
A new triple point of argon system with multiple re-entrant wells was developed for calibration of long-stem standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs). In order to further evaluate this triple point of argon system, a series of tests was carried out recently. The influence of the pre-melting duration on the triple point plateau temperature was studied. The vertical temperature gradient of the re-entrant wells and the temperature uniformity of the four re-entrant wells were tested. The immersion profile of the re-entrant wells was studied and compared to the ITS-90 hydrostatic values. The influence of the environment temperature on the performance of the argon plateau was also investigated. The experimental results show that the temperature of the four re-entrant wells is uniform. The tested immersion profile of the re-entrant wells reasonably agrees with the ITS-90 values. The environment temperature does not affect the plateau temperature in the tested environment temperature range of 13.0°C • 30.0°C. The pre-melting duration slightly affects the plateau temperature in the beginning of the plateau, but after 10 hours the influence of the pre-melting duration on the plateau temperature is insignificant.


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CP_12_2E_DING
Picture of the productFrequently Asked Questions about the International Vocab.
Charles D. Ehrlich,
National Institute of Standards and Technology
The International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM), 3rd edition, also known as the VIM3, was published by the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM) in 2008, and was subsequently published with corrections in 2012. Since its publication, various questions have arisen about some of the changes between the VIM3 and the earlier editions of the VIM. The committee responsible for the development and maintenance of the VIM, Working Group 2 of the JCGM, has undertaken to develop a set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the VIM3, which can be used to provide answers to these questions, and rationale for some of the new direction taken in the VIM3. Examples include “Why is the title of the VIM3 different from the titles of the VIM1 and VIM2?”, “What is the difference between a term, a concept and a definition?”, and “Why are some of the definitions in the VIM3 so complicated?” This paper will address some of the more frequently asked questions about the VIM3 and provide readers with information about how to access (online) the more complete set of VIM3 FAQs. The talk is intended to provide attendees with an opportunity to ask their own questions and suggest additional VIM3 FAQs.


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CP_12_2A_EHRLIC
Picture of the productGWP • The Science-Based Global Standard
Klaus Fritsch, Mettler-Toledo AG
In the pharmaceutical laboratory, weighing is only one step of a whole analysis chain in drug discovery and quality control; however it strongly influences the overall quality and integrity of the final result. Also in production, weighing is decisive to achieve batch uniformity and consistency, e.g. in dispensing or formulation processes. For the food industry, accurate weighing processes also act as an important contribution for two of its most demanding challenges: Increasing public health and consumer safety, and increasing productivity and competitiveness. The same or similar issues are also prevalent in other industries as the chemical, fragrance or automotive industry, and also apply for testing labs and companies focusing on contract research and manufacturing. Everywhere, accurate weighing is essential to ensure continuous adherence to predefined process requirements and to avoid a frequent source of Out of Specification results (OOS).


This article introduces GWP®, a science-based global standard for efficient lifecycle management of weighing systems. It consists of the selection of the appropriate weighing system based on the evaluation of the respective weighing process requirements, and provides scientific guidance to the user regarding calibrating and testing weighing instruments during the instrument's lifecycle. Based primarily on the user’s weighing requirements and prevailing weighing risks, it provides a state-of-the-art strategy to reduce measurement errors and to ensure reproducibly accurate weighing results. The understanding of the particular weighing process requirements and important balance and scale properties as minimum weight is essential to select an appropriate weighing system in the framework of the design qualification. The performance qualification takes into account these requirements and risks to establish a specific routine testing scenario for the instrument. The higher the impact in case of inaccurate weighings, and the more stringent the weighing accuracy requirements are the more frequently calibration and user tests have to be carried out. However, for less risky and stringent applications, testing efforts can be reduced accordingly. Risk- and life cycle management form an integrated part of the overall strategy of GWP® to bridge the gap between regulatory compliance, process quality, productivity and cost consciousness.


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CP_12_2B_FRITSC
Picture of the productHealthcare Metrology Terminology, Practices and Culture
Marcus McNeely,
Blue Mountain Quality Resources
Metrology supports a vast array of industry, and despite an increasing degree of global harmonization, differences in terminology, practices and culture exist in metrology. Healthcare Metrology is of course no exception to this rule. While being an integral part of the overall quality system for finished product, the local standards and requirements sometimes cause confusion to vendors and metrologists from other industries.
This paper aims to define some of these differences in comparison to other industries and their written standards such as the VIM, 17025, et cetera. From an outside view one may hope to gain useful insight as to the common means of realizing quality through these differing terms and definitions.


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CP_12_3AD_MCNEE