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Conference Proceedings 2017 (46)

 
Picture of the productA Framework for Training Classes for Dimensional Measurement
A Framework for Training Classes for Dimensional Measurement Incorporating 3D Printing Artifacts
Joseph P. Fuehne, Ph.D., P.E., Director and Maha Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Technology, Purdue Polytechnic Institute
A partnership between industry and academia has led to developing a framework for a series of training courses for various industrial employees who have different needs and requirements based on their job function. Purdue Polytechnic Columbus is working with local employer Cummins Inc. to define several training classes that would take place at the university campus in Columbus using the environmentally-controlled metrology lab at the facility. Training classes will be outlined for new employees who have no prior experience with metrology, current employees with some metrology experience who may need to update their skills or acquire new skills in a different area, degreed engineers who likely have little metrology experience but need some metrology knowledge to better function in their jobs, and managers who might need an overview of metrology and its key role in the manufacturing environment. These training sessions will necessarily vary in length and time based on the target audience and the depth of knowledge required. The objective is to do as little lecturing as possible and focus the learning on hands-on, learn-by-doing activities. This would include using hand tools, optical measurement tools and various machines that might include surface finish testers, coordinate measuring machines, roundness testers, and torque calibration instruments. A primary aspect of the classes will be measurement artifacts manufactured using 3D printers that would allow the creation of parts with flaws and imperfections that highlight the measurement process and the value in being diligent and aware when performing measurements.


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CP_17_1A_FUEHNE
Picture of the productA New Semi-Automated System for the Determination
A New Semi-Automated System for the Determination of Effective Area of Ruska/Fluke Calibration 246X Piston-Cylinders
Michael Bair, Fluke Calibration

Model 2465 and 2468 Piston Gauges are used to disseminate traceability in gas pressure at a very low uncertainty for various applications in a range of 1.4 to 7000 kPa in gauge or absolute modes. The most important and the most difficult metrological characteristic to determine is the effective area of the piston-cylinder, the primary measuring element of a piston gauge. The process to determine effective area, called crossfloating, can be time consuming and subject to influences by the personnel performing the work if done manually. The Fluke Calibration Primary Pressure and Flow Laboratory supports the effective area determination of over 200 of these piston-cylinders each year. These crossfloats can take up to eight hours to perform depending on the range. In June of 2016 efforts were taken by the Fluke Calibration Phoenix team to completely redesign the crossfloat bench for these piston-cylinders to improve process time without degradation of results. The intent was to design a system similar to the technology developed by Fluke Calibration in 2008 for a fully automated crossfloat system for a different model, but with some limitations on automation. The result was better than what was expected. This paper discusses the design of the crossfloat system, the methods used to validate the new process, and a compilation of the overall results.


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CP_17_2B_BAIR
Picture of the productA New, Gateway Class Emphasizing Metrology
Dr. Joseph Fuehne, Purdue University

The Purdue Polytechnic Institute is one of ten colleges on the campus of Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. Also included in the Institute is an outreach effort that includes ten locations spread throughout the state of Indiana to engage local communities and industries and to provide an alternative to the main campus for traditional and non-traditional students in those geographic areas. One of those areas is Columbus, Indiana, about an hour south of Indianapolis, and this paper relates experiences from that location. The Purdue Polytechnic Institute is using modernized teaching methods that are "research-proven, state-of-the-art teaching methods that are different, fun, challenging and more effective." One element of this is to bring these methods to a first-semester class so that the newest students can experience these methods and understand what to expect over their time with the Polytechnic Institute. Purdue Polytechnic Columbus is unique among the outreach locations due to a partnership with diesel-engine manufacturer Cummins Inc. that has led to an environmentally-controlled metrology lab located within the university facility. The lab contains a calibrated coordinate measuring machine, calibrated tensile tester, a surface finish instrument, a roundness tester and a plethora of donated hand tools including calipers, micrometers, height gauges, bore gauges, PI tapes, sine blocks, and several sets of gauge blocks. This new class attempts to integrate nearly all facets of the metrology lab into the learn-by-doing activities to provide a fun, unparalleled experience for the first-time students. Activities described in the paper include micrometer calibration using gauge blocks, a study of springs using a height gauge and mass standards, pressure and force measurements of footballs, load-displacement characteristics of various bandages, and calculation of volume and surface area of various objects using calipers, micrometers, and rulers. In all cases, students are required to summarize data by developing graphs and tables using spreadsheet software.


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CP_17_3A_FUEHNE
Picture of the productAccelerated Life Testing of MJTC Using a Microcontroller
Ms. Margaret Edwards, Joint Quantum Institute University of Maryland

Multijunction thermal converters (MJTCs) used as AC-DC transfer devices are the most accurate wideband standards for precision AC measurements. Due to their high accuracy and broadband capability, MJTCs are used as the primary standards for AC-DC difference metrology at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). To determine the useful lifetime of these devices, a microcontroller test was designed to stress an MJTC under its routine operational conditions over an extended time period. This paper illustrates the long-term stability and accuracy maintained by the MJTC when operated within its specified parameters. Results indicate the lifespan of these reference instruments extends beyond 90 years for devices averaging 4 cycles per workday over the duration of a year.


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CP_17_EDWARDS
Picture of the productAddressing the Need for Wider Access to the SI Unit of Mass
Addressing the Need for Wider Access to the SI Unit of Mass Following the Revision of the International System of Units
Dr. Stuart Davidson, National Physical Laboratory (NPL)

The International System of Units (SI), which provides the basis for all physical measurements, is due to be revised in 2018. The current system, defined by seven base units, will be replaced by a "New SI" where all units are defined in terms of a set of seven reference constants, to be known as the "defining constants of the SI". The aim is to provide a simpler and more fundamental definition of the entire SI, which will also dispense with the last of the definitions based on a material artefact • the international prototype kilogram. In the new SI the kilogram will be defined in terms of a fixed value of the Planck constant, h. This definition theoretically gives universal access to the unit and facilitates a robust and egalitarian mass scale, but only if sufficient laboratories are able to realise mass from the new definition. Currently the projects able to realise the mass unit to the level of accuracy required are the Kibble (watt) balance and Avogadro experiments. The present implementations of these experiments are extremely expensive, difficult to duplicate and complicated and time consuming to operate. The Kibble balance experiment, which originated at NPL in 1975, equates virtual electrical and mechanical power. Once a numerical value of h has been fixed the Kibble balance can be used to determine mass in terms of quantum electrical phenomena (the Josephson and quantum Hall effects) and measurements of velocity and local gravity. NPL has proposed improvements to the Kibble balance which have the potential to significantly reduce the cost and complexity of both constructing and operating the balance. NPL is currently working on a technology demonstrator to test the viability of the proposed improvements. A second technology demonstrator will test the viability of a Kibble balance based on a "seismometer" mechanism using flexures for both weighing and moving, and incorporating a highly stable electromagnetic “tare” system making the apparatus much less sensitive to alignment issues. This paper outlines the proposed improvements in the Kibble balance design and examine more generally the likely effect of the revision of the SI on mass metrology in the future.


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CP_17_1B_DAVIDS
Picture of the productAn Intersection: The Contract Review Process
An Intersection: The Contract Review Process, Measurement Decision Risk, and Measurement Uncertainty
Mr. Travis Gossman, Rockwell Collins Inc

At the 2007 NCSLI Workshop and Symposium, Dr. Howard Castrup, in his presentation on ANSI/NCSL Z540.3, remarked to the audience "Don’t just make us report measurement uncertainty and then do nothing with that value." Ten years after that presentation, the calibration industry still struggles to heed Dr. Castrup’s advice.

Much confusion remains on why there is more than just reporting an uncertainty value. There are three key areas that will be looked at in this paper: The contract review process, measurement uncertainty, and measurement decision risk. The goal is to inform the reader how these three concepts are related to each, how they affect the overall calibration process, and why this is important.

Both the customer and the calibration lab have a responsibility to ensure that the proper measurement decision risk levels are set, communicated, and understood. Once the risk level is established and communicated, the calibration lab will then perform a calibration service that stays within the bounds of that risk level. The goal is to produce a calibration service that is both traceable and meets the customer's measurement decision risk requirement. And lastly, a calibration report must be generated containing the appropriate information.


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CP_17_6C_GROSSM
Picture of the productBalancing Cost Savings and ISO/IEC 17025
Mr. Gary Bennett, National Instruments

There is a dilemma that calibration laboratories and customers go through when providing a calibration service. The customer that wants a calibration done, but the customer doesn’t understand or maybe they don’t care about the quality. What obligation does the calibration laboratory have to educate the customer, especially when they don’t care? How many customers just want calibration label. What about the customer who demands that the laboratory has to be ISO/IEC 17025 accredited, but won’t pay the additional cost of the accredited calibration?


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CP_17_8A_BENNET
Picture of the productBest Lessons Learned from FDA Warning Letters 2017
Walter Nowocin, Medtronic

Over the past five years, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has intensified their compliance oversight with increased Quality System Surveillance Inspections and increased Warning Letters being sent to Healthcare companies. Warning Letters are issued only for violations of regulatory significance.

The good news is that the FDA publishes all Warning Letters on their web site as a public service. And they have a very easy search engine that allows you to find Warning Letters that contain topics particular to your industry or job.

This paper reviews calibration related FDA Warning Letters generated over the past five years to select the best ten examples. We will analyze the best Warning Letter examples and discuss best practices that would avoid these violations. With this knowledge, we can learn from these violations and ensure that our metrology programs do not negatively impact the cost of quality of our organizations.


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CP_17_NOWOCIN
Picture of the productCalibration Capability Analysis for Digital Pressure Gauge
Calibration Capability Analysis for Digital Pressure Gauge through Measurement Audits - the Alternative to Proficiency Testing
Hsiu-Lin Lin, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Taiwan

Under ISO/IEC 17025, the laboratories are generally required to participate in interlaboratory comparisons or proficiency testing to maintain their high competence and assure the quality of results for establishing the effectiveness and comparability of calibrations. Participation in proficiency testing to assure the good performance and capabilities is the basic requirement for laboratories in Taiwan to apply for accreditation certification or seek an extension of the certification issued by Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF), the main accreditation body in Taiwan. When the proficiency testing is not available, the calibration laboratories in Taiwan shall participate in the measurement audits under the requirement of TAF. The Center for Measurement Standards of Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) not only organize the proficiency testing programs regularly but also provide the measurement audits to meet the needs of the calibration laboratories that apply for the new accreditation items. In the last two years, the tests of energy efficiency of compressed air systems were required by law, digital pressure gauge calibration services are urgently demanded in industry. In order to expand their measurement scopes to include the digital pressure gauge calibration, 11 laboratories applied for measurement audits with the CMS/ITRI since there was no proficiency testing program for digital pressure gauge calibration. In these audits, the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) provided the reference values for the digital pressure gauges. In this paper, the results of interlaboratory comparisons for 11 laboratories were analyzed based on the outcomes of the measurement audits. Through the statistical analysis, the comparison results showed reasonable agreements in general among the measurements on digital pressure gauge calibration for most of calibration laboratories. It can also be found in this analysis that the measurement audits can be used in confirming the competence of the laboratories and provide solid proof for accreditation purpose.


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CP_17_LIN
Picture of the productCalibration of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Generator
Calibration of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Generator in Accordance with IEC61000-4-2: 2008
Dr. Terry Hau Wah LAI, The Standards and Calibration Laboratory, Hong Kong

This paper demonstrates the essential procedures in the Hong Kong Standards and Calibration Laboratory for the calibration of an electrostatic discharge (ESD) generator in accordance with the International Standard IEC 61000-4-2 Edition 2.0 (2008-12) of electromagnetic compatibility. All the required instruments and special precautions to perform the calibration are listed clearly. The performance of an ESD generator has been tested and reported by following the requirement of the standard. The corresponding results, including the waveform parameters of the current discharge pulse and the DC high voltage test of the ESD generator before discharge with different voltages setting, are reported. The measurement uncertainties of the calibration are clearly listed in this paper, and they are evaluated in accordance with the document "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM)". The expanded measurement uncertainty U, with level of confidence of approximate 95 % probability is used in the calibration.


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CP_17_LAI
Picture of the productCalibration of Programmable Loads
Dr. Steven S. L. Yang, Standards and Calibration Laboratory, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

The Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) in Hong Kong has developed a system for the calibration of programmable loads. A programmable load is commonly used to emulate DC or AC loads required to perform functional tests of batteries, photovoltaic cells, power supplies, inverters and transformers. In recent years, programmable loads have more new applications such as electric vehicle testing and regenerative energy system testing. Load regulation test, battery discharge measurement and transient tests can be automated by programmable loads, which load changes for these tests can be made without introducing significant switching transient. Programmable load settings and read back accuracy for constant current mode, constant resistance mode, constant voltage mode, constant power mode and power factor mode can be calibrated by comparison with the laboratory's reference standards. The load transient response time of programmable loads can also be tested. Details of the proposed AC and DC programmable load calibration system developed at SCL are described in the paper.


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CP_17_4D_YANG
Picture of the productCalibration of the Frame Rate of High Speed Digital Video
Calibration of the Frame Rate of High Speed Digital Video Recorders by Stationary Counting Method: Application of the Stroboscopic Effect
Dr. Terry Hau Wah LAI, The Standards and Calibration Laboratory, Hong Kong

By applying the characteristic of stroboscopic effect, a new method named Stationary Counting Method for the calibration of the frame rate of digital video recorder has been developed at the Hong Kong Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL). The proposed method can determine the frame rate of digital video recorders with the use of a special synchronous counter designed by the SCL. The frequency signal input to the counter is traceable to the Cesium Beam Frequency Standard kept in SCL, as well as traceable to the SI unit. The target devices include high speed digital cameras, smartphones, closed circuit televisions (CCTV) and car cameras. It is common for vehicles to install car cameras to capture the moment when unexpected incidents occur. The recorded videos can be used as court evidences for accident investigation. Therefore, the accuracy of the frame rate is extremely important. The proposed method can be used to find the time duration of the video recorded by a digital camera, as well as the occurrence of skipped or extra frames of the captured video.


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CP_17_WAH_LAI
Picture of the productCharacterization of the Dimensions of the Gap on a Laser
Characterization of the Dimensions of the Gap on a Laser Triangulation Probe
Wei Ren, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Dimensional Metrology Group (DMG) develops and delivers unique and critical high-value dimensional measurements that promote industry innovation, ensure product quality, and are not commercially available. In some cases, we need to use multiple measuring systems to provide our customers with the needed measurement results. This paper is the story of one of these measurements that involved a number of different instruments and is typical of the complexity of many of our customer requests. Recently, NIST provided a measurement solution for characterizing the gap width of a new biotechnology absorbance spectrometry standard reference material (SRM). This SRM is a reduced path length validation absorption standard for Ultraviolet (UV) visible spectroscopic measurements. The SRM consists of a series of very small rectangular glass containers called cuvettes and has been developed for the biotechnology community’s daily measurements of samples where the sample amount available is very limited: typically, samples include DNA, RNA, or an antibody. Identification of the exact substance by spectrometry measurements is based on how the substance absorbs light. The dimension of the gap between the inside walls of the cuvette is a critical characterization, therefore measurement of the gap width with low uncertainty is required.


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CP_17_REN
Picture of the productDecision Rule Reporting to Comply with Revised ISO/IEC 17025
Mr. Bob Stern, Keysight Technologies

Laboratories becoming familiar with the new decision rule documentation and reporting requirements of the revised ISO/IEC 17025 will first need to determine which decision rule is most appropriate for the particular situation. A flow chart is presented that covers most use cases encountered in calibration and testing. Multiple decision rule choices exist for global consumer risk use cases, requiring labs to consider the percent risk associated with the rule chosen. This paper provides calculated numeric false accept and false reject risk values for each rule and employs Monte Carlo simulations to provide visualizations of risk for several existing rules in common use. A new rule is also presented featuring additional delineation of risk that labs can easily implement and describe to end customers. For each decision rule, sample report wording is provided, to demonstrate how to apply the rule.


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CP_17_8A_STERN
Picture of the productDetermination of the Blockage Effect on a Thermal Anemometer
Determination of the Blockage Effect on a Thermal Anemometer using a Small Open Jet Wind Tunnel
Dr. Stephen R. Rickaby, Antech Calibration Services (a member of the Trescal group)

When an object, specifically an anemometer, is presented before a small open jet wind tunnel the flow field will be altered deflecting the flow around the anemometer creating what is commonly known as the Blockage Effect. Directly comparing a thermal anemometer with a vane anemometer in the same flow field, the velocity measured by the thermal anemometer may be significantly different to that measured by the vane anemometer as a result of blockage. In this paper we consider the blockage created by a thermal anemometer. A simple mathematical model is derived to directly compare the thermal anemometer with a primary standard vane anemometer. The calibration results obtained are compared with those obtained by the manufacturer and an ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratory chosen as the Reference Laboratory for the purposes of the paper. We conclude with an analysis of the results, discussing the differences in the measured output and postulating how these results may be unified.


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CP_17_7B_RICKAB
Picture of the productDevelopment of a New Scale for Aircraft Weighing
Lieutenant Colonel Gerhard Mihm, Technical Center for Information Technology and Electronics

In 2015 the existing scale for aircraft weighing failed calibration. The item was calibrated to the European standard for pressure calibration. This standard is more precise than the international standard. New items of same manufacturer passed calibration by the manufacturer and the international standard but also failed the European standard. Intensive market research showed that there is no scale on the market calibrated to the European standard with the precision needed. German Armed Forces was forced to look for a company with enough experience in the construction of pressure scales to construct the scale needed. The presentation will demonstrate the way of procurement of the scales, and also discuss solving problems that arose in getting the item into service.


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CP_17_4B_MIHM
Picture of the productEA-Sponsored Interlaboratory Comparisons in Europe
EA-Sponsored Interlaboratory Comparisons in Europe: The Process and the Lessons Learned
Mrs. Simona Klenovska, Czech Metrology Institute

In the globalized world mutual recognition arrangements (MRAs) at various levels concerning measurement and testing certificates play a crucial role in elimination of technical barriers to trade and in this context proficiency testing, PT (interlaboratory comparisons, ILCs, in calibration) have recently emerged as one of the most objective and effective methods of assessment of technical competence of laboratories. The European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA) decided in 2006 to put under test the validity of its part of the ILAC MRA by organizing EA-sponsored ILCs in Europe • at that time ILCs in physical metrology were quite scarce and EUROMET (at that time) was unwilling to take it over. The basic idea was that individual EA member accreditation bodies (ABs) would nominate calibration labs accredited by them to take part in such ILCs and external ILC providers (preferably those accredited according to EN ISO/IEC 17043) would be contracted to organize them on the EA's behalf. EA set up a corresponding working group called EA LC wg ILC (calibration and testing) to facilitate the process to avoid pitfalls experienced here in the past.


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CP_17_8B_KLENSO
Picture of the productEarly Career Professionals and Career Planning
Matt Aloisio, Radian Research; Jennifer Fleenor, Tektronix; Travis Gossman, Rockwell Collins; Leah Lindstrom, The Boeing Company; Cody Luke, The Boeing Company

Where do you want to be in 5 years? This is a frequent question asked during performance development. Do you have a documented plan to professionally grow in the metrology and test industry? What does a plan look like? Maybe you admire someone in the metrology and test community and would like to learn how they acquired their work knowledge and experience. What knowledge and experience does an employer look for?


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CP_17_4A_ALOISI
Picture of the productEffects of Lead Construction and Materials on AC Voltage Mea
Effects of Lead Construction and Materials on AC Voltage Measurements
Mr. Michael Bailey, Transmille Ltd

A study into the effects of lead material, length and construction on measured AC Voltage. Most metrologists are familiar with the effects of lead construction and material on DC Voltage (for example EMF caused by low-quality metals) and resistance (insulation resistance causing errors on high-value resistance measurements) however much fewer are familiar with the effects that leads have upon measurements of precision AC Voltage at frequencies from 10Hz to 1MHz. This paper focusses on precision AC Voltage measurements (uncertainties of less than 100ppm) at both low and high frequencies and studies the effects of lead length, construction and materials on the resulting measurements to better evaluate the uncertainty contribution caused by leads on these measurements.


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CP_17_8C_BAILEY
Picture of the productExperience of Uruguay Bringing Metrology Closer to the Pop
Experience of Uruguay Bringing Metrology Closer to the Population
Mrs. Claudia Santo, Laboratorio Tecnológico Del Uruguay (LATU)

LATU is a public-private organization that celebrated its 50th anniversary on 2015. It is the National Metrology Institute (NMI) for Uruguay designated by law (Nº 15298) since 1982. This law indicates that it is LATUˆs responsibility to advise the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining, Legal Metrology authorities, public agencies, industry and trade, on the scientific and technological aspects of Metrology and to disseminate information on the System of Units of Measure in schools and public bodies.

Since 2010 LATU has been developing five years strategic plans aiming to raise awareness and transfer useful knowledge on the application and impact of measurements in daily living and professional activity.

With this purpose, a set of programs and initiatives have been developed addressing different sectors of activity and audiences:
  • Metrology for present needs: A Metrology training program was implemented to respond to specific Metrology training needs in industry users and secondary calibration and test laboratories as well as regulators and other public agents;
  • Education in Metrology for the future: Awareness raising and metrology training activities were organized for educational actors of different levels: primary, high school, technical and university teachers, including audiovisual products and e-learning technology;
  • Metrology for everyone: Educational activities to create awareness within the population of the importance of Metrology in daily life and defense of people rights were organized in order to transfer Metrology knowledge to general public with emphasis in young people. These activities included a hands-on Metrology workshop and a magazine jointly edited by a group of NMs in our region.
The processes followed to accomplish these programs, their results, lessons learned and good practices are shared in this article, together with actual challenges and the definition of new strategies to face them.


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CP_17_9A_SANTO
Picture of the productExploring the Impact of Teaching Metrology
Exploring the Impact of Teaching Metrology in Manufacturing Processes in Mexico
Dr. Raul Herrera-Basurto, Universidad Aeronáutica en Querétaro, Mexico

The technologies of materials production with applications in various fields including food, automotive and aerospace, have begun to settle in several clusters in Mexico. Some examples of this type of manufacturing processes are adhesive, additive, thermal projection and nanotechnology. On the other hand, the implementation of the concept of industry 4.0 has brought a new way of organizing the production ways.

This has generated a demand of qualified personnel with the ability to identify elements that help to provide quality criteria for lots of pieces or single pieces manufactured under the processes described above. personnel must comply the following competencies: knowledge in manufacturing process, testing and metrology. In Querétaro, México universities such as Universidad Politécnica de Santa Rosa Jáuregui (UPSRJ) and Universidad Aeronáutica en Querétaro (UNAQ) have implemented a strategy to meet this needs. This strategy includes the teaching of courses related to metrology, standardization and conformity assessment applied to the manufacturing processes.

UPSRJ has a bachelor degree in Industrial Metrology Engineering, where students can have a specialized educational program in the science of measurements. While at UNAQ students can have selected measurement courses for aerospace sciences as part of the aerospace engineering master program, according to the requirements of NADCAP. A relevant situation is that several graduates of both institutions are already working in the industry in charged of the quality of manufacturing processes. These graduates already understand the importance of using the uncertainty and sensitivity of the measurements as innovative parameters for the continuous improvement of manufacturing processes.


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CP_17_HERRERA
Picture of the productFrom Counting Electrons to Calibrating Ammeters
From Counting Electrons to Calibrating Ammeters: Improved Methodologies for Traceable Measurements of Small Electric Currents
Stephen P. Giblin, National Physical Laboratory (NPL)

New technology, the ultrastable low-noise current amplifier and the electron pump, provide new methods for making traceable measurements of small DC electric currents. We review four traceability routes for small current measurements and discuss the merits of each one. We present three case studies of small current calibrations, highlighting the role of noise and drifting instrument offsets. We show how the Allan deviation is used as a statistical tool for designing a calibration cycle to correctly eliminate drifting instrument offsets from calibration data. We also present a simplified noise model for a low-current ammeter which predicts a lower limit to the achievable statistical uncertainty in a calibration.


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CP_17_3C_GIBLIN
Picture of the productHorizontal to Vertical
Horizontal to Vertical: An Increase in Effective Calibration Using Rope Fixtures
Mr. D. Ryan Noyes, Exelon PowerLabs LLC

At our laboratory, the calibration of a cable tension meter was traditionally done in the horizontal plane. This was done primarily due to the configuration of the test machine used at the time of calibration. The accuracy of this measurement was affected by additional forces such as cosine error and gravity affects on the unit under test itself. The implementation of a new, vertical testing machine in our laboratory offered us the opportunity to move the calibration to it and save time while improving the uncertainty of the measurement. However, this action was met with some difficulties that caused us to identify an important improvement not only to our methodology, but also to the basic design of the new test machine. At one point, we even exceeded the capability of our new machine and had to bring in the manufacturer to repair it. We worked with the manufacturer of the machine to increase the common understanding of the type of measurements that their machines may potentially be used for in the field. In the end, we greatly increased both the efficiency as well as the uncertainty of the calibrations for these particular units.


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CP_17_6D_NOYES
Picture of the productIncreased Out-of-Tolerance Incidents Customer Complaint Case
Increased Out-of-Tolerance Incidents Customer Complaint Case Study
Ms. Jennifer Fleenor, Tektronix, Inc

Resolution of a customer complaint is a critical component of any laboratory quality management system. This presentation will highlight a problem solving case study on the investigation, root cause identification, corrective action and implementation verification of a customer complaint initiated on the increased out-of-tolerance incidents of the customer’s thread plug inventory. The session will highlight the method employed to provide an integrated customer experience, transforming the complaint into a positive customer loyalty experience. Participants will receive useful information on the problem solving approach utilized to resolve this real-life customer complaint. Examples will include problem solving tools and the transformation of the complaint into a customer-centric system. Advice on the investigation, analysis, reporting and follow-up actions for the complaint will be shared.


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CP_17_3D_FLEENO
Picture of the productInfluence of Micro-environmental Design with Partial Air Con
Influence of Micro-environmental Design with Partial Air Conditioning on Mass and Heat Transfer in Greenhouses
Dr. Jiunn-Haur Shaw, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Taiwan

Extreme weather has becomes a thorny issue across the world. In agriculture, greenhouse is not only providing suitable living environment in bitter winter but also in hot summer for various kinds of crops. In the subtropical zone, using air conditioning is one of effective cooling methods, but also brings high power consumption and cost. Actually growing conditions for crops are influenced by microclimate hydrodynamic phenomena with small-scale convection. The heat-transfer of traditional air conditioning is convection through bulk cold air flow and diffusing into local growth zone. Thus, it was found drawbacks with low efficiency and high energy-consumption problems. In this presentation, the partial air conditioning with micro-environment design was proposed, and the microclimate phenomena of small-scale heat and mass transfer were also discussed. The concept of micro-environment design is to confine the cold air flow from air conditioning system and covering plant growth zone to generate an optimal environment with high uniformity and less energy-consumption. The micro-environment, design with partial air conditioning induces the small-scale flow fluctuation and contributes to rapid transfer of heat and mass in small-scales, and enhance energy efficiency. The partial air conditioning design concept could be applied with multitudinous crops, and strawberry is chosen in this study.


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CP_17_SHAW
Picture of the productLogical and Cost Effective Calibration Intervals
Mr. Tyler Roach, Tektronix

Periodic calibration does not prevent out-of-tolerances from occurring, but with a well-managed recall program, the risk can be minimized. Managing calibration recall intervals can be a perplexing task and sometimes seem somewhat arbitrary. Do I use the manufacturer's recommended interval? Do I use the ever so popular, yet arbitrary 12-month interval? Or, do I just use the interval that was used last time my unit was calibrated? Selecting an interval that is too long could save on excessive calibration costs, however it could also introduce the additional unwanted risk of using an out of tolerance item. An interval that is too short would eliminate that risk, but calibration costs will rise. The goal is to have the perfect Goldilocks situation to find an interval that is just right. One that will reduce calibration costs, yet still give you confidence that it will still be in-tolerance at the next calibration event. A simple examination of past calibration history, combined with a few strategic confidence checks will make managing recall intervals logical and cost effective.


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CP_17_ROACH
Picture of the productMaintaining Quality in a Global Calibration Partner Program
Mr. Paul Packebush, National Instruments

System downtime is so critical that most customers are as sensitive to turnaround time as they are price when it comes to equipment service. This requires companies to consider the best way to implement local service offerings if they expect to compete in the global instrument market. The cost to create local solutions often leads to an attempt at centralized, regional, services to control expense while gaining market share. This solution typically works within a country, but suffers significant drawbacks when equipment is shipped across borders.

Facing this problem, National Instruments (NI) Calibration Services grows its global service program through a combination of NI owned facilities and partnering with local and regional laboratories. This paper explores the challenges and solutions in growing a global services organization that leverages partners. Solving partner training, ensuring technical quality, and managing logistics are all part of creating a successful global footprint. These topics and a discussion of import/export requirements highlighting the challenges of logistics is reviewed.


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CP_17_5D_PACKEB
Picture of the productMaximum Voltage and Possible Over Voltage Failure Mechanism
Maximum Voltage and Possible Over Voltage Failure Mechanism of Multijunction Thermal Converters
Dr. Stefan Cular, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Multijunction Thermal Converters (MJTCs) with heater resistances between 200 Ω and 250 Ω were tested to determine the maximum voltage prior to failure. The MJTC chips were mounted on alumina substrates and their temperature monitored with 100 Ω (resistance temperature detectors) RTDs. Thermal losses were considered to be minimal over the few millimeters from the MJTC chip to the RTD on the substrate. Thermal imaging was used to map and validate the temperature distribution across the MJTC chip. Voltage was applied to the MJTC in steps taking several minutes each, allowing the MJTC output voltage and substrate temperature to equilibrate. With 20 V applied to an MJTC for over 20 minutes the MJTC output was over 2.1 V, and the substrate temperature increased to 341 K prior to device failure. Based on these measured quantities, the temperature of the resistive element was estimated to have reached approximately 640 K. A Multiphysics model was developed to explore the experiment and confirmed the resistive element of the MJTC design could reach a temperature of approximately 700 K with 20 V applied. Further analysis of the heating of the resistive element, a 70 nm thick, Ni75Cr20Al2.5Cu2.5 film, revealed that at these high temperatures, the major constituents of the alloy could evaporate at a significant enough rate to remove the film within several minutes. Postmortem examination of the MJTCs revealed a pattern indicative of evaporation occurring with a hot spot in the center of the resistive element. With a better understanding of the MJTC failure mechanisms and operating parameter space it is possible to explore new design techniques to further expand the usable voltage range for multijunction thermal converters.


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CP_17_7C_CULAR
Picture of the productMetrology Outreach and Training
Metrology Outreach and Training: A Fulbright Experience in Mexico
Ms. Georgia Harris, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2016 was an exciting year for international collaboration on metrology education and training. This paper provides a 3-part look at how a Fulbright Specialist grant supported collaboration between the United States and Mexico. Part 1 describes the experience of Georgia Harris (NIST) as a Fulbright Specialist, from the application process to the implementation activities in Mexico and shares insight about lessons learned and benefits to NIST. In Part 2, Flora Mercader and Adriana Veraza describe the application process within the University to obtain approvals for the grant, the implementation process, how additional parties were engaged for participation, some immediate benefits, some expected long-term impacts, and lessons learned. Part 3 includes Salvador Echeverria's description of CENAM’s involvement in the courses conducted at the University as well as the sessions held at CENAM, immediate benefits that were observed, and provides insight for ongoing collaboration for metrology education and training in Mexico. Recommendations and additional ideas for international collaboration and future work on measuring the impact of collaborative efforts are proposed.


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CP_17_9A_HARRIS
Picture of the productNew Automated Coaxial AC Bridge for Rapid Calibration
New Automated Coaxial AC Bridge for Rapid Calibration of AC Resistors
Mariko Koike, Japan Electric Meters Inspection Corporation

A new automated coaxial AC bridge 10:1 for the calibration of AC resistors from 0.1 O to 100 kΩ in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 10 kHz has been fabricated by Japan Electric Meters Inspection Corporation (JEMIC). The distinguishing feature of our new AC bridge is that no injection signals are required to balance the bridge circuit, that is, the voltage difference is read directly. The system is computer-controlled using a coaxial mechanical scanner for setup, and it is only necessary to select 'start' on a PC. As a result, it takes less than one minute to calibrate an AC resistor. That is, our new method enables rapid calibration of the AC bridge. The AC bridge has been evaluated by using calculable resistance standards and by comparing it with a conventional AC bridge at JEMIC. The relative expanded uncertainties of the present system have been estimated to be 15×10-6 for the in-phase component and 30×10-6 for the quadrature component at 1 kHz.


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CP_17_KOIKE
Picture of the productNew NATO Standard ALogP-33 NATO Requirements
New NATO Standard ALogP-33 NATO Requirements for Calibration Support of Test & Measurement Equipment
Gerhard Mihm, Technical Center for Information Technology and Electronics, Germany

resources and to provide calibration services consistent with ISO 17025 the International Military Metrology conference on behalf of NATO Conference of National Armament Directors set up a series of new NATO Standard for calibration requirements AlogP-33 "NATO REQUIREMENTS FOR CALIBRATION SUPPORT OF TEST & MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT" with new format for calibration certificates, new calibration label and methods used to determine the appropriate calibration intervals of test & measurement equipment. The presentation, reflecting the content of ALogP-33, details the creation and need for the new calibration certificate but also the responsibility of the owner of test & measurement equipment and of the service provider. Within ALogP-33.2 methods used to determine the appropriate calibration interval, based on RP-1, puts the burden on the owner of the test & measurement equipment to include the environmental condition of the test & measurement equipment used.


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CP_17_MIHM
Picture of the productReducing Measurement Uncertainty Using a Smoothing Spline
Reducing Measurement Uncertainty Using a Smoothing Spline
Mr. Michael Dobbert, Keysight Technologies

When calibrating Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE) it is often necessary to measure various points across a range. Random measurement errors can lead to noisy observations that are apparent when viewing the measurement results on a line graph. Making repeated measurements and averaging reduces the noise, but at the cost of increased measurement time. However, multiple observations are already available as a result of measuring across the range. A smoothing spline uses a spline function to fit a smoothed curve to the noisy observations producing results with less noise. The smoothing spline can be used without incurring additional measurement time. To evaluate the impact of smoothing on the uncertainty, a receiver linearity measurement was repeated fifty times, and the mean and Type A uncertainty determined. These statistics were then compared to the mean and Type A uncertainty of the smoothed data. The Type A uncertainty of the smoothed data was less than the uncertainty of the original observations by as much as fifty percent.


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CP_17_DOBBERT
Picture of the productRelationship between Biomedical Engineering and Metrology
Relationship between Biomedical Engineering and Metrology for Project Development
Mr. Roberto Benitez, Etalons SA de CV

Nowadays, interdisciplinarity is a common characteristic in many work fields leading to the creation of work teams with the capacity of performing their duties and collaborating with people from other areas of study. The aim of this project is to remark the importance of the linking between Metrology and Biomedical Engineering (BE), so the combination of both fields can enlarge the useful life of medical devices by developing new methods and technologies to provide preventive maintenance and calibration of biomedical equipment. Since medical staff hugely depends on device measurements and displays, it creates a bigger uncertainty that only a team familiar with both metrology and biomedical knowledge can work on. For this, an important linking on BE undergraduate and graduate students along with a Calibration Laboratory is formed to achieve the demanding projects from health industry.

To quantify and qualify the interest and knowledge of BE students, a total of 40 students were surveyed on a period of 5 days. Promising results were shown regarding on good basic knowledge of metrology concepts and encouraging interest by 60% of students. With these results, we can assure most students are willing to learn about metrology applied in the health industry for their consideration that it would bring a better and accurate performance of medical devices. Results showed a 65% of interest on including courses about metrology in their career curriculum.

ETALONS -Calibration Laboratory- has already begun to recruit undergraduate students for the opportunity of internships, as well as participating along with Tecnológico de Monterrey (ITESM) for seminaries, congress conferences, metrology workshops, etc. On the other hand, seeing the promising interest of BE students for metrology, ETALONS has decided to propose a topic course for the BE curriculum on metrology focused on health industry as well as a project for the Innovation Week (Semana i) that ITESM carries out every year internally. According to this activities, students can have the convenience to learn, work and apply their knowledge on a company specialized on metrology and calibration services with a special department focused on BE.


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CP_17_6A_BENITE
Picture of the productSI Redefinition and the Role of the CODATA
SI Redefinition and the Role of the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants
Dr. Barry Wood, National Research Council of Canada (NRC)

In November 2018 representatives from over 58 countries will meet to approve a major revision to our international measurement system, the SI. This redefinition will be the most sweeping change in the last 140 years and remove the last defining artifact from the SI. In essence the redefinition of the SI will set the exact values of seven constants, five of which are fundamental constants of physics. This will intrinsically link physics and metrology, and in doing so improve the accuracy of our primary standards and make them inherently stable in both time and space. But how and who will chose those exact values? I will outline the history and work of the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants, the committee that actually derives those values. I will review the problems that have been faced and how they were overcome and briefly outline the various committees and organizations that have contributed to the process of acceptance and final approval. Finally, I will outline how the measurement transition will be managed and what lies ahead after the redefinition of the SI.


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CP_17_8B_WOOD
Picture of the productSTEM and Metrology Education Outreach in New Hampshire
Mr. William Hinton, Hinton Technical Services, LLC

When skilled metrology practitioners leave the industry due to retirement, career change or simply exit the field, we have difficulty obtaining replacement staff with the required training and experience. This is especially critical with the lower numbers of Metrologists coming out of the armed forces. Metrology is historically not a scientific field or career path discussed in the school systems and is rarely understood or discussed by career counselors.

The NCSL International Learning and Development initiated the Metrology Ambassador concept whereby Metrology professionals within NCSLI are provided support to engage students and teachers within the community and make them aware of the STEM based world of metrology.

My entry into the position of Metrology Ambassador began 15 years ago, and now embraces events ranging from first graders through students in the local community college system. Local industry partners work with me to produce age appropriate STEM/Metrology. These Metrology Ambassadors work with the Governor’s High Tech Council, Girl’s Technology Day event organizers, the governor’s STEM Task Force, the Pre-Engineering Technical Advisory Council and school staffers.

There will be examples of things that worked and things that did not. Statements will be provided by teachers, State Department of Education (DOE) staff and students who have participated in these events.

This is a long-term project considering the time it takes to expose students to STEM in general and Metrology specifically before we will see results manifested by positive change in the number of people entering these fields. We will need support from all sides to achieve our goal.


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CP_17_3A_HINTON
Picture of the productStrategies for Dealing with Low Test Uncertainty Ratios
Dr. Dennis Jackson, NSWC Corona Division

The accuracy of a calibration or testing scenario is often measured using the Test Uncertainty Ratio (TUR) which is the ratio of the specification to be tested to the calibration process uncertainty. As a result of improvements in the state of the art in Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE), it is often difficult to meet TUR requirements.

When a TUR requirement can't be met, what then? As a result of the transition to the use of the Probability of False Acceptance (PFA) as a primary metric for calibration testing, there are many appropriate strategies for dealing with this situation.

A common approach is to simply apply a guard band to the test tolerances. However, it has been found that this is not always appropriate. In fact, there is a fairly narrow set of situations in which guard bands should be employed. This paper discusses alternatives that should be considered in addition to guard bands.


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CP_17_6C_JACKSO
Picture of the productStudy of High-temperature Three-zone Furnace
Study of High-temperature Three-zone Furnace and Realization of Uniform Temperature Field
Dr. Yan Fan, National Metrology Centre, A*Star, Singapore

In this paper, a unique design using alumina insulation discs with the Carbolite tube furnace was proposed to enhance the temperature uniformity and reduce the heat loss when the furnace temperature is above 1000 °C. The assessment of the high temperature furnace characteristics including axial temperature distribution, radial temperature distribution, furnace loading effect and furnace reproducibility study, was conducted by using 2 pieces of Type B thermocouples after examining their inhomogeneity and calibration results. The results showed that the heat loss of the furnace can be minimized and a practical realization of the temperature uniformity in both axial and radial directions can be achieved based on the different measurement requirements. In this study, it indicates that the minimum furnace non-uniformity is 0.9 °C in the temperature range 1000 - 1200 °C when immersion depth of the thermocouples are fixed at 550 mm, and the maximum furnace non-uniformity is 4.0 °C in the temperature range 1200 - 1300 °C at 200 mm zone (400 - 600 mm). Therefore, the minimum length requirement for the thermocouple using this furnace is 580 mm in future calibrations and best axial uniformity can be achieved when the thermocouple length is longer than 730 mm.


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CP_17_FAN
Picture of the productSubmicron Automated Precision Line Scale Calibration System
A Submicron Automated Precision Line Scale Calibration System Developed at the Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL)
George C.W. Tang, Standards and Calibration Laboratory, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

A submicron automated precision line scale calibration system was developed at the Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) in Hong Kong. The system provided a measuring capability for line scale of range 0.01 to 750 mm with measurement uncertainty of [0.152 + (0.0005*l)2]1/2 μm (l in mm). The fully automated system used the displacement method and employed an air bearing stage driven by a piezoelectric motor. A pixel-counting system was integrated with a microscope to enhance accuracy. The system used only one laser interferometer to compensate the Abbe error in two lateral directions. Without further calculation, any angular movement leading to an Abbe error would be automatically compensated. The uncertainty contributed from Abbe effects was evaluated to be within 30 nm, an error reduction of over 95 % of the Abbe effect when such an arrangement was not in place.


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CP_17_1D_CHU
Picture of the productThe Comparison of Different Types of Instruments on Nanopart
The Comparison of Different Types of Instruments on Nanoparticle Size Measurements through Interlaboratory Comparisons
Ms. Hsiu-Lin Lin, Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute

There are several techniques for measuring and characterizing the nanoparticle sizes. However, these measurement results for same nanoparticles may deviate from each other at an amount that is considered significant. To establish the effectiveness and comparability of measurement methods on nanoparticles, the Center for Measurement Standards of Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) conducted three interlaboratory comparisons on nanoparticle size measurements in 2005, 2006 and 2012. In 2005, an APEC-led preliminary interlaboratory comparison on nanoparticle size characterization was carried out among 10 laboratories from 6 economies. In 2006, the interlaboratory comparison was carried out for the second time with a more focused objective of detailing instrument-specific measurement instructions for enhancing the comparability among different types of measurement methods. There were 16 laboratories from 10 economies participating in that comparison. In 2012, to harmonize the measurement techniques and capabilities on nanoparticle size, an APMP supplementary comparison was held among 14 national measurement laboratories. In this paper, statistical analysis was carried out to identify that the nanoparticle size measured from Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) was generally larger than the sizes measured from other measurement techniques including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microcopy (AFM), Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS).


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CP_17_9D_LIN
Picture of the productThe Inclusion of Didactic Metrological Activities in Ed
The Inclusion of Didactic Metrological Activities in Education
Diaz J. César, Universidad Politécnica de Santa Rosa Jáuregui

The application of metrology in daily activities is undeniable, specifically has become increasingly important on applications in industry, scientific and also in education. Currently in Mexico the Industrial Engineering degree is offered as a new option. Graduates have been widely accepted by industry, calibration laboratories and research laboratories.

Universidad Politécnica de Santa Rosa Jáuregui is the first university to offer the major in Metrological Engineering, whose curriculum is specifically focused on careers in scientific, legal or industrial metrology. In our curriculum, we have designed in opportunities to participate in research and development projects. In this paper, we present four such projects.

Also offers different research and development projects, the present addresses four projects carried out and the results that have had as input in the training of the student. The inclusion of learning based projects with the focus on student growth has also been considered. The development of didactic prototypes of the seven base units, the proposal for the development of an application of a mobile laboratory with adaptable metrological modules, the development of an integral hydrostatic weighing system and finally the development of Fixture & Gage devices for the measurement of automotive components as part of the studentsˆparticipation in competitions with other universities.


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CP_17_6A_CESAR
Picture of the productThe New ISO 17034 and Reference Material Producer Accred
The New ISO 17034 and Reference Material Producer Accreditation
Ms. Ashly Carter, American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA)

The paper is an introduction to the newly published ISO 17034 standard for Reference Material Producers and briefly describes the changes from ISO Guide 34 which it replaces. The paper includes a brief summary of the supporting guides associated with ISO 17034 which includes the definitions in ISO Guide 30, the requirements for statistical methods in ISO Guide 35, and the requirements for descriptive information in ISO Guide 31 related to reference material certificates, labels and supporting documentation. The paper will explain the accreditation process for Reference Material Producers and emphasize the importance of the requirements of the standard in regards to elements such as establishing metrological traceability, ensuring homogeneity and stability of the reference material, and assigning the values and associated uncertainties of the reference material.

The paper also describes what a user of reference materials should consider when choosing an appropriate reference material and reviewing the supporting documentation. For example, is a certified reference material needed or is a reference material needed? What is the difference, and what sort of documentation should I expect for the different types of reference materials? In the end, the reader will walk away with a better understanding of the requirements associated with reference material producer accreditation to ISO 17034 and a better understanding of what to look for when choosing and using reference materials.


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CP_17_9C_CARTER
Picture of the productThe Principles of Evaluating the Economic Feasibility
The Principles of Evaluating the Economic Feasibility of Expenses for the Creation and Maintenance of the National Measurement Standards at the Required Level
Prof. Pavel Neyezhmakov, National Scientific Centre, Institute of Metrology, Ukraine

In the recent years, the problem of evaluation of the economic feasibility of investments in the development of international and national metrology infrastructures has become the target of intensive research in many countries of the world. Particular attention is paid to the justification of the best option from the economic point of view of creating and maintaining (operating) at the proper level the top element of the metrology system of a certain country - the national measurement standards. The purpose of the present paper is the further development of the approach proposed in the NSC "Institute of Metrology", that is based on comparing the expenses for transfer the required accuracy of reproduction of the units of physical quantities (PhQ), depending on where PhQ is reproduced: by the national primary measurement standard or foreign one. New versions of algorithms for evaluating the economic feasibility of creating (improving) and maintaining the national primary measurement standards at the required level are considered, taking into account the need for their international recognition (the need for participation in international comparisons), the previously developed algorithms have been modified to take into account the influence of inflation processes on the economic indicators of metrological activity.


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CP_17_NEYEZHMAK
Picture of the productUltrastable Low-Noise Current Amplifier
Ultrastable Low-Noise Current Amplifier: A New Tool for Small Current Metrology
Dr. Hansjörg Scherer, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)

The Ultrastable Low-noise Current Amplifier (ULCA) is a user-friendly and superior alternative to existing instruments for small direct currents in the range between about 1 fA and 5 μA. The principle of the portable laboratory table-top device, operated at room temperature, is based on a novel dual-stage transimpedance amplifier concept. The total transimpedance of 1 GO is calibrated with a cryogenic current comparator with an uncertainty < 0.1 μO/O traceable to the quantum Hall resistance. The output voltage is measured with a voltmeter calibrated traced to the Josephson voltage standard. In addition to its electrometer function, in combination with a voltage source the ULCA also can be used as a current generator. Therefore, it represents a new tool for ultra-accurate small-current measurement and generation traceable to quantum electrical standards. It outperforms commercial devices and calibration setups used in metrology institutes by up to two orders of magnitude in accuracy. The unique features of the ULCA are the excellent stability of its transimpedance (drift less than 5 μO/O per year, short-term fluctuations over one week < 0.1 μO/O), its small temperature coefficient (typically about 0.2 μO/O per Kelvin), fast settling (difference to final value < 0.1 μA/A after 3 s), and the low input current noise of 2.4 fA/vHz. This enables measuring a direct current of 100 pA with a total relative uncertainty of 0.1 μA/A in about 10 h. Besides being excellently suited for R&D in small-current metrology (e.g. for research on single-electron pumps) the ULCA is also widely applicable for calibrations, for instance for electrometers, small-current sources, or high-value resistors. Corresponding fields (and specific examples) are electronic industry (ICs), medicine and biotechnology (dosimetry, radiation protection, DNA sequencers) as well as environmental monitoring (concentration measurements of small particles in air or aerosols), and lighting industry (photocurrent measurement). Framed by two patent applications, the technology was transferred from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) to a German company (Magnicon GmbH, Hamburg), which manufactures and markets the ULCA since 2016 licensed by PTB.


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CP_17_3C_SCHERE
Picture of the productUncertainty Analysis of an Electric Field Mill Calibration
Uncertainty Analysis of an Electric Field Mill Calibration System
Dr. Elizabeth Auden, Sandia National Laboratories

Abstract: We present the uncertainty analysis for an electric field mill calibration system used at the Sandia Primary Standards Laboratory. The uncertainty analysis incorporates contributions from DC voltage supplied by a high voltage amplifier; the distance between an electrically isolated charge plate and the ground plate of a stainless steel test structure; type A measurement uncertainty; and uncertainty associated with operator variation, including cable arrangement, electrical connections, and the angle at which the field mill is loaded into the test structure.


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CP_17_7C_AUDEN
Picture of the productUsing Analytics to Optimize M&TE Inventory
Using Analytics to Optimize M&TE Inventory - a Case Study
Mr. Dean S. Williams, Duke Energy

This paper describes a case study involving an inventory optimization pilot project that used analytics as a key to identifying and managing inventory levels for a measuring and test equipment program.

This paper highlights the approach taken and the analytical tools used to execute that strategy. The approach follows the general guidelines of a LEAN improvement project using DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Implement, Control)

The paper concludes with a summary of results from the pilot project, some lessons learned, anticipated next steps for full-scale implementation, and estimates of potential overall savings.


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CP_17_3D_WILLIA
Picture of the productVision, Progress and Discussion
Vision, Progress and Discussion: A Measurement Information Infrastructure
Mark Kuster, Pantex Metrology

What if your organization’s measurement, analysis and management computing systems spoke a shared language with other world-wide measurement-related systems? How would that affect your business? How would it ease your compliance challenges for ISO/IEC 17025 and other quality and technical documents? Imagine a set of normative standards that define data structures, taxonomies, service protocols and security for locating, communicating and sharing measurement information. Those standards comprise what we call a measurement information infrastructure, or MII. Imagine MII-aware software that would create and automatically exchange and use accreditation scopes, instrument specifications and test & calibration certificates. This open discussion panel session follows up on the "Toward a Measurement Information Infrastructure" NCSLI Metrologist column to highlight how you may participate in the real-world benefits such an MII will generate and the efforts underway to realize them. The session will also demonstrate some MII-aware software under development and provide panelists to answer questions and solicit input and discussion from the audience.


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CP_17_4C_KUSTER