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Conference Proceedings 2018 (44)

 
Picture of the productA Detailed Metrology Training Plan Including Competency-Base
A Detailed Metrology Training Plan Including Competency-Based Credentialing
Joseph P. Fuehne, Ph.D., P.E., Director and Maha Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Technology, Purdue Polytechnic Institute, Advanced Manufacturing Center of Excellence

The Purdue Polytechnic Institute is one of ten colleges on the campus of Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. Also included in the Institute is an outreach effort that includes ten locations spread throughout the state of Indiana to engage local communities and industries and to provide an alternative to the main campus for traditional and non-traditional students in those geographic areas. One of those areas is Columbus, Indiana, about an hour south of Indianapolis, and this paper relates experiences from that location. The Purdue Polytechnic Institute in Columbus, working together with corporate partner Cummins Inc., has developed a metrology training program that includes competency-based credentialing based on hands-on activities rather than a written test. This work includes specific details of the training program with activities required for competency-based credentialing. Many training programs include only a lecture/discussion format that usually include some written examination to demonstrate competency. In this plan, the Purdue Polytechnic Institute in Columbus utilizes metrology tools with targeted measurement artifacts, which may be 3-D printed, to facilitate learning and provide opportunities to demonstrate competency, leading to badges awarded by Purdue Polytechnic Institute for satisfactory performance. Criteria for earning the badges is also presented as well as tiered, layered approach to earning multiple badges. These metrology topics include dimensional metrology, surface finish metrology, and pressure metrology. Dimensional metrology is further layered for specific competencies involving different tools. Ultimately, this plan and effort will culminate in industry-accepted certifications based on earned badges and demonstrated competencies that are recognized throughout the manufacturing and measurement industries.


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CP_18_2B_FUEHNE
Picture of the productA Measurement Method for Chromaticity and Photometric Quant.
A Measurement Method for Chromaticity and Photometric Quantity of Laser Displays
Keisuke Hieda, HIOKI E.E. Corporation

In recent years, an increasing number of displays have been adopting lasers to benefit from their high color reproducibility, enhanced energy efficiency and small size. As the use of lasers in displays is growing, the demand for precise measurement of their chromaticity and photometric quantity is rising in order for manufacturers to ensure their display quality. However, tristimulus-value direct-reading method, which has been a commonly-used measurement method in the optical industry, cannot meet the required chromaticity accuracy of ±0.0150 due to lasers’ extremely narrow spectra. To solve the measurement problem, we propose a new measurement method developed for laser displays, which is called the discrete centroid wavelength method (DCWM). The DCWM calculates chromaticity and photometric quantity based on the centroid wavelength and radiometric quantity of lasers, which is a different measurement principle from the tristimulus-value direct-reading method. Our numerical analysis which simulated measurements of red, green and blue lasers by the DCWM showed that the DCWM has a chromaticity accuracy of 0.0065 and meets the required accuracy. We concluded that the DCWM is an appropriate measurement method for laser displays.


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CP_18_3B_HEIDA
Picture of the productAccurate Temperature Representation of Stored Goods
Accurate Temperature Representation of Stored Goods using an Algorithm as a Replacement to a Physical Buffer
Michael Rusnack, AmericanPharma Technologies

The CDC’s publication entitled, "Guidelines for Storage and Temperature Monitoring of Refrigerated Vaccines" recommends using a glycol bottle for refrigerator applications. As the glycol acts as a thermal buffer, it reduces probe sensitivity to air temperature fluctuations within the refrigerator cabinet. NIST studies have demonstrated that temperature probes in glycol-filled bottles can more closely approximate vaccine vial temperatures when placed in the same refrigerated area where the vaccine is stored. Current CDC guidance does not specify a specific volume or geometry for the buffer. This leaves open to interpretation the specifics of the buffering methodology. Our review of physical thermal buffers currently utilized in the general industry shows little consistency in the geometric shape, with volumes ranging from 10 to 300 ml. It was also observed that pre-filled syringes as small as 0.25 ml were being stored, which is significantly smaller than the volumes of physical buffering being used. This is especially important with respect to freezing, as the volume of physical buffering would not provide accurate notification of compromised vaccines.

The use of telemetry in the measurement and monitoring of equipment is not only necessary but essential to the successful prediction of the unit operation as well as the demonstration of a close approximation of the contents. The telemetry available from the raw air temperature probe will provide valuable information on the unit’s performance both near and long term. One of the multiple telemetry streams that can be derived from the raw air temperature is virtual temperature buffering. That is an algorithmic based representation of the volume to be represented. A fixed buffer assumes the entire content is a single volume, where this is rarely accurate. The application of a virtual temperature buffer, one can accurately simulate any volume and shape that is maintained in the storage unit. With virtual buffering, the effect of an excursion can be accurately applied to each volume rather than a blanket assumption that all volumes are affected the same. This presentation describes the development and evaluation process of a virtual buffering process that has been demonstrated to be highly accurate and repeatable.


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CP_18_9B_RUSNAC
Picture of the productAnalysis of Different Assigned Value Determination Methods
Analysis of Different Assigned Value Determination Methods on Gauge Block Calibration Proficiency Testing
Chen-Yun Hung, Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute

According to ISO/IEC 17043:2010, the definition of proficiency testing is evaluation of participant performance against pre-established criteria by means of interlaboratory comparisons. Thus pre-established criteria has significant impact on the evaluation of participant performance, in which assigned value attributed to a particular property of a proficiency test item and its standard deviation for proficiency assessment played the key role in the evaluation criteria. In order to understand the gauge block calibration capacity of the domestic laboratories in Taiwan, the Center for Measurement Standards / Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) held and completed a gauge block calibration proficiency testing in 2016. In this proficiency testing, CMS used the calibration results from National Measurement Laboratory (NML) to determine the assigned value and its expanded uncertainty which were used to calculate the |En| values. In addition, according to ISO/IEC 13528:2015, the assigned value and its standard uncertainty can be determined according to the type and purpose of the proficiency testing scheme, including using the results from one laboratory, consensus values from participant results, etc. In order to explore the impact of choosing different methods to determine the assigned value and its expanded uncertainty for proficiency testing results, CMS recalculated the |En| values by using different assigned value determination method after the end of this proficiency testing. Thus, the narrative of this paper contains not only results of this gauge block calibration proficiency testing but also results of using different assigned value determination method to recalculate participant performance statistics.


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CP_18_HUNG
Picture of the productArbitrary Power Waveforms Measurement
Arbitrary Power Waveforms Measurement for Electrosurgical Unit Analyzers
Steven Yang, Brenda H. S. Lam, Y. N. Yip, Standards and Calibration Laboratory, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

The Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) in Hong Kong has developed a measurement system for the testing of electrosurgical unit (ESU) analyzers. ESUs are medical device widely used by surgeons and medical practitioners in surgical operations and in outpatient procedures. ESUs generate high frequency signals usually in the range of 200 kHz to 500 kHz with power up to 300 W to heat up tissues by induced intracellular oscillation of ionized molecules. By precisely controlling the power and duty cycle of the output waveform, various electrosurgical procedures including cut, coagulate, desiccate, fulgurate or spray of tissues can be performed. Routine performance check of ESUs is commonly conducted by ESU analyzers, which is a high frequency electronic load designed to measure the output parameters of various ESU modes. In this paper a method developed for the testing of ESU analyzers at the SCL is presented. By utilizing high speed digital sampling system, high frequency arbitrary power waveforms measurement function of ESU analyzers can be tested by simultaneous measurement of voltage and current components.


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CP_18_YANG
Picture of the productCalibration Laboratories Challenges - Service Quality
Shaikh Sajid Ahmed, Metrology Program Consultant & Technical Manager, Saudi Specialized Laboratories Co. Motabaqah

This paper is written from the perspective of either third party commercial or an internal calibration lab. While it is recognized that some companies communications go through multiple departments (both for the customer and for the calibration service provider), these experiences and solutions may also be applied to any lab needing outsourced calibration services. It is imperative that both the customer and the vendor take equal responsibility for communicating with each other to ensure complete customer satisfaction. Both the customer and vendor should be familiar with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 section 4.41 Review of requests, tenders and contracts, 4.61 Purchasing services and supplies, and Section 4.71 Service to the customer. This paper addresses common frustrations between customers and their vendor’s, it also explains the relationship between different factors and processes involve in delivering the best quality services. Moreover, it also offers valuable suggestions to overcome the current and future challenges that are faced by calibration laboratories. Apart from this, certain solutions are also offered in this manuscript for closing various gaps that affects the service quality by integrating services gap model to the real scenarios and also explains how this model can help us to deliver best services within the calibration, inspection and testing laboratories.


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CP_18_AHMED
Picture of the productComputer Aided Verification of Voltage Dips
Computer Aided Verification of Voltage Dips and Short Interruptions Generators for Electromagnetic Compatibility Immunity Test in Accordance with IEC 61000-4-11 (2004-03)
Hau Wah Lai, Standards and Calibration Laboratory, The Government of Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region

The operation of electrical and electronic equipment may be affected by disturbances in the supply network. Voltage dips and short interruptions are common disturbances that involve sudden reduction of the supply voltage below a certain voltage level followed by restoration after a short interval. They are usually caused by faults in the electricity supply network such as presence of short circuit or by sudden large variation in electric loading. These unwanted electromagnetic interferences may cause malfunctioning of or even damage to the equipment. Therefore, it is important to conduct voltage dips and short interruptions immunity tests on electrical and electronic products. Voltage dips and short interruptions generators are key equipment for conducting immunity tests and these generators need to be verified. This paper describes a computer aided system developed by the Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) for verification of voltage dips and short interruptions generators in accordance with the international standard IEC 61000-4-11 (2004-03). The parameters that can be calibrated are: ratios of the residual voltages to the rated voltage; the rise time, fall time, overshoot and undershoot of the switching waveform; and the accuracy of the phase angle at switching. A specially built adapter is used to convert the high voltage output waveforms of the generators to lower level signal to be acquired by a digital oscilloscope. An in-house developed software then analyses the captured signal to calculate the required parameters. The paper also discusses the uncertainty evaluations for the measured parameters.


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CP_18_5B_LAI
Picture of the productDevelopment of a Hydrostatic Weighing System
Development of a Hydrostatic Weighing System for Didactic Activities
Julio Jimenez, Polytechnic University of Santa Rosa Jáuregui(UPSRJ)

There are different scientific and educational activities in which the concepts of physics can be applied to develop measurement systems that allow knowing the values of different properties for a specific purpose. Liquids have different physical and chemical properties, in this case, the physical properties, such as density, surface tension, compressibility, viscosity are of interest for different metrological activities in the same way to know some properties of solid bodies as the density is also of a very particular interest. The aforementioned characteristics have a particularity, and that is, they can be determined with the same system known as the Hydrostatic Weighing System (HWS). In the present paper we can observe the different considerations that were taken into account to assemble an HWS in the laboratory of multiple uses in the Polytechnic University of Santa Rosa Jaúregui, as well as some results when making the first measurements with the aim to use it in educational activities to prepare the students for the use of measurement systems.


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CP_18_9A_JIMENE
Picture of the productDisaster Recovery: Managing the Recovery from the 2017
Disaster Recovery: Managing the Recovery from the 2017 Northern California Wildfires
Michael Dobbert, Keysight Technologies

On October 8th, 2017, multiple catastrophic wildfires broke out in Northern California, resulting in loss of life and $3.3 billion in damage. The fire displaced a significant portion of the community due to evacuations and destroyed homes. Keysight Technologies corporate headquarters and the homes of many employees, were located inside the burn perimeter of the Tubbs fire. After the fire, the site was inaccessible for several days, with only limited access thereafter. Several of the main Keysight buildings experienced smoke and water damage. These buildings house corporate activities, R&D, marketing and manufacturing operations, a standards laboratory and a testing laboratory. The primary impact from the smoke was a light coating of soot and a smoky odor inside the buildings, which required extensive cleaning. Water damage was minimal. While the condition of calibration standards and electronic testing equipment was initially unknown, testing revealed negligible impact from the smoke and soot. This paper discusses the processes for re-establishing calibration status and traceability, the challenges in bringing revenue generating operations back on-line and the value of business recovery planning.


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CP_18_1B_DOBBER
Picture of the productEffective Management Review
Jennifer Fleenor, Tektronix Inc.

Many organizations go through the motions of a management review so that they have documentation to pass a third party audit, however the review is often not effective. The reason they are not effective is managers do not take the time to prepare, collect and analysis available data, not enough time is scheduled with Top Management, and what time is available, the participants do not feel it is well spent or value added. A Top Management’s review is intended to ensure the organization’s quality management system is suitable, adequate, effective, and aligned with the strategic direction of the organization. If your management review is not effective, you can expect to have nonconformities in the fulfillment of your calibration and/or test activities. This session will provide recommendations on how to complete a management review so that the process is effective in both function and time, and participants feel the process if value added to the organization while meeting the documented requirements of ISO 9001:2015, ISO/IEC 17025:2017, ANSI-NCSL Z540-1:1994 (2002), ANSI-NCSL Z540-3 2006 and any your accrediting body. Advice on a management review schedule, template, documentation, and follow-up action management will be shared. Participants will have the opportunity to interact throughout this interactive workshop and offer their ideas and experience so that all participants gain knowledge and learn how to prevent pitfalls and obstacles of a successful, meaningful management review. As a requirement of metrology industry Standards, management reviews are a necessity, so why not make the process effective and value added to your organization?


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CP_18_4C_FLEENO
Picture of the productFundamental Problem in Thread Gaging and Thread Gage Measure
Fundamental Problem in Thread Gaging and Thread Gage Measurement
Travis Fletcher, JJ Calibrations, Inc.

The aim of this report is to analyze measurements of screw threads and thread gaging against specification requirements. The purpose is to not only communicate proper techniques, methods, and technologies, but also to present this information in a clear and concise manner that can be understood by manufacturers of threaded components, calibration laboratories, gage manufacturers, and advisory committees for screw thread specifications. The primary intent of the studies and information contained in this document is to open up a dialog between all parties involved in thread measurement and gaging to address a fundamental problem that has been discovered regarding adjustable thread ring gages and their applicable specifications. To perform the studies, thread set plugs were analyzed using the traditional super micrometer and 3-wire methods while thread ring gages were analyzed using the traditional set plug methods. These measurement results were then compared to results obtained using the newer technology of contact scanning. The results of these studies have indicated that it is very unlikely that adjustable thread ring gages are capable meeting dimensional specifications. In one portion of this study, a sample of 30 adjustable thread ring gages were measured using the contact scanning method. Of these samples none were found to meet specifications. In another portion of this study adjustable thread ring gages were properly set to the correlating thread set plugs. When measured using the contact scanner method the rings were found out of tolerance to specified requirements. The samples of adjustable thread rings were found out of tolerance for all pitch diameter measurements. After several unsuccessful attempts to adjust the pitch diameters into tolerance while keeping the minor diameters in tolerance, it was concluded that the closer the pitch diameter reading got to meeting the defined specifications, the rings would no longer thread onto the thread set plug correctly. With recent technological advances in measurement and this information being presented along with further studies in process, it is absolutely critical that specifications on thread ring gages be reviewed and reconsidered. It doesn't make any sense to have specifications that can not be achieved.


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CP_18_6A_FLETCH
Picture of the productFundamentals of Dynamic Force Metrology
Nicholas Vlajic, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

The ability to measure rapidly time-varying quantities is a continued and growing interest in the metrological community, which has been driven, in part, by the need to accurately measure dynamic mechanical quantities (e.g., pressure, force, acceleration). Within the mechanical domain, force indicating instruments are different from most other types of sensors, as the force sensor must also transmit the quantity being measured. Consequently, the force measurement instrument becomes part of the engineering structure or measurement system. While this integration of sensor-system typically does not pose many design or metrological challenges for static or stationary forces, the implications for dynamic measurements are often profound. For example, high-performance force transducers can be statically calibrated with less than 10 parts-per-million uncertainty (k=1); however, the dynamic sensitivity has been shown to deviate by several orders of magnitude from the static sensitivity for certain rates of dynamic forces. We describe some of the physical challenges in making accurate dynamic force measurements, as well as commonly used dynamic force calibration techniques. The introductory dynamic force concepts covered here serve as a foundation for designing engineering systems with the intent of measuring time-varying forces.


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CP_18_5A_VLAJIC
Picture of the productHow to Put Out a Fire in a Liquid Salt Bath
How to Put Out a Fire in a Liquid Salt Bath: Dealing with the Temperature Problems with Lithium Batteries
Myles Gordon, Exelon PowerLabs

It is not every day you have to opportunity to be both Metrologist and fire fighter. In our laboratory we were testing a specific temperature measuring device that utilized a lithium battery for power. During the testing in a liquid salt bath, the lithium battery did not take to the higher temperatures and effectively exploded. When it did, it caught the liquefied salt on fire. We had to jump into action very quickly to avoid a major disaster to our temperature lab and beyond. Consequently, this event prompted us to look our methodology for testing temperature measurement devices as a matter of safety and accuracy. Having the proper immersion depth is an important factor in obtaining an accurate measurement. However, certain parts of the device being exposed to excessive will lead to catastrophic failures. How do we safely test temperature measure devices with sacrificing quality?


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CP_18_9B_GORDON
Picture of the productInitial Investigations on Establishing New Types of LS2P
Initial Investigations on Establishing New Types of LS2P Microphones as Reference Standards
Michael Mende, SPEKTRA GmbH

The microphone calibration by the reciprocity technique (IEC 61094-2) is used to determine the sensitivity of laboratory standard microphones (IEC 61094-1) with the least measurement uncertainty for the use as reference microphones. So far laboratory standard microphones by the manufacturer Brüel & Kjær • Type 4160 and Type 4180 • are exclusively used as laboratory reference microphones. In order to create an alternative, the initiative has been taken to examine the usability of laboratory microphones by G.R.A.S. • G.R.A.S. 40AU-1. Studies were launched to check the stability and the reciprocity of the microphones as well as the compatibility with microphones by Brüel & Kjær. The reciprocity of the G.R.A.S. 40AU-1 as well as the compatibility with Brüel & Kjær Type 4180 could already be improved, among other things. Basis for the investigation was a new validated reciprocity calibration system. The paper presents the influence of the microphone properties on the measurement uncertainty. Problems during the calibration and in the evaluation will be discussed. The results and consequences will be shown.


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CP_18_8B_MENDE
Picture of the productInter-Laboratory Comparison of High Resistance Standard
Inter-Laboratory Comparison of High Resistance Standard in Japan
Dr. Nobu-Hisa Kaneko, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) / AIST

To validate a calibration capability of calibration laboratories, it is necessary to carry out an appropriate inter laboratory comparison. However, as is often the case with some extreme ranges of the measurements, e. g., extremely high resistance, it is difficult to arrange such a comparison. In this study, in the collaboration work between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ/AIST) and calibration laboratories, an inter-laboratory comparison for extremely high resistance standards as high as 100 TΩ has been established. The demonstration of validation of calibration capability has been performed from 1 MΩ to 100 GΩ with a set of stable high-resistance standard resistors circulating among three participants. The NMIJ/AIST provided the reference value for this comparison, and each of the three participants calibrated the circulated set of artifacts employing their system built to be traceable to the national standard. Although the equipment and traceability scheme differed among the participants, the results agreed well and the En values of each laboratory were below 1. At the conference, the protocol and final report of this comparison will be presented.


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CP_18_1B_KANEKO
Picture of the productISO/IEC 17025:2017: Design of the New Calibration Cert.
ISO/IEC 17025:2017: Design of the New Calibration Certificate
Gerhard Mihm, Technical Center for Information Technology 81

ISO/IEC 17025:2017 will be published by end of 2017. New requirement of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 e.g. is the statement of conformity. It is expected that most of the customers sending in test & measurement equipment for calibration ask for the statement of conformity. If the calibration order does not contain the technical specification of the item; the calibration lab has to deal with the customer to receive the specification required, and the calibration lab will send back with the price quotation the specification of a routine calibration. As ISO/IEC 17025:20177 does not require the print out of the calibration certificate, but needs to be signed, an electronic signature within an unchangeable electronic document has to fulfill all of the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017. German armed Forces with NATO partners developed the standard ALogP-33.1 and the national defense standard VG 96910, which are in line with ISO/IEC 17025:2017. Statement of conformity should be in accordance with ILAC-G8:2009-03. The presentation will show the concept of this standard, the way of setting up technical specifications (according to ISO 10012 with metrological confirmation) and also discuss problems that arose in getting the standard into service.


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CP_18_9C_MIHM
Picture of the productMass Calibration at NIST After the IPK
The unit of mass has been realized by the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK) for over 130 years. This will change very soon. The revision of the International System of Units (SI) that will take effect on May 20, 2019 will fundamentally change the way the United States mass scale is realized by NIST at the one kilogram level and below. For example, below 50 mg, very precise measurements of capacitance gradient by the NIST Electrostatic Force Balance (EFB) will extend the lower end of the NIST mass scale to 100 micrograms or less and improve uncertainties by a factor of ten over what they are now, all while eliminating laborious work-downs from one kilogram standards. Between 100 g and one kilogram, the NIST-4 Kibble balance will realize mass from quantum-based electrical and mechanical power measurements. Mass transfer between the vacuum environment of the Kibble balance and the mass metrology performed in laboratory air pressure will be accomplished by a unique-to-NIST magnetic suspension-based mass comparator that will allow a test mass to be directly calibrated against an artifact whose mass has been determined by the Kibble balance. When considered in its entirety, the NIST mass scale under the revised SI will be easier to realize, easier to maintain, and have equal or smaller uncertainties that the mass scale that is traceable to the IPK.
This presentation will illustrate how the NIST mass scale at one kilogram and below is constructed using the new instruments described above. An uncertainty budget covering the range from 1 kilogram to 100 micrograms will be given and the techniques that are used for mass dissemination in this range will be described.


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CP_18_3A_ABBOTT
Picture of the productMethodology for Measuring the Impact of Metrology in the Man
Methodology for Measuring the Impact of Metrology in the Manufacturing Industry: Case Study of an Automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer
Efrin Busquets Silva, BSP Consulting

The measurement or estimation of the impact of metrology in processes and products remains a challenge in many industrial sectors. This challenge is relevant, among other things, because it can promote or hinder resources and investments in metrological projects. The methodology developed considers well established tools as the Stream Value Mapping (SVM), that follow the value chain from the National Metrology Institute to the Design and Engineering Area of the company, to the Measurement Department, through the Quality Department and to the Operations Area.

Aspects analyzed in every linkage are the contributions of metrology to quality, efficiency, innovation and client satisfaction. Factors considered are effective training, focus on results, reliability of results, procedure development and optimization, selection of equipment for new projects, team work and interoperability, knowledge development and transfer and client attention. A tool used in this stage resources of fuzzy logic in the so called ´forgotten effects matrix’ and, with this, the qualitative impact of each linkage in the following is estimated. From each linkage to the other, a transfer function matrix is constructed with the perceptions of key representatives of each department. The levels of impact go from none, to weak, medium, sensible and strong. This transfer functions are validated along the chain. The example presented in the paper shows the increasing value and impact of metrology from the NMI to the automotive production plant and to the client voice. Specific factors that promote synergy are identified and some hints to reinforce them can be deducted from the analysis.


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CP_18_4D_BUSQUE
Picture of the productMetrological Parameterization of a High Temperature Furnace
Metrological Parameterization of a High Temperature Furnace Using LabView® at INM Colombia
Jenniffer Romero Parrado, National Institute of Metrology INM, Automation Group Bogota DC, Colombia

In the Temperature and Humidity Laboratory of the Colombian National Metrology Institute (INM, for the Spanish acronym), the ISOTECH model ITL-M-17702 high temperature furnace is used to the realization of the freezing point of aluminum (660.323 °C). The furnace has a master controller which uses a PID control function to adjust the operating temperature, in agreement with the parameters set out in the laboratory’s measurement procedures. As part of the development of a knowledge-building innovation project at the INM, an automation software was designed for the remote configuration of the furnace and modular data acquisition for each of the furnace’s operational stages (heating, stabilization). LabView® platform were used to implement communications protocols for the controller and to design a master-slave programming structure. This project allows for the user to configure work parameters that include operational temperature and measurement time, with the purpose of having all data generated throughout the process recorded and stored in a reliable manner for its subsequent metrological analysis, additionally promoting the maintenance of the integrity of the furnace by avoiding the configuration errors associated with direct handling. This project is the first phase in implementing a new calibration service related to the quantity of temperature, geared towards meeting the scientific and industrial metrological needs of the country.


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CP_18_PARADO
Picture of the productMetrology to Parts Quality Inspection
Metrology to Parts Quality Inspection: Integrating Metrological Practices into Parts Dedication Testing
Cory Peters, Exelon PowerLabs

Our laboratory works in the unique position of providing both metrology services and special testing and failure analysis. As a result of working in both of these service areas, while still continuing to improve efficiencies and cost effectiveness, we have integrated many of the same techniques and work processes to allow seamless transition for the technicians. Working within our own in house management software, we developed our automated work week management system to assign the work based on the priority level. This shared system also allows us to utilize the same quality system for all the types of service work we perform (metrology, parts quality inspection, commercial grade dedication of parts and failure analysis). In particular, due to the similarity of the metrology practices to the part inspection, shared resources can be readily used. This means a metrology technician can spend part of his time performing the special testing as required. This paper will discuss how that integration functions.


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CP_18_7D_PETERS
Picture of the productMobile Calibration of Scales in Mission
Ralf Weiss, Center for Information Technology and Electronics

German Armed Forces can be deployed in mission globally. Weapon systems, equipment but also supplies, have to transported by military but also civil trucks, railway companies and cargo aircraft. Weight of the goods to be transported has to be measured with standard weighing scales held by the forces. As German Armed Forces are exempted from legal metrology, they have to calibrate their test & measurement equipment according to the standards of the bureau of weights and measures. As scales are calibrated locally (due to the local gravity), transport of mass standards up to 5000 kg or transportation of scales to and from the calibration center in Germany and recalculation of the readings according to the local gravity is not economically feasible. As most of new electronic scales have built in load cells or electronic pressure sensors, German armed forces developed a mobile calibration standard for most types of scales. The standard has a weight of 250 kg, can be transported in a small truck and build up by two calibrators. The presentation will show the concept of this standard, the way of development and procurement, and also discuss solving problems that arose in getting the item into service.


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CP_18_8A_WEISS
Picture of the productMore Efficient Solving Calibration Issues
More Efficient Solving Calibration Issues by Automated and Semi-Automated Calibration Systems
Tsung-Ping Lee, National Space Organization

From year 2015, owing to National Space Organization (here shorted by NSPO) internal a great quantity of requirements for instruments calibration, automated and semi-automated calibration systems started to build up, writing by computer programs C# to control and retrieve data from varies instruments and modules, in brand of instruments for example: Agilent, FLUKE, HP ,Keithley, Keysight, National Instruments and Tektronix. In order to solve issues of automatically generating uncertainties and calibration reports, templates using Microsoft Word according to the characteristics of the instrument have been classified and created. It benefits in calibration efficiency and precision because data retrieving and calibration reports can be created only one button. At the same time, calibration records can be found including uncertainty and degree of freedom of each component, expanded uncertainty and effective degree of freedom. After 2 years calibration experience, NSPO started to apply accreditation of Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) and have been accredited from April 10, 2017 by TAF. In order to satisfy requirements of TAF, for example: calibration report’s format, the logic of computer program by C# have been modified and validated by TAF. Therefore, NSPO can issue a report with both TAF logo and ilac-MRA logo after calibrated instruments for customers. Owing to customers trust, NSPO stated to service external customers from May of 2017. Nowadays, NSPO have set up systems including Power Supply, Multi-Functions Meters, NI-4431 module series, Multi-functions Signal Generator, Current Probes, Electric-Load and Thermo-couple Meters. Systems in building and planning are Oscilloscope (building), Signal Conditioner (docs building) and Ionizing-gage/meters (planning, for High-Vacuum chambers). The main purpose to join this workshop is to share benefits of automated and semi-automated calibration system and to understand requirements from end-users.


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CP_18_LEE
Picture of the productNIST/CEESI Liquid Nitrogen Facility
Thomas Kegel, Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc. (CEESI)

The topic of this paper is a liquid nitrogen flow calibration facility owned by NIST and operated by CEESI. The paper begins with a description of the components and operating procedures including recent improvements as well as future plans. The discussion continues with a summary of the uncertainty component. A detailed review identified key components that require additional data and analysis; several test programs under consideration are described. The paper concludes with a discussion of past and potential future applications. While the turbine meter represents the typical meter under calibration, the newer Coriolis technology is advancing in the market. The traditional client industries continue to be aerospace and gas processing with new calibration opportunities resulting from the rapid growth of LNG (liquefied natural gas) transportation and fuel.


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CP_18_8C_KEGEL
Picture of the productOxidization, Contamination, and Automation for High Temp.
Oxidization, Contamination, and Automation for High Temperature Verification of Thermocouples
Mike Imholte, Boston Scientific

During the process of verifying K type thermocouples at high temperatures, the sheath turns gray or breaks down and flakes off. This creates a risk of contaminants and damage to product in a vacuum braze furnace. The cost of recertifying the thermocouples and cleaning of the furnace block when a thermocouple sheath breaks down is high. After working through this process for many years, I came up with a new furnace setup that reduces the potential for contamination of product. This paper will explain the process, verification station set up, tools and materials used to reduce oxidization of the sheath material. We have updated from an inconel isotheral block furnace to an alumina isotheral block furnace. This eliminates the contamination to the reference PRT being it also has an alumina sheath. The why is when an alumina sheath is contaminated with inconel the OEM will not calibrate the PRT because of possible contamination to the silver fixed point cell. The automation improvement has reduced cost in labor and down time.


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CP_18_6C_IMHOLT
Picture of the productPractical Correlation in Repetitive Measurements
Dr. Dennis Dubro, Metrology Consultant

Anyone who is conversant with the standard G.U.M. method for calculating uncertainties using the so-called “Law for the Propagation of Uncertainties” knows that it is important to include any correlations among the components in the calculation. We have all seen simple examples of correlation, such as the comparison of height and weight in a sample of people. But in calculating an uncertainty budget with correlated uncertainties, it is not possible to measure the correlation coefficients. They have to be estimated. It is a fact that any two instruments which are not perfect, will have errors which will be correlated. Unless one has a perfect calibration standard, the correlation coefficient cannot be measured. This paper deals with a practical example calibrating thread wires in which 18 short term measurements are recorded using the same micrometer. During the short time of the calibration, many of the Type B uncertainties will be constant, although they will most likely vary tomorrow, next week and next year. This paper will show a method for estimating the correlation coefficient for uncertainties for calculated parameters such as roundness, taper and the master average.


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CP_18_3C_DUBRO
Picture of the productPrimary Sinusoidal Calibration of Pressure Transducers
Michael Mende, SPEKTRA GmbH

Pressure transducers are frequently used in dynamic environments such as combustion engines, aerospace applications or industrial process control. Like for every measurement task it is essential to know the uncertainty of the obtained measurement result, even in a dynamic environment. Therefore it is remarkable that there is no traceable standardized method to quantify the frequency response of a pressure transducer. Due to this lack of investigation methods the authors have made an effort to develop a primary method to calibrate pressure transducers dynamically. This method allows to measure the frequency response with sufficient pressure amplitudes up to 1 MPa in a frequency range up to 10 kHz. In the paper the pistonphone based apparatus is presented. This pressure generator compresses a liquid by a piston. The fundamental idea is to determine the pressure rise of the employed fluid primarily by measuring the movement of the piston. Therefore the mass balance is applied to the device and leads to Ṗ=KA Ẋ/V0 Where Ṗ is the dynamic pressure, K is the bulk modulus, A is the area of the piston, V0 is the initial volume of the fluid and Ẋ is the velocity of the piston. The frequency response of the transducer is then calculated by (f)=U(f) Ṗ(f) Where U(f) is the frequency dependent output of the transducer. Besides a detailed discussion of the apparatus, the paper includes the investigation of the measurement uncertainty. Namely the uncertainty contribution of the piston area A, the initial volume V0 and the deviation between an iso-thermal bulk modulus K at low frequencies and the adiabatic bulk modulus at higher frequencies. Furthermore first measurement results will be presented, which confirm the test setup and the primary approach to measuring the frequency response.


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CP_18_7B_MENDE
Picture of the productPrototype of a Compact Detachable Zener Module for DC Volt.
Prototype of a Compact Detachable Zener Module for DC Voltage Standard
Dr. Nobu-Hisa Kaneko, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)/AIST

We have been developing a compact Zener voltage generating system as a secondary standard of DC voltage. The main unit of the system includes a temperature-controlled Zener diode module driven with a built-in battery. The module is detachable from an expansion unit with larger battery packs for longer-time battery operation. This system realizes a compact DC voltage standard with maintaining state-of-the-art temporal stability and temperature stability performances of the output voltage. The results of the precise measurements based on a Josephson voltage standard show excellent drift characteristics within 2 ppm/year, small temperature coefficient less than 0.01 ppm/°C and negligible pressure coefficient. This DC voltage standard can be used in laboratories, inter-laboratory comparisons, and beyond such conventional purposes, the main Zener diode module can be installed in a measurement devices, such as digital multimeters, for further improvement of measurement capabilities.


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CP_18_7A_KANEKO
Picture of the productRisk Based Thinking in the Calibration Laboratory
Risk Based Thinking in the Calibration Laboratory: Practical Examples
Helga Alexander, International Accreditation Service, Inc. (IAS)

Many calibration laboratory managers, who plan to become accredited or re-accredited to the new ISO/IEC 17025:2017 standard, worry about how to address a new requirement of the standard: considering the risks and opportunities associated with laboratory activities. They may not realize that a well-run calibration tivities. Practical examples of consideration of risks and opportunities in routine laboratory activities such as calibration interval determination, out-of-tolerance investigations, root cause analysis of nonconformity incidences, etc., will be addressed, and suggestions on how to enhance, monitor and document such activities will be provided. Laboratory personnel will find that they do not have to start from scratch in order to comply with this new aspect of ISO/IEC 17025, but they can leverage and improve upon existing best practices.


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CP_18_9C_ALEXAN
Picture of the productSensor Calibration: The Calibration Process
Sensor Calibration: The Calibration Process, Self-Calibration Benefits, and Common Errors to Eliminate
John Holler, Vibration Research

Transducer calibration is of upmost importance in any laboratory environment to ensure the accuracy of data. Significant advancements have been made with accelerometer calibration systems and now companies can perform highly accurate calibrations in-house with uncertainties equal to or exceeding those provided by an outside source. These advancements include the potential for test automation, superior reporting capability, tighter tolerances, the ability to read/re-write TEDS information, and faster turn-around times. Performing transducer calibrations in-house eliminates the need to send units outside of the organization, reduces downtime, and saves money. The most common method of calibration is the NIST approved back-to-back calibration method. The three primary components are: a controller, a back-to-back accelerometer, and a calibration shaker. The sensor under test is properly torqued to the reference standard and vibrated at multiple discrete frequencies across a specified frequency range. The responses from the transducer under test are compared to the responses of the known standard and a new sensitivity is calculated from this data. The opportunity for error exists from many sources, many of which can be controlled by following industry standards and processes. The potential for mistakes can be minimized with a well-designed system and an understanding of the calibration process.


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CP_18_8B_HOLLER
Picture of the productSpeeding up Monte Carlo Computations by Parallel Processing
Speeding up Monte Carlo Computations by Parallel Processing Using GPU for Uncertainty Evaluation in Accordance with GUM Supplement 2
C.M. Tsui, Aaron Y.K. Yan, H.M. Lai, Standards and Calibration Laboratory, The Government of Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region

The GUM Supplement 2 deals with measurement models with more than one output quantities, which may be mutually correlated. Such measurement models are common in electrical metrology where the measurand can be complex-valued quantities, such as S-parameters. The GUM Supplement 2 describes a Monte Carlo Method (MCM) for evaluating the output quantities, their standard uncertainties, the covariances between them and the coverage region. The Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) has developed six years ago a software tool for evaluation of measurement models for complex-valued quantities in accordance with GUM Supplement 2. The SCL software tool was written in Visual C++ and Visual Basic for Application (VBA), with Microsoft Excel as frontend user interface. As MCM involves large number of repetitive computations, this old SCL software tool has long processing time especially for complicated measurement models such as coaxial airline. Nowadays many personal computers are equipped with Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) containing massive number of floating point cores. A high end GPU may have nearly 2000 cores while the main CPU normally has only up to 4 cores. As MCM is well suited to parallel processing, to speed up the uncertainty computation, SCL has ported the algorithm to GPU using the Open Computing Language (OpenCL) which was specially designed to support parallel computing. The new SCL tool is an add-on module to Microsoft Excel which allows uncertainty budget listed in spreadsheet table to be calculated by MCM. GPU from the major suppliers Nvidia, AMD and Intel are supported. The uncertainty computation time can be reduced by more than ten times. This paper describes the design and implementation of this new software tool.


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CP_18_3C_TSUI
Picture of the productTaxonomies for a Metrology Information Infrastructure
Mark Kuster, Pantex Metrology

What if your organization’s measurement, analysis and management computing systems spoke a shared language with other world-wide measurement-related systems? How would that affect your business? How would it ease your ISO/IEC 17025 compliance challenges? Imagine a set of normative standards that define data structures, taxonomies, service protocols and security for locating, communicating and sharing measurement information. Those standards comprise what we call a measurement information infrastructure, or MII. In 2017, the NCSLI MII & Automation Committee presented the MII Vision and held discussion on its progress. This year’s open discussion panel session focuses on the taxonomies required to implement an MII and highlight how you may participate in the real-world benefits it will create and the efforts underway to realize them. The session will also demonstrate some MII-aware software under development.


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CP_18_5D_KUSTER
Picture of the productTechnical Training • Early Career Professionals
Technical Training • Early Career Professionals: Industry and Military
Matthew Aloisio, Radian Research Inc., Leah Lindstrom, Boeing, Justin Gilbert, Daikin Applied, Jennifer Fleenor, Tektronix Inc., Travis Gossman, Rockwell Collins Inc.

As part of the 157 Committee's vision to develop opportunities for young professionals, we continue to offer material based on our four core pillars: Technical training, job search, military connection, & mentoring. There are three sub-categories of technical training this paper will address: Training tools, techniques for retaining material, & continuous training. Plus, a special highlight will be given on a STEM initiative titled “Project 2061.”


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CP_18_2B_ALOISI
Picture of the productThe Future of the Mass Artifact in the New SI
Edward Mulhern, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

As the International System of Units continues the transformation from a system based on fundamental units to one based on fundamental constants the question is often asked: what will happen to the artifacts that once served as the cornerstone of the realization process? In the case of the kilogram, it is a common misconception that the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK) and its copies will have little more than historical value as the kilogram takes on its new definition based on the Planck Constant. The truth of the matter is, stable artifacts will be just as important in the new realization and dissemination of mass.

At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), artifacts will play an integral role in the mise en pratique, or practical method, for the realization and dissemination of the new mass standards. The kilogram will be realized in the NIST-4 Watt Balance, where the power generated by moving a mass artifact through a gravitational field will be balanced by an electrical power involving quantum standards. From there, it is the artifact that will be transferred under vacuum, via a custom mass transport vehicle, to either a vacuum balance for sorption studies or the NIST Magnetic Suspension Mass Comparator for a direct calibration of another artifact in air. Following this, the artifacts will be housed in either vacuum or air environments, comprising the pool of standards from which mass is disseminated to customers.

To prepare for this new system of mass, the Mass and Force Group has taken exquisite care to control the conditions that these artifacts will be exposed to. Identical chambers have been designed and fabricated to provide two separate environments for mass artifact storage. One chamber will be kept under vacuum and the other will contain filtered lab air at nominally atmospheric conditions. In this paper the design, fabrication and assembly of the chambers will be detailed. The mass transfer and handling processes employed by the Mass and Force groups will be explained. Finally, the overall impact of the redefinition on the artifact-based mass system will be discussed.


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CP_18_3A_MULHER
Picture of the productThe MetCert Certification Scheme for Calibration Technicians
Steve Sidney, National Laboratory Association - South Africa

After taking more than six years to establish and get off the ground, the National Laboratory Association • South Africa (NLA-SA) established a Certification for Persons Scheme for calibration technicians in 2008. During 2010 the first metrologist/calibration technicians were certified under this scheme which was aptly named MetCert (Metrologist Certification). Whilst adoption was initially slow, certification gathered substantial momentum once professional recognition became a requirement by local regulations and the local accreditor adopted MetCert as one of three mechanisms to satisfy this requirement. The paper will provide statistics on how many technicians and which fields they hold which certifications will be reported; difficulties and challenges that have been encountered and how they have been dealt with, as well as how to deal with ongoing competency requirements will also be highlighted. The authors of this paper have been intimately involved in the scheme’s development and they will reflect on its current status as well as the positive impact it has had on the South African calibration laboratory environment.


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CP_18_1A_SIDNEY
Picture of the productThe New American Standard for Digital, Dial, and Vernier Cal
The New American Standard for Digital, Dial, and Vernier Calipers
James Salsbury PhD, Mitutoyo America Corporation

A new American standard for digital, dial, and vernier calipers, ASME B89.1.14, was approved by the ASME B89 dimensional metrology standards committee in 2017, and final publication of the standard is expected in 2018. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the new standard and discuss some of the key developments. In particular, the standard includes default specifications and calibration test methods that will have a major impact to calibration services. This paper will review the history of the development of the standard and discuss all the major sections of the standard, including specifications, rated operating conditions, test methods, conformance decision rules, and measurement uncertainty. The relationship between ASME B89.1.14 and the international standard for calipers, ISO 13385-11, will also be discussed.


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CP_18_2C_SALSBU
Picture of the productThe Reach and Impact of the Remote Frequency and Time Cal.
The Reach and Impact of the Remote Frequency and Time Calibration Program at NIST
Michael Lombardi, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

For more than three decades, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has offered and provided remote frequency and time calibration services that continuously measure and calibrate a customer’s primary frequency and/or time standard. These services differ from the typical calibration model in at least two important respects. The first is that the device under test remains at the customer’s facility. NIST provides equipment to the customer that calibrates the device, records the measurements, and returns the results to NIST via a network connection. The second is that the measurements are continuous, with new results recorded 24 hours per day, 7 days a week. This allows customer to continuously establish traceability to the International System (SI) through UTC(NIST), the national standard for frequency and time, without ever disturbing or transporting their standard. In addition, the reported measurement uncertainties offered by these services are small enough to meet the requirements of nearly any potential customer.

The NIST services not only help support calibration and metrology laboratories, but also benefit a wide variety of organizations in both the public and private sectors; including the U.S. military, U.S. government agencies and research laboratories, defense contractors, the aerospace industry, the energy industry, telecommunications providers, electronics and instrument manufacturers, and financial markets and stock exchanges. This paper describes the reach and impact of the NIST remote frequency and time calibration services. It does so by looking at the history of the services, how they work, their calibration and measurement capabilities, their quality management system, and the metrological requirements of the customers that they serve.


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CP_18_4A_LOMBAR
Picture of the productThe SI Revisited by Universities
Dr. Salvador Echeverria-Villagomez, Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM)

The revision of the SI brings a great opportunity for many communities that make use of metrology, many times without realizing what is behind. Some of these communities are the whole society, common citizens that care for their health, safety and the environment; sellers-consumers; industry and enterprises; and the knowledge communities such as universities and research centers. This paper has to do with the meaning of the revision made to the SI by the scientific community and so, it is mostly of the interest of the last group, universities, engineering-science schools and research centers.

The construction of the SI as a concept, or a system of concepts, clearly obeys the fundamental principles of formal science: the search for unity, totality and simplicity. From that standpoint, it is fairly easy to see how the development of the different disciplines in science have evolved together with the branches of metrology: classical mechanics with weights, length and time; electromagnetical theory with the electrical units of charge, current and tension; thermal sciences with the kelvin; chemistry with the mol; light with the candela… Are all of these necessary and independent to allow us understand and explain nature? Is this a ´generating set’ of vectors that has the scientific qualities of being all comprehensive and with the minimum expression? And what about the technological-material realizations of those concepts? Because measurement is the fundamental link that connects facts to theory. Without any of those anchors, there is no measurement. So, theoretical models have to be clearly understood by metrologists, as well as the practical means to materialize and demonstrate such theories, within certain values and margins of uncertainty.

The paper analyses these questions and, knowing that ´the history of science is a succession or decreasing errors’ (F. Engels), makes a deep reflection on the parallel evolution of metrology with science and posts a proposal on how it could be taught in science and engineering universities to enrich their curricula.


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CP_18_6A_ECHEVE
Picture of the productThe Value of Subjective Information: An Empirical Assessment
Steven Dwyer, Corona Division NSWC

Metrology engineers want technically correct answers. Managers want to make decisions that trade off cost against product value. Calibration personnel want their work to count. Calibration intervals drive measurement reliability, the calibration budget, and the value of every calibration. We affect the value of our entire calibration program when we decide how often to calibrate. Unfortunately, we don’t always have enough historical calibration results data to predict the best calibration interval with a high degree of confidence.

Although Bayesian statistical theory provides a method for including independent data sources to supplement calibration results data, limited empirical evidence exists to assess how well Bayesian statistics predicts measurement reliability. The literature has no example that measures how well subjective information estimates measurement reliability.


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CP_18_4B_DWYER
Picture of the productThermocouple Testing Methods, Data Analysis and Reporting
Thermocouple Testing Methods, Data Analysis and Reporting Calibration Results with Emphasis on Noble Metal Types
Tom Kolat, Fluke Calibration

Thermocouples are rugged, fast responding temperature sensors that very often cover large ranges of temperature. In addition, their economical affordability and ease of adaptation to a variety of configurations serve to increase their popularity and consequently the customer demand for traceable calibrations. Like all other measurement and test equipment, thermocouples, due primarily to their classification categories, exhibit a range of performances and accuracy expectations. This establishes the need for several methods of testing and analysis for effective, accurate result reporting with respect to the written standard and the temperature scale. This paper and its presentation discuss approaches employed to calibrate thermocouples and report their calibration results. It continues by illustrating some of the mathematics that can be used to furnish results on the calibration certificate. Examples of those applications with realistic thermocouple data are shown.


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CP_18_6C_KOLAT
Picture of the productTrue Logistical Control Leveraging a Cost Savings Shared Inv
True Logistical Control Leveraging a Cost Savings Shared Inventory System to Logistical Control of Drones
Cory R. Peters, Chief Metrologst / Strategic Projects Manager, Exelon PowerLabs LLC

In the time of continued cost savings and efficiency building, our laboratory built a sophisticated system for sharing large amounts of shared equipment across a widely spread fleet. After years of successfully implementing this program and software, we have begun to pull other logistical controlled systems and testing into the process. Our company now deploys Drones used for testing and analysis throughout our sites through this shared governance program. Not only does this system coordinate the shipment of the units themselves (whether it is Measuring and Test Equipment or Drones), it helps coordinate the pilots and engineers analyzing the data when using the Drones. Now that our system has proven to be effective for situations other than test equipment, we are leveraging it to manage many more items throughout our fleet and beyond. This paper will discuss the details of the shared inventory concept and how it was leveraged for the work beyond metrology.


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CP_18_PETERS
Picture of the productUncertainty Evaluation of the Predicted Value in Regression
Uncertainty Evaluation of the Predicted Value in Regression Analysis Based on Repeated Observations
Chen-Yun Hung, Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)

Regression analysis is a practical statistical technique. It is mainly used to estimate the relationship among variables and then predict the unknown observations. In metrology, the calibration curve is an application of regression analysis, which describes the relationship between standard values and indications, or nominal values and standard values. According to ISO/IEC 17025:2005, the calibration certificates shall include the measurement uncertainty. Thus, when the standard value is obtained by a calibration curve, the uncertainty of the predicted value should be considered as an additional uncertainty component. The regression line can be fitted by estimating the regression coefficients from the observed data set. However, the observed data set may have different forms, such as one value of the independent variable against one observation of the dependent variable, and one value of the independent variable against repeated observations of the dependent variable. The latter form always confuses the laboratory staffs about calculation of the fitted regression line and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. For this reason, this paper will focus on how to evaluate the measurement uncertainty of the predicted value in a simple linear regression line based on repeated observations. In addition, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique will be used to determine which uncertainty evaluation method is selected to avoid underestimating the measurement uncertainty.


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CP_18_3C_HUNG
Picture of the productUncertainty Propagation for Force Calibration Systems
Henry Zumbrun, Morehouse Instrument Company

There are several labs operating throughout the world, which does not follow a designated guideline for calculating measurement uncertainty for force calibrations done in accordance with the ASTM E74 standard. Realizing the need for a guidance document, Morehouse decided to draft this document explaining how to calculate measurement uncertainty and how uncertainty propagation for force calibration systems works. The document examines uncertainty contributors for different tiers in the calibration hierarchy. We start with tier one laboratories using primary standards which are dead weight machines and work through the uncertainty propagation through tier two or secondary laboratories and then tier three laboratories. Calibrations, repeatability studies, and other tests were performed at each tier using different types of force calibration equipment. The paper follows the uncertainty progression and answers a question of what type of calibration standard and Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) is needed to achieve a specific Calibration and Measurement Capability at the next tier. Through examining the various uncertainty contributors we arrive at a conclusion that several force scopes may not be realistic in their CMC claims which means they may not be able to make statements of conformance. The testing proved the importance of the reference standard in relation to overall expanded uncertainty. Deadweight primary standards are predictably the best possible reference standard. A laboratory using secondary standards—those standards calibrated by deadweight—can achieve CMC’s as low as 0.02 % of applied force if they are using several standards. Nonetheless, the downside of using several standards is that this method involves standards to be changed at least once during the calibration which often further impacts test results. Failing to account for all the uncertainty contributors at any tier and not calculating Calibration and Measurement Capability properly will influence the Unit Under Test (UUT) in several ways resulting in lower combined uncertainties and raising measurement risk levels on all instruments in the entire measurement chain.


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CP_18_5A_ZUMBRU
Picture of the productUse of Current Transformers in Calibrations of Rogowski Coil
Use of Current Transformers in Calibrations of Rogowski Coils at High Pulsed Currents
Branislav Djokic, National Research Council Canada (NRC)

Rogowski coils (RCs) are widely used for measurements of high AC currents, transient currents and impulse currents. In AC resistance welding, they are used as current sensing coils (CSCs) in conjunction with weld-current meters/monitors (WCMs) for monitoring/controlling the weld currents, and thus ensuring the quality of welds. The CSCs are calibrated stand-alone or with WCMs at high pulsed currents at conditions close to those encountered in the field. These ´gated’ sinusoidal currents with variable angle of conduction deviate from sinusoidal waveform, and their harmonic content is large. This requires high sampling rate and integration, which affects negatively measurement uncertainty. In spite of the CT core-saturation, size, weight and cost constraints for measurements at large currents, they are used as reference devices in the calibrations of RCs at steady-state AC currents. A special electronically-enhanced CT was developed for the calibration of RCs in a copper coaxial cage at high pulsed currents of up to 35 kA. The implementation of this CT as the reference in a calibration system for Rogowski coils at high pulsed currents, which requires no integration, will be discussed in the paper, including traceability to SI units. Preliminary estimates of the measurement uncertainty will be given.


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CP_18_1C_DJOKIC
Picture of the productUsing Earned Value Management to Monitor Laboratory Perf.
Using Earned Value Management to Monitor Laboratory Performance
Kevin Abercrombie, Naval Air Warfare Center

Earned Value Management (EVM) is a Project Management tool for monitoring performance. EVM provides the Project and Program Managers with a tool for monitoring progress and predicting success. This paper examines the use of EVM to monitor laboratory performance both from a laboratory perspective and a customer perspective.


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CP_18_1D_ABERCO