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Measure Articles 2006 (26)

 
Picture of the product100 mV AC-DC Transfer Standard Measurements
C.J. Burroughs, S.P. Benz, and P.D. Dresselhaus
NIST is implementing the Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer as an ac Josephson Voltage Standard (ACJVS). In this paper, we explore the capability of the ACJVS as an audio frequency calibration source for the lower voltage ranges of an ac-dc transfer standard such as the 220 mV range where the transfer standard uses a high-impedance input buffer amplifier. In particular, we investigate the ACJVS measurement accuracy over the frequency range from 1 kHz to 10 kHz at 50 mV and 100 mV. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a practical ac Josephson voltage standard based upon a quantum voltage source that produces precisely calculable ac and dc voltages.


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MS06_02_BURROUG
Picture of the productA Direct Comparison System for Measuring Radio Frequency
Ronald Ginley
A direct comparison power measurement system has been developed to measure power sensor effective efficiency in the 100 kHz to 18 GHz frequency range. This system is capable of measuring thermistor and thermoelectric based power sensors. Several problems needed to be addressed in the development of the system, including RF leakage from the power sensors and its effect on system electronics, the sensitivity of the power meter and digital volt meter to extraneous signals, and the effect of compensation beads, if there were any, in the sensors.


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MS06_04_GINLEY
Picture of the productA Theory for RF And Microwave Scalar Reflectometer Errors
Robert D. Moyer
Scalar reflectometers afford a relatively inexpensive means to measure reflection coefficient magnitudes at RF and microwave frequencies. Unfortunately, the measurements include errors that arise from vectorial imperfections within the reflectometer hardware. While a vector network analyzer can help correct for the imperfections, a scalar analyzer has only limited capability to do so, and there is often confusion about the extent of the corrections that can be made. This paper provides a careful analysis of RF and microwave scalar reflectometers and discusses two common ways to initialize them.


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MS06_04_MOYER
Picture of the productAn Accurate Pulse Measurement System for Real-Time
David I. Bergman
An accurate sampling system for calibrating the pulse response of real-time digitizing oscilloscopes up to 100 V is described. The measurement system is the result of ongoing efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish and maintain capability in waveform sampling metrology. A low-noise sampling probe in conjunction with a frequency-compensated resistive attenuator measures repetitive pulse with attainable amplitude uncertainty less than 0.2 % of the pulse amplitude at 1 µs following the pulse transition. The probe and attenuator are calibrated against a wideband sampling probe and 50 Ω attenuator combination that serves as a reference standard requiring only a dc calibration.


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MS06_03_BERGMAN
Picture of the productANSI/NCSL Z540.3:2006: Requirements for the Calibration
Del Caldwell
This paper provides an introduction to the new ANSI/NCSL Z540.3 standard and its approach to prescribing requirements for a calibration system that controls the accuracy of the measuring and test equipment used to ensure that products and services comply with prescribed requirements. The new ANSI/NCSLI Z540.3 standard replaces Part II of the current standard, ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (R2002). Z540.3 consists of six clauses, each of which is described: Scope; References; Terms and Definitions; General Requirements; Calibration System Implementation; and Calibration System Assessment and Improvement. This paper also discusses the three requirements that received the most interest and discussion during the development process.


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MS06_04_CALDWEL
Picture of the productCoating Thickness Gages: Calibration and Meas. Uncertainty
James M. Ingram
There are many manufacturing processes that require the measurement of coatings. In the past the coating thickness gages were checked in the field with some sort of thin film placed on the bare metal or with a plated square of steel from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. These uncertainty requirements, along with more and more quality system demands, mean the gages are showing up at the metrology lab for calibration. This paper covers coating thickness gages based on both magnetic and eddy current measurement techniques. The basic design and calibration requirements are discussed along with a report of repeatability studies and the main contributions to measurement uncertainty.


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MS06_01_INGRAM
Picture of the productExperimental Design of NCSLI 2005 Josephson Voltage Stand.
Yi-hua Tang, Clark Hamilton, Harold Parks, David Deaver, and Barry Wood
The National Conference of Standards Laboratories International (NCSLI) 2005 Josephson voltage standard (JVS) Interlaboratory Com­parison (ILC) provides participating laboratories with a means of comparing dc voltage measurements in order to meet accreditation or contractual requirements, and to establish reliability, confidence, and improved system operation. Several changes in procedures are implemented in the 2005 JVS ILC. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as the main pivot lab, will make comparisons with a set of 4 subset pivot labs using the NIST compact Josephson voltage standard (CJVS).


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MS06_01_TANG
Picture of the productFiber Deflection Probe Uncertainty Analysis
Bala Muralikrishnan and Jack Stone
We have recently reported on a new probe, the Fiber Deflection Probe (FDP), for diameter and form measurement of large aspect ratio micro-holes (100 µm nominal diameter, 5 mm deep). In this paper, we briefly review the measurement principle of the FDP. Then, we discuss different error sources and present an uncertainty budget for diameter measurements. Some error sources are specific to our fiber probe such as imaging uncertainty, uncertainty in determining calibration factor, and misalignment of the two optical-axes.


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MS06_03_MURALIK
Picture of the productGravimetric Calibration of Volumetric Standards
L.F. Eason
Recently, the demand for volumetric measurements with greater accuracy and smaller measurement uncertainties has increased dramatically. In response, the metrology laboratories of the Arizona, Maine, Michigan, and North Carolina weights and measures programs have established gravimetric calibration capabilities for volume standards (provers) with capacities up to 100 gallons (500 liters). This collaborative effort with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Weights and Measures Division (WMD), has improved volumetric prover calibration accuracy and uncertainty significantly. Accuracy is a measure of how close a measurement is to the actual value.


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MS06_04_EASON
Picture of the productImplementation of Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard
June E. Sims and Yi-hua Tang
For about seventy years, from the establishment in 1901 of the predecessor of NIST, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), until about 1972, the U.S. legal volt was maintained by groups of electrochemical cells. In 1972, NBS began to exploit the fundamental quantum nature of the Josephson Effect to monitor and correct for the mean drift of these electrochemical cells. Since that time, though the Josephson Effect has formed the basis for the U.S. legal volt, the primary standard cell groups have continued to play a critical role in disseminating the volt through the NIST volt calibration service.


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MS06_02_SIMS
Picture of the productImproving Worldwide Traceability of Measurements: How BIPM
Andrew Wallard
National Metrology Institutes and National Accreditation bodies share an interest in the effectiveness of national measurement systems. This paper considers some recent steps to help ensure the close collaboration needed to achieve this aim.


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MS06_01_WALLARD
Picture of the productLegal and Technical Measurement Requirements for Time
Michael A. Lombardi
This paper discusses various technologies and applications that rely on precise time and frequency, and explores their legal and technical requirements for measurement uncertainty. The technologies and applications discussed include financial markets, the wired and wireless telephone networks, radio and television broadcast stations, the electrical power grid, and radionavigation systems. Also discussed are the legal and technical requirements for "everyday" metrology situations, including wristwatches, commercial timing devices, and radar devices used by law enforcement officers.


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MS06_03_LOMBARD
Picture of the productMeasurement of Impulse Spectrum Amplitude for Use in EMI
N.G. Paulter, Jr. and D.R. Larson
A system for measuring the impulse spectrum amplitude of the output of impulse generators and the response of receivers is described. The calibration procedures used in this measurement system were recently modified, which resulted in a reduction in the time for measurement and in the magnitude of the published uncertainties. The uncer­tainties for the bandwidth of 10 MHz to 4 GHz have been reduced from 0.5 dB to less than 0.02 dB for the parame­ter of impulse spectrum amplitude.


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MS06_01_PAULTER
Picture of the productMetrology: Who Benefits and Why Should They Care?
Fiona Redgrave and Andy Henson
The National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) push the boundaries of metrological capability to ever-greater heights, spurred on by advances in science and technology, the demands of industry and the needs of society. Many new products and processes, new science and technology, indeed new markets and the legislation that governs them, depend on good metrology. It would therefore seem logical that metrology and measurement are intrinsic elements in planning the processes on which they impact, yet often they are not routinely addressed, or at least not in a timely way.


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MS06_03_REDGRAV
Picture of the productNew Capabilities at NIST in Dimensional Metrology
Ted Doiron, Eric Stanfield, Bryon Faust, John Stoup, and Mary Abbott
A number of new or revised services in dimensional metrology are presented. Included are: a lower cost, high accuracy calibration for sphere diameter; reduced uncertainty in roundness calibration; a new instrument for measurement of the thermal expansion coefficient of gauges and other material, extended capabilities of ring gauge calibration on the M48 CMM, and a system for in-situ calibration of deformation of gauge blocks in mechanical comparison.


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MS06_01_DOIRON
Picture of the productNIST Calibration Uncertainties of Thermistor Thermometers
C. D. Vaughn, J. Gartenhaus, G.F. Strouse
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Industrial Thermometer Calibration Laboratory (ITCL) is responsible for calibrating several different types of industrial thermometers including thermistors. In order to develop and validate a new uncertainty estimate for the calibration of thermistors from 50 °C to 90 °C, seven negative temperature coefficient thermistors were repeatedly calibrated by comparison, and at the ice melting point (MP). The thermistor calibration uncertainties (k = 2) are approximately 2.4 mK at the ice MP, 1.8 mK in the range 50 °C to 0 °C and 2.0 mK to 7.0 mK in the range 0 °C to 90 °C.


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MS06_02_VAUGHN
Picture of the productReduction of Thermal Gradients by Modifications of a Temp
Hy D. Tran, Orlando C. Espinosa, and James F. Kwak
The Sandia Primary Standards Lab Coordinate Measuring Machine Lab (CMM Lab) was built in 1994. Its temperature controls were designed to be state of the art at 20.00 ± 0.01 ºC and relative humidity 36 ± 4 %. Further evaluation demonstrated that while the control achieved the desired average air temperature stability of 10 mK at a single point, the CMM Lab equipment had vertical temperature gradients on the order of 500 mK. We have made inexpensive minor modifications to the lab in an effort to reduce thermal gradients. These modifications include partitioning temperature sensitive equipment from operators and other heat sources.


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MS06_03_TRAN
Picture of the productRemote Time Calibrations via the NIST Time Measurement
Michael A. Lombardi and Andrew N. Novick
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) now offers a new remote calibration service designed to assist laboratories that maintain an accurate local time standard. The service monitors the local time standard by continuously comparing it to the national time standard and reports the comparison results to the customer in near real-time. This new service, called the NIST Time Measurement and Analysis Service, or TMAS, works by making simultaneous common-view measurements at NIST and at the customer's laboratory with up to eight Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. Each customer receives a time measurement system that performs the measurements and sends the results to NIST via the Internet for instant processing.


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MS06_04_LOMBARD
Picture of the productSimplifications from Simulations: Monte Carlo Methods
A.G. Steele and R.J. Douglas
Monte Carlo simulation is a tool of choice for exploring the probabilistic interpretation of ISO Guide-compliant uncertainty budgets. It is particularly appealing to those uncomfortable with the classical development of statistics by theorems and lemmas. The technique is useful when creating and defending calibration uncertainty statements and when interpreting the results of inter-laboratory comparisons for critical purposes such as ISO 17025 accreditation. We explain the Monte Carlo technique, and demonstrate how to use the Excel spreadsheet environment to build simple yet powerful programs that can provide insight and understanding to metrologists and clients alike.


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MS06_02_STEELE
Picture of the productStabilization of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers
Dennis B. Minor and Gregory F. Strouse
At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is performed in the Platinum Resistance Thermometer Calibration Laboratory over the temperature range from 189 °C to 962 °C. As part of the internal measurement assurance program, the stability of an SPRT prior to calibration is used to determine if the thermometer is suitable for calibration within the NIST-assigned ITS-90 realization uncertainties.


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MS06_02_MINOR
Picture of the productThe CIPM Working Group on Metrology of Materials
Seton Bennett and Graham Sims
Following international discussion of the traceability issues arising in the measurement of materials properties, the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) in October 2005 accepted the proposal to set up an ad hoc Working Group on Metrology of Materials (WGMM). The WGMM is assessing a wide range of materials properties, looking particularly at the need for improved traceability routes, data comparability, and the availability of appropriate reference materials. The intention of raising the profile of materials metrology internationally and engaging the leading National Measurement Institutes in recognizing and addressing known difficulties in demonstrating traceability of many material properties to the Système International of units (SI).


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MS06_04_BENNETT
Picture of the productThe ILAC MRA Mark
Peter S. Unger
Now that the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) multi-lateral mutual recognition arrangement (MRA or simply the ILAC Arrangement) has been in force for almost four years with 53 signatories from 43 economies as of 1 January 2006, have we achieved our goal of "one test, one calibration, one accreditation accepted everywhere." The answer is only marginal at best. Part of the reason for such modest success is that purchasers, regulators and the general consuming public who look for accreditation as assurance of technical competence is neither familiar with internationally recognized accreditation body marks (or symbols) nor do they understand the intent of MRAs.


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MS06_01_UNGER
Picture of the productUncertainties Related to Thermal Expansion in Dimensional
Ted Doiron
Thermal expansion effects are very important in dimensional metrology. In this paper a measurement model, and associated equations, are developed for the case of a one-dimensional measurement of a steel test gage using a measuring machine and master gage. After presenting the uncertainty components for this measurement, several example measurement situations with different levels of temperature control are calculated and discussed. For each situation, the magnitude of the different sources of uncertainty are compared in order to rationally allocate resources to improve the overall measurement uncertainty.


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MS06_04_DOIRON
Picture of the productUncertainty Budgets for Comparison Calibrations of Thermo.
D. C. Ripple and K. M. Garrity
By means of concrete examples, we discuss the determination of an uncertainty budget for calibration of thermocouples by comparison techniques. In the first example, the calibration of a type T thermocouple (copper versus copper-nickel alloy) in a stirred liquid bath with a platinum resistance thermometer as a reference is considered. The second example is the calibration of a type K (a nickel-chromium versus nickel-aluminum alloy) thermocouple at temperatures up to 1200 °C in a tube furnace, using a platinum-rhodium alloy thermocouple as a reference. Methods for determining the magnitudes of these uncertainties are given for each uncertainty component.


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MS06_01_RIPPLE
Picture of the productVoltage Envelope vs. Power Envelope in RF/Microwave Sig.
Woo Chi
This paper will examine the differences between voltage envelope and power envelope, then show an actual case that occurred during a Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) standard procurement. The confusion over the specifications led to one manufacturer making the test equipment using the voltage definition, and another manufacturer using the power definition. Finally, recommendations will be made on steps to prevent this in the future.


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MS06_02_CHI
Picture of the productWeights and Measures in the United States
Carol Hockert
What does the weights and measures system in the United States look like, and what impact does it have on commerce? Every state in the United States has its own weights and measures program, and many states have county and city run programs within their own jurisdiction. More importantly, each of these programs has sovereignty within its jurisdiction. There are over 650 independent regulatory jurisdictions in the United States. How then, can laws and regulations be applied uniformly? How can U.S. commerce be assured of accurate measurement and consistent application?


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MS06_03_HOCKERT